Publications by authors named "Mohamed El Sharkawy"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative study regarding effect of pH on Misoprostol in induction of labor in full term primigravida pregnant women, a double blind randomized controlled trial.

J Perinat Med 2020 Aug 18;49(1):43-49. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of altering vaginal pH on induction of labor in full-term pregnancies using Misoprostol.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Kasralainy Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt and Algezeera Hospital, Egypt. A total of 218 healthy term primigravida pregnant women who were scheduled for pregnancy termination were recruited in the study. The included patients were divided into three groups; Group A: Those who received normal saline vaginal wash (0.9% NaCl), Group B: those who received alkaline vaginal wash (5% sodium bicarbonate) and Group C: those who received acidic vaginal wash (5% acetic acid). Patients received 25 μg of Misoprostol E1 (Vagiprost® Adwia Pharmaceuticals, Egypt) every 6 h for a maximum of 24 h (total of four potential doses).

Results: The 'acid' group participants took a mean time of 20.46 h to reach active stage of labor, followed by the 'normal saline' group with 21.45 h and the 'alkaline' group with 22.59 h. The difference between the groups was statistically significant, with a p-value of 0.013.

Conclusions: Douching the vagina with acidic solution seems to supplement the effect of Misoprostol on inducing labor in full-term pregnancies, as evidenced by having the shortest mean time needed to reach active stage of labor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0212DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of self-administered vaginal dinoprostone on pain perception during copper intrauterine device insertion in parous women: a randomized controlled trial.

Fertil Steril 2020 10 28;114(4):861-868. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective(s): To assess efficacy and safety of self-administered 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally in reducing pain during copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in parous women.

Design: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: Family planning clinic in a tertiary referral hospital.

Patient(s): Multiparous women who were attending a family planning clinic and requesting copper IUD insertion.

Interventions(s): We randomly assigned 160 participants into two groups: The dinoprostone group (n = 80) received 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally, and the placebo group (n = 80) received placebo vaginally.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Our primary outcome was mean pain scores during IUD insertion. Our secondary outcomes were mean pain scores during tenaculum application, during uterine sounding, and 15 minutes after insertion, ease of insertion, satisfaction score, need for additional analgesics, and side-effects.

Result(s): Both groups showed no significant difference in anticipated pain score (P=.41), pain during tenaculum placement (P=.22), and pain during sound insertion (P=.07). The dinoprostone group had significantly lower pain scores during IUD insertion (34.8 ± 10.1 vs. 57.8 ± 11.8) and 15 minutes after insertion (20.6 ± 6.4 vs. 29.6 ± 6.2), easier IUD insertion (43.6 ± 21.9 vs. 64.7 ± 18.1), and higher satisfaction (83.9 ± 11.6 vs. 63.0 ± 9.1) compared with the placebo group. Fewer patients required additional analgesics in the dinoprostone group compared with the placebo group (P=.01). Side-effects were similar between the groups.

Conclusion(s): Self-administered 3 mg dinoprostone vaginally before copper IUD insertion in parous women reduces pain scores during IUD insertion, making insertion easier and increasing women's satisfaction, with tolerable side-effects.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT04046302.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.05.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparative Efficacy of Vaginal Misoprostol vs Vaginal Dinoprostone Administered 3 Hours Prior to Copper T380A Intrauterine Device Insertion in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2020 Oct 21;33(5):559-565. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Study Objective: To compare the effectiveness of misoprostol and dinoprostone tablets administered vaginally 3 hours before copper intrauterine device (IUD) insertion vs placebo in reducing pain and increasing ease of insertion among nulliparous women.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary referral hospital.

Participants: A total of 129 nulliparous women requesting a Copper T380A IUD insertion.

Interventions: Women were randomized to receive 200 μg misoprostol or 3 mg dinoprostone or placebo 3 hours before IUD insertion.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Primary outcome was patient-reported pain during IUD insertion using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes include provider ease of insertion, women satisfaction level, and side effects.

Results: Participants' baseline characteristics were comparable between the study groups. Mean pain score during IUD insertion was lower with misoprostol than placebo (3.1 ± 2.3 vs 4.4 ± 2.2; P = .02) and dinoprostone compared to placebo (2.4 ± 1.8 vs 4.4 ± 2.2; P < .001). Clinicians reported easier IUD insertion with misoprostol than placebo (2.4 ± 1.7 vs 4.0 ± 2.4; P = .001) and dinoprostone compared to placebo (2.0 ± 1.5 vs 4.0 ± 2.4; P < .001). Women's satisfaction levels were higher with both misoprostol and dinoprostone than placebo (P < .001). Side effects did not differ among the 3 study groups.

Conclusions: Premedication with vaginal misoprostol or dinoprostone effectively lowered pain during copper IUD insertion. However, the reduction in pain scores was clinically significant only in women who received dinoprostone. In both the misoprostol and dinoprostone groups, clinicians found the procedure easier, and women were more satisfied with IUD insertion. Side effects and complications were similar in all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2020.04.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Perioperative nonhormonal pharmacological interventions for bleeding reduction during open and minimally invasive myomectomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Fertil Steril 2020 01 18;113(1):224-233.e6. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: To synthesize evidence on the most effective pharmacological interventions for bleeding reduction during open and minimally invasive myomectomy.

Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Setting: Not applicable.

Patients: Trials assessing efficacy of pharmacological interventions during different types of myomectomy.

Interventions: Misoprostol, oxytocin, vasopressin, tranexamic acid (TXA), epinephrine, or ascorbic acid.

Main Outcome Measures: Intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion.

Results: The present review included 26 randomized control trials (RCTs) (N = 1627). For minimally invasive procedures (9 RCTs; 474 patients), network meta-analysis showed that oxytocin (mean difference [MD] -175.5 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -30.1.07, -49.93), ornipressin (MD -149.6 mL, 95% CI - 178.22, -120.98), misoprostol, bupivacaine plus epinephrine, and vasopressin were effective in reducing myomectomy blood loss, but the evidence is of low quality. Ranking score of treatments included in subgroup analysis of minimally invasive myomectomy showed that oxytocin ranked first in reducing blood loss, followed by ornipressin. For open myomectomy (17 RCTs; 1,153 patients), network meta-analysis showed that vasopressin plus misoprostol (MD -652.97 mL, 95% CI - 1113.69, -174.26), oxytocin, TXA, and misoprostol were effective; however, the evidence is of low quality. Vasopressin plus misoprostol ranked first in reducing blood loss during open myomectomy (P = .97).

Conclusion: There is low-quality evidence to support uterotonics, especially oxytocin, and peripheral vasoconstrictors as effective options in reducing blood loss and need for blood transfusion during minimally invasive myomectomy. Oxytocin is the most effective intervention in minimally invasive myomectomy. For open myomectomy, a combination of uterotonics and peripheral vasoconstrictors is needed to effectively reduce blood loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2019.09.016DOI Listing
January 2020

The Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas for Type 1 Diabetes Control in the Home: System Architecture and Preliminary Results.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2019 11 14;13(6):1017-1025. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Centre for Bio-Inspired Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Artificial pancreas (AP) technology has been proven to improve glucose and patient-centered outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Several approaches to implement the AP have been described, clinically evaluated, and in one case, commercialized. However, none of these approaches has shown a clear superiority with respect to others. In addition, several challenges still need to be solved before achieving a fully automated AP that fulfills the users' expectations. We have introduced the Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas (BiAP), a hybrid adaptive closed-loop control system based on beta-cell physiology and implemented directly in hardware to provide an embedded low-power solution in a dedicated handheld device. In coordination with the closed-loop controller, the BiAP system incorporates a novel adaptive bolus calculator which aims at improving postprandial glycemic control. This paper focuses on the latest developments of the BiAP system for its utilization in the home environment.

Methods: The hardware and software architectures of the BiAP system designed to be used in the home environment are described. Then, the clinical trial design proposed to evaluate the BiAP system in an ambulatory setting is introduced. Finally, preliminary results corresponding to two participants enrolled in the trial are presented.

Results: Apart from minor technical issues, mainly due to wireless communications between devices, the BiAP system performed well (~88% of the time in closed-loop) during the clinical trials conducted so far. Preliminary results show that the BiAP system might achieve comparable glycemic outcomes to the existing AP systems (~73% time in target range 70-180 mg/dL).

Conclusion: The BiAP system is a viable platform to conduct ambulatory clinical trials and a potential solution for people with T1D to control their glucose control in a home environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1932296819881456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835194PMC
November 2019

Vaginal Dinoprostone in Reducing Pain Perception During Diagnostic Office Hysteroscopy in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2020 May - Jun;27(4):847-853. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (Drs. Samy, Rashwan, Metwally, Hammad, Ibrahim, Elzahaby, Zaki, and Sharkawy).

Study Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of vaginal dinoprostone in reducing pain perception during diagnostic office hysteroscopy (OH) in postmenopausal women.

Design: Randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary university hospital.

Participants: Postmenopausal patients scheduled for OH.

Interventions: Eligible participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the dinoprostone and placebo groups. The severity of pain was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0, no pain to 10, worst pain during OH and 30 minutes after OH.

Measurements And Main Results: The difference in the intensity of pain using the VAS score during the procedure. One hundred women (50 in each arm) were included in the study. The mean VAS score during OH was significantly lower in the dinoprostone group compared with the placebo group (3.9 ± 0.8 vs 5.6 ± 0.7; p <.001). The passage of the hysteroscope through the cervical canal was easier in the dinoprostone group (62.4 ± 9.5 vs 42.8 ± 10.8; p <.001). The 2 groups were comparable in terms of the duration of the procedure (p = .91) and the rate of adverse effects.

Conclusion: Vaginal dinoprostone is effective in relieving pain during diagnostic OH in postmenopausal women with few adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2019.07.026DOI Listing
August 2019

The efficacy of local anesthetics in pain relief during colposcopic-guided biopsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Jun 1;237:189-197. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Colposcopy is an office gynecological procedure used for cervical evaluation in patients with abnormal cervical cytology. It is considered an important tool for early detection of cases of cervical cancer.

Objective: To evaluate the evidence from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of local anesthetics in pain relief during colposcopic-guided biopsy.

Data Sources: Several electronic databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI and Scopus were searched using the relevant MeSH terms.

Methods Of Study Selection: All RCTs assessing the effect of local anesthetics in relieving pain during colposcopy were considered for this meta-analysis. There were 1339 studies identified of which 11 studies deemed eligible for this review. We performed quality and risk of bias assessment for all included studies.

Data Extraction: Three researchers independently extracted the data from the individual articles and entered it into RevMan software. The extracted outcomes included pain scores and the duration of the procedure.

Results: Eleven RCTs were included. Local anesthesia (LA) was associated with higher pain at speculum insertion than control (SMD = 0.23, 95% CI [0.03, 0.43]). While, LA significantly reduced biopsy pain than control (SMD= -0.57, 95% CI [-0.94, -0.20]). The overall pooled estimate showed no significant difference between LA and control regarding postprocedural pain, pain on endocervical curettage, pain expectancy, and overall pain scores.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that local anesthetics are effective in pain relief during a colposcopic-guided biopsy; however there is no strong evidence to recommend its use in current practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.04.047DOI Listing
June 2019

Evaluating different pain lowering medications during intrauterine device insertion: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Fertil Steril 2019 03 2;111(3):553-561.e4. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: To synthesize the evidence on the most effective medications for the relief of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion-related pain.

Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): Patients undergoing IUD insertion who received different medications for pain relief versus those who received placebo.

Intervention(s): Electronic search in the following bibliographic databases: Medline via PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ScienceDirect.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score during tenaculum placement, IUD insertion, and 5 to 20 minutes after insertion, the score of easiness of insertion and the need for additional analgesics.

Result(s): The present review included 38 RCTs (n = 6,314 patients). The network meta-analysis showed that lidocaine-prilocaine cream (genital mucosal application) statistically significantly reduced pain at tenaculum placement compared with placebo (mean difference -2.38; 95% confidence interval, -4.07 to -0.68). In the ranking probability order, lidocaine-prilocaine cream ranked the highest in reducing the pain at tenaculum placement, followed by lidocaine (paracervical). Similarly, lidocaine-prilocaine cream ranked as the highest treatment in pain reduction during IUD insertion, followed by lidocaine (paracervical).

Conclusion(s): Lidocaine-prilocaine cream is the most effective medication that can be used for IUD insertion-related pain. Other medications are not effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.11.012DOI Listing
March 2019

Early versus delayed removal of indwelling urinary catheter after elective cesarean delivery: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Aug 7;33(16):2818-2825. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Timing of removal of the indwelling urinary catheter after elective cesarean delivery (CD) is controversial. Early removal could be associated with fewer urinary symptoms. This review aims to evaluate the evidence from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about the outcomes of early versus delayed removal of indwelling urinary catheter after elective cesarean delivery (CD). Electronic databases were searched using the following MeSH terms (early Or Late Or immediate OR delayed removal) AND (Urinary catheter) AND (cesarean section OR cesarean delivery OR CS) All RCTs assessing the timing of removal of urinary catheter were considered for this meta-analysis. One hundred seventy-two studies were identified of which three studies deemed eligible for this review. Quality and risk of bias assessment were performed for all studies. Two researchers independently extracted the data from the individual articles and entered into RevMan software. The relative risk (RR), the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The extracted outcomes were significant bacteriuria, urinary symptoms (urinary retention necessitating re-catheterization, dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency) postoperative oral rehydration and length of hospital stay. Three RCTs (early removal:  = 298 and delayed removal:  = 311) were included. The pooled estimate showed that early removal significantly reduced dysuria (RR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.38, 0.95], =.03), urinary frequency (RR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.16, 0.66], =.002) and significant bacteriuria (RR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.30, 0.83], =.007) than delayed removal. This meta-analysis suggests that early removal of the indwelling urinary catheter in patients who underwent elective CD showed significant less dysuria, less urinary frequency and a decrease in the incidence of significant bacteriuria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1557142DOI Listing
August 2020

The effect of mechanical cervical dilatation during scheduled cesarean section on the blood loss: a randomized controlled trial.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jun 4;33(12):2043-2048. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

This study evaluates the effects of mechanical cervical dilatation during scheduled cesarean section (CS) on intra- and postoperative blood loss. A single-center randomized double-blind controlled trial (NCT03444792) conducted at a tertiary University Hospital in the period between 1 April 2017 and 31 March 2018 included all women scheduled for scheduled CS under spinal anesthesia if they met our inclusion criteria. Eligible participants were randomized to one of two groups. Group (I): Women with intraoperative cervical dilatation and Group (II): women with no intraoperative cervical dilatation. The primary outcome of this study was the mean volume of total blood loss during CS. The secondary outcomes included the mean reduction in the hemoglobin and hematocrit, the rate of primary postpartum hemorrhage, the duration of surgery, the duration of hospital stay, the rate of wound infection and endometritis. No statistical significant difference between both study groups regarding the baseline characteristics. No significant difference in the intraoperative blood loss between both groups ( = .21); however, there was significantly more postoperative blood loss in group II ( = .001). The total blood loss was significantly higher in group II (912.6 ± 242.1 versus 845.8 ± 188.9 mL) in group I ( = .029). There were significantly lower postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in group II ( = .014 and .033 respectively). The mean duration of CS was significantly shorter in the cervical dilatation group ( = .002). No difference between both groups regarding the rate of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) ( = .21), the duration of hospital stay ( = .17), the rate of wound infection ( = .32), the rate of endometritis ( = .82). Mechanical cervical dilatation during scheduled CS could be associated with lower postoperative blood loss, higher postoperative hemoglobin & hematocrit levels and shorter duration of CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1536742DOI Listing
June 2020

Effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine hemodynamics in women with unexplained infertility.

Int J Womens Health 2018 4;10:147-152. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of clomiphene citrate on uterine artery blood flow using pulsed Doppler and endometrial and subendometrial micro vascularization using 3D power Doppler in unexplained infertility.

Patients And Methods: In a prospective observational study at a university teaching hospital, the mid-luteal (peri-implantation) endometrial thickness and volume, uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), endometrial and subendometrial vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI), and serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared between natural and clomiphene citrate stimulated cycles in the same group of 50 patients with unexplained infertility. Statistical analysis was done using paired -test to compare different study variables.

Results: The primary outcome, which was the endometrial flow index, was significantly lower in the stimulated cycles (mean ± SD: 23.89±7.96 vs 27.49±8.73, mean difference (95% CI): -3.6 (-2, -5.9); =0.03). The mean ± SD of endometrial thickness (10.92±3.04 vs 12.46±3.08 mm; =0.01), volume (4.57±1.28 vs 5.26±1.32 cm; =0.009), endometrial VI (0.86±0.15 vs 0.95%±0.21%; =0.02), VFI (0.25±0.08 vs 0.31±0.12; =0.004), subendometrial VI (1.93±0.68 vs 2.26%±0.75%; =0.02), FI (26.81±9.16 vs 30.73±9.87; =0.04), and VFI (0.68±0.18 vs 0.79±0.21; =0.006) were significantly lower in the stimulated cycles. However, there were no significant differences in the uterine artery PI (=0.12) and RI (=0.08) or serum estradiol (=0.54) and progesterone (=0.37) levels between natural and stimulated cycles.

Conclusion: Peri-implantation endometrial perfusion is significantly lower in clomiphene citrate stimulated cycles when compared to natural ones in patients with unexplained infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S155335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894743PMC
April 2018

Enhancing automatic closed-loop glucose control in type 1 diabetes with an adaptive meal bolus calculator - in silico evaluation under intra-day variability.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2017 Jul 1;146:125-131. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Centre for Bio-Inspired Technology, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background And Objective: Current prototypes of closed-loop systems for glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus, also referred to as artificial pancreas systems, require a pre-meal insulin bolus to compensate for delays in subcutaneous insulin absorption in order to avoid initial post-prandial hyperglycemia. Computing such a meal bolus is a challenging task due to the high intra-subject variability of insulin requirements. Most closed-loop systems compute this pre-meal insulin dose by a standard bolus calculation, as is commonly found in insulin pumps. However, the performance of these calculators is limited due to a lack of adaptiveness in front of dynamic changes in insulin requirements. Despite some initial attempts to include adaptation within these calculators, challenges remain.

Methods: In this paper we present a new technique to automatically adapt the meal-priming bolus within an artificial pancreas. The technique consists of using a novel adaptive bolus calculator based on Case-Based Reasoning and Run-To-Run control, within a closed-loop controller. Coordination between the adaptive bolus calculator and the controller was required to achieve the desired performance. For testing purposes, the clinically validated Imperial College Artificial Pancreas controller was employed. The proposed system was evaluated against itself but without bolus adaptation. The UVa-Padova T1DM v3.2 system was used to carry out a three-month in silico study on 11 adult and 11 adolescent virtual subjects taking into account inter-and intra-subject variability of insulin requirements and uncertainty on carbohydrate intake.

Results: Overall, the closed-loop controller enhanced by an adaptive bolus calculator improves glycemic control when compared to its non-adaptive counterpart. In particular, the following statistically significant improvements were found (non-adaptive vs. adaptive). Adults: mean glucose 142.2 ± 9.4vs. 131.8 ± 4.2mg/dl; percentage time in target [70, 180]mg/dl, 82.0 ± 7.0vs. 89.5 ± 4.2; percentage time above target 17.7 ± 7.0vs. 10.2 ± 4.1. Adolescents: mean glucose 158.2 ± 21.4vs. 140.5 ± 13.0mg/dl; percentage time in target, 65.9 ± 12.9vs. 77.5 ± 12.2; percentage time above target, 31.7 ± 13.1vs. 19.8 ± 10.2. Note that no increase in percentage time in hypoglycemia was observed.

Conclusion: Using an adaptive meal bolus calculator within a closed-loop control system has the potential to improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes when compared to its non-adaptive counterpart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522376PMC
July 2017

Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the ulnar nerve fascicular number and cross-sectional area in young males: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(10):e6204

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-kharj College of Applied Medical Sciences, Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the number of fascicles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site by ultrasound in healthy young adult males.The demographic and physical characteristics of 50 adult male volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The subjects were positioned supine with the elbow flexed at 90° and the palm of the hand placed on a hard surface. The ulnar nerve was scanned bilaterally 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in projection of the cubital tunnel. The number of fascicles and mean CSA of the ulnar nerve were identified. In addition, the side-to-side differences of the estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The mean fascicular number was 5.66 ± 1.48, the mean ultrasound-estimated CSA of the ulnar nerve was 6.54 ± 1.67 mm and both sides were comparable in the mean CSA and fascicular number (6.43 ± 1.80 mm and 5.88 vs 6.64 ± 1.55 mm and 5.44, for right and left side, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between CSA and fascicles number and age, weight, height, or BMI of study subjects.The reference values for the number of fascicles number and the CSA of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site were identified. These values could be used for the sonographic diagnosis and follow-up of the ulnar nerve lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000006204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5348159PMC
March 2017

Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

BMC Womens Health 2016 Mar 16;16:18. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Ultrasonography has been extensively used in women suspected of having a gynecological malignancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 78 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding scheduled for hysteroscopy and endometrial curettage. The endometrial thickness (ET), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), and endometrial volume (EV) and 3D power Doppler vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured and compared with hysteroscopic and histopathologic findings.

Results: The ET (P <0.001), EV (P <0.001), and endometrial VI (P <0.001) and VFI (P = 0.043) were significantly increased in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma (n = 10) than those with benign endometrium (n = 68); whereas, the uterine artery PI and RI and endometrial FI were not significantly different between the two groups. The best marker for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium was the VI with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 at a cutoff value of 0.81%.

Conclusion: 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler, especially endometrial VI, may be useful for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0297-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4793544PMC
March 2016

Metabolic Control With the Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A 24-Hour Randomized Controlled Crossover Study.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2015 Nov 17;10(2):405-13. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imperial College London, UK.

Background: The Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas (BiAP) is a closed-loop insulin delivery system based on a mathematical model of beta-cell physiology and implemented in a microchip within a low-powered handheld device. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the BiAP over 24 hours, followed by a substudy assessing the safety of the algorithm without and with partial meal announcement. Changes in lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were investigated for the first time during closed-loop.

Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled open-label crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either a 24-hour closed-loop visit connected to the BiAP system or a 24-hour open-loop visit (standard insulin pump therapy). The primary outcome was percentage time spent in target range (3.9-10 mmol/l) measured by sensor glucose. Secondary outcomes included percentage time in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (>10 mmol/l). Participants were invited to attend for an additional visit to assess the BiAP without and with partial meal announcements.

Results: A total of 12 adults with type 1 diabetes completed the study (58% female, mean [SD] age 45 [10] years, BMI 25 [4] kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 22 [12] years and HbA1c 7.4 [0.7]% [58 (8) mmol/mol]). The median (IQR) percentage time in target did not differ between closed-loop and open-loop (71% vs 66.9%, P = .9). Closed-loop reduced time spent in hypoglycemia from 17.9% to 3.0% (P < .01), but increased time was spent in hyperglycemia (10% vs 28.9%, P = .01). The percentage time in target was higher when all meals were announced during closed-loop compared to no or partial meal announcement (65.7% [53.6-80.5] vs 45.5% [38.2-68.3], P = .12).

Conclusions: The BiAP is safe and achieved equivalent time in target as measured by sensor glucose, with improvement in hypoglycemia, when compared to standard pump therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1932296815616134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773972PMC
November 2015

A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing immediate versus delayed removal of urinary catheter following elective cesarean section.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014 Oct 1;181:111-4. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Objective: To compare immediate and 12h postoperative removal of urinary catheter after elective cesarean section.

Study Design: In a prospective clinical trial at a university teaching hospital, 300 eligible women admitted for primary or repeat elective cesarean section were randomized into two equal groups. In group A, the catheter was removed immediately after the procedure; whereas in group B, the catheter was removed 12h postoperatively.

Results: The incidence of postoperative significant bacteruria (p=0.020), dysuria (p=0.030), burning on micturition (p=0.016), urinary frequency (p=0.031), and urgency (p=0.011) were significantly lower in group A compared with group B. The mean postoperative ambulation time (p<0.001), time till the first voiding (p<0.001), and length of hospital stay (p<0.001) were also significantly shorter in group A. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of urinary retention necessitating recatheterization (p=0.371).

Conclusion: Immediate removal of urinary catheter after elective cesarean section is associated with lower risk of urinary infection and earlier postoperative ambulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.07.034DOI Listing
October 2014

Feasibility study of a bio-inspired artificial pancreas in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2014 Sep 6;16(9):550-7. Epub 2014 May 6.

1 Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imperial College London , London, United Kingdom .

Background: This study assesses proof of concept and safety of a novel bio-inspired artificial pancreas (BiAP) system in adults with type 1 diabetes during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions. In contrast to existing glucose controllers in artificial pancreas systems, the BiAP uses a control algorithm based on a mathematical model of β-cell physiology. The algorithm is implemented on a miniature silicon microchip within a portable hand-held device that interfaces the components of the artificial pancreas.

Materials And Methods: In this nonrandomized open-label study each subject attended for a 6-h fasting study followed by a 13-h overnight and post-breakfast study on a separate occasion. During both study sessions the BiAP system was used, and microboluses of insulin were recommended every 5 min by the control algorithm according to subcutaneous sensor glucose levels. The primary outcome was percentage time spent in the glucose target range (3.9-10.0 mmol/L).

Results: Twenty subjects (55% male; mean [SD] age, 44 [10] years; duration of diabetes, 22 [12] years; glycosylated hemoglobin, 7.4% [0.7%] [57 (7) mmol/mol]; body mass index, 25 [4] kg/m(2)) participated in the fasting study, and the median (interquartile range) percentage time in target range was 98.0% (90.8-100.0%). Seventeen of these subjects then participated in the overnight/postprandial study, where 70.7% (63.9-77.4%) of time was spent in the target range and, reassuringly, 0.0% (0.0-2.3%) of time was spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L).

Conclusions: The BiAP achieves safe glycemic control during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2014.0009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4135321PMC
September 2014

Localized massive lymphedema masquerading as an anterior abdominal mass mimicking a liposarcoma.

Am J Med Sci 2014 Jan;347(1):84-5

Department of Radiology (MSE-S), Department of Pathology (32) (AMA-R), Division of Plastic Surgery (NA), Department of Surgery, Plastic Surgery Unit, (FMAM), King Saud University, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000203DOI Listing
January 2014

Primary well differentiated breast liposarcoma with divergent cartilagenous differentiation: a case report.

Oman Med J 2013 Mar;28(2):138-40

Department of Pathology, College of Medicine & King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, P.O. Box: 2925, Riyadh -11461, Saudi Arabia.

Primary liposarcomas of the female and male breasts are very rare. Heterologous differentiation in adipocytic tumors is also an exceedingly rare phenomenon, which is occasionally reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 22 year-old female who presented with a relatively large left breast mass which was clinically diagnosed as a case of giant fibroadenoma, but histologically showed a well differentiated liposarcoma with evidence of extensive chondroid differentiation. The mammographic and radiological features are presented and correlated with the histopathological appearances together with literature review and comparison with similar reported cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2013.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628195PMC
March 2013

The natural history and long-term outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 after interferon-based therapy.

Liver Int 2013 Jul 15;33(6):871-83. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (G4) infection is common in the Middle East. Post-treatment long-term outcomes have not been reported in these patients. This study evaluates these outcomes in patients after interferon-based therapy.

Patients And Methods: A total of 157 patients were followed from June 2001 to February 2012. Descriptive and analytical statistics, cumulative outcomes and the independent predictors of disease progression were calculated.

Results: The overall age was 48.0 ± 11.8 years, 75 (47.8%) were males and 53 (70.7%) of 75 who were genotyped had G4. The follow-up period was 63.8 ± 32.8 months. Sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in 62 (39.5%) and 24 (45.3%) patients in the whole group and the G4 subgroup respectively. Among the whole cohort and the G4 subgroup, disease progressed in 59 (37.6%) and 21 (39.6%), respectively, with less progression in the SVR groups; 15/62 (24.2%) and 3/24 (12.5%) compared with non-responders; 44 (46.3%) and 18 (62.1%) with P = 0.01 and 0.001 respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that having diabetes mellitus (P = 0.03), higher baseline APRI score (P = 0.00) and non-SVR (P = 0.00) were independent predictors of disease progression. G4 patients showed similar results, but 'non-SVR' (P = 0.00) was the only independent predictor of progression. Eight patients died and four developed HCC all among the non-SVR group only.

Conclusions: This study describes, for the first time, the natural history and demonstrates the beneficial long-term effects of interferon-based therapy in HCV G4 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.12127DOI Listing
July 2013

Primary retroperitoneal synovial sarcoma in CT and MRI.

Urol Ann 2010 Jan;2(1):39-41

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center.

Synovial sarcomas are most commonly localized in the extermities, especially the lower thigh and knee areas. Retroperitoneal synovial sarcoma is very rare. We decribe the radiological findings of an adult retroperitoneal synovial sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-7796.62916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2934580PMC
January 2010

Cholesterol crystal embolization in a Saudi patient after cardiac surgery--a case report.

Middle East J Anaesthesiol 2010 Jun;20(5):747-52

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh.

An eroded atheromatous aorta may be a source of cholesterol crystal embolism(CCE). Embolization of atheromatous material accounts for obstruction of distal arterioles around which a foreign-body giant cell granuloma inflammatory reaction develops. The diagnosis is often delayed or un recognized because of varying or misleading clinical signs, such as renal insufficiency, digestive or neurological symptoms, or both or unexplained multiple-system disease. Although CCE can occur spontaneously, it has been increasingly recognized as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure, such as manipulation of the aorta during angiography or vascular surgery. It has also been reported to occur following anticoagulant therapy or thrombolysis. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) often experience a combination of these factors: anticoagulation, intra-arterial angiographic procedures and intraoperative aortic cross-clamping. These multiple factors could account for the acute and severe postoperative clinical and biological findings observed in the case reported here. A 65-year-old Saudi man was admitted to our hospital on July 9, 2008 due to chest pain at rest. He had suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus on Oral hypoglycemics, hypertension on treatment, impaired renal functions and hypercholesterolemia, he was an ex-smoker with history of diagnosed pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. He had Coronary angiography in another hospital on May 2008 showing a left main lesion 60%, Left anterior descending lesion 90%, circumflex lesion 80% and Right coronary lesion 70%, three weeks later an acute on top of chronic deterioration in renal chemistry was observed for which conservative treatment was chosen.
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June 2010