Publications by authors named "Mohamed El Badry"

26 Publications

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Management of liver disease patients in different clinical situations during COVID-19 pandemic.

Egypt Liver J 2021 26;11(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Chronic liver diseases are common worldwide, especially in developing countries. The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/(COVID-19) leads to the infection of many patients with underlying chronic liver diseases. As a relatively new disease, management of COVID-19, in the context of chronic liver disease, is mainly based on the experience of the treating physician and the available data. In this review, we summarize the available evidence about the management of liver disease patients, in the context of COVID-19 infection, which can increase the severity of viral hepatitis B. Also, its clearance in HBV patients is delayed. A sixfold increased severity of COVID-19 was reported in obese patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFDL). In patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD), it is not recommended to change their immunosuppressive therapy (as long as they are not infected with COVID-19), in order to avoid a flare of liver disease. However, immunosuppressant drugs should be modified, in the case of infection with COVID-19. To date, no data suggest an increased risk or severity in metabolic liver diseases, such as hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, or alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Patients with liver cirrhosis should be carefully managed with minimum exposure to healthcare facilities. Basic investigations for follow-up can be scheduled at wider intervals; if patients need admission, this should be in COVID-19-clean areas. Patients with hepatocellular carcinomas may have a poor prognosis according to preliminary reports from China. The course of COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients on immunosuppression seems to have a benign course, based on few reports in children and adults. The hepatotoxicity of COVID-19 drugs ranges from mild liver enzyme elevation to a flare of underlying liver diseases. Therefore, the decision should be customized. Telemedicine can minimize the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to infection with COVID-19 and decrease the consumption of personal protective equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43066-021-00091-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994958PMC
March 2021

Novel 6-hydroxyquinolinone derivatives: Design, synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation, in silico study and toxicity profiling.

J Comput Chem 2021 08 26;42(22):1561-1578. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.

Infectious diseases of bacteria and fungi have become a major risk to public health because of antibiotic and antifungal resistance. However, the availability of effective antibacterial and antifungal agents is becoming increasingly limited with growing resistance to existing drugs. In response to that, novel agents are critically needed to overcome such resistance. A new series of 6-hydroxyquinolinone 3, 4, 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b bearing different side chains were synthesized and evaluated as antimicrobials against numbers of bacteria and fungi, using inhibition zone technique. As one of these derivatives, compound 3 was identified as a potent antibacterial and antifungal agent against all tested microorganisms with good minimum inhibitory concentration values comparable to reference drugs. Molecular docking studies were performed on antibacterial and antifungal targets; microbial DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus (PDB ID: 4URO); N-myristoyltransferase of Candida albicans (PDB ID: 1IYK), respectively, to predict the most probable type of interaction at the active site of the target protein in addition to binding affinities and orientations of docked ligands. Additionally, in silico prediction in terms of detailed physicochemical ADME and toxicity profile relating drug-likeness as well as medicinal chemistry friendliness was performed to all synthesized compounds. The results indicated that a novel 4,6-dihydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one (3) is likely to be a newly synthesized drug candidate, indicating low toxicity in addition to good in silico absorption. In order to pave the way for more logical production of such compounds, structure-activity and toxicity relationships are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.26693DOI Listing
August 2021

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)-derived nanoparticles in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice: Hepatoprotective and enhancer of etiological treatment.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 05 20;15(5):e0009423. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Medical Parasitology, College of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Background: Nanotechnology has been manufactured from medicinal plants to develop safe, and effective antischistosmal alternatives to replace today's therapies. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger-derived nanoparticles (GNPs), and the therapeutic effect of ginger aqueous extract, and GNPs on Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infected mice compared to praziquantel (PZQ), and mefloquine (MFQ).

Methodology/principal Findings: Eighty four mice, divided into nine different groups, were sacrificed at 6th, 8th, and 10th week post-infection (PI), with assessment of parasitological, histopathological, and oxidative stress parameters, and scanning the worms by electron microscope. As a prophylactic drug, GNPs showed slight reduction in worm burden, egg density, and granuloma size and number. As a therapeutic drug, GNPs significantly reduced worm burden (59.9%), tissue egg load (64.9%), granuloma size, and number at 10th week PI, and altered adult worm tegumental architecture, added to antioxidant effect. Interestingly, combination of GNPs with PZQ or MFQ gave almost similar or sometimes better curative effects as obtained with each drug separately. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained when ½ dose GNPs combined with ½ dose MFQ which achieved 100% reduction in both the total worm burden, and ova tissue density as early as the 6th week PI, with absence of detected eggs or tissue granuloma, and preservation of liver architecture.

Conclusions/significance: GNPs have a schistosomicidal, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective role. GNPs have a strong synergistic effect when combined with etiological treatments (PZQ or MFQ), and significantly reduced therapeutic doses by 50%, which may mitigate side effects and resistance to etiological drugs, a hypothesis requiring further research. We recommend extending this study to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171924PMC
May 2021

Utility of Lung Ultrasound in Decision making to prioritize hospital admission for COVID-19 patients: A Developing Country Perspective.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Professor of Pulmonology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background & Aims: In healthcare settings with limited resources, it is crucial to make a plan to prioritize hospital admission for patients affected by COVID-19. So, we tried to develop a novel approach for triaging COVID-19 patients and deciding the priority for hospital admission using Lung Ultrasound. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lung ultrasound in triaging suspected COVID-19 patients and assessment of the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia and its comparison with CT chest as the gold standard.

Method: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study enrolled on 243 COVID-19 confirmed patients presented to the emergency department in three major University hospitals in Egypt. Lung ultrasound was done by an experienced emergency physician or chest physician according to the local protocol of each hospital. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from each patient. Each patient was subjected to CT chest and lung ultrasound.

Results: A total of 243 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 46.7+10.4 years. Ground glass opacity (GGO), subpleural consolidation, trans-lobar consolidation, and crazy paving were reported in chest CT scans of 54.3%, 15.2%, 11.1%, and 8.6% of patients, respectively. B-line artifacts were found in 81.1% of COVID-19 patients, which was of confluent pattern in 18.9% of patients. The lung ultrasound findings of 197 patients (81.1%) were completely coincident with those of CT with a Kappa agreement value of 0.77, and this offered a diagnostic sensitivity of 74 %, a diagnostic specificity of 97.9 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 90.2% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.6 % for lung ultrasound in triaging COVID-19 patients. Adding O2 saturation to the findings of lung imaging, the accuracy of evaluation of lung ultrasound to differentiate between severe and non-severe lung diseases showed that ultrasound had 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusion: Lung Ultrasound with Oxygen saturation is a very efficient tool for decision-making to prioritize hospital admission for patients affected by COVID-19 in healthcare settings with limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210506164243DOI Listing
May 2021

Purification and characterization of peroxidases from garden cress sprouts and their roles in lignification and removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol.

J Food Biochem 2021 01 2;45(1):e13526. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Molecular Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The study aims to evaluate the relation between peroxidases of day-6 garden cress sprouts and phenolic compounds. Three cationic, three anionic, and two unbounded peroxidases were separated from day-6 garden cress sprouts. Cationic (GCP1) and anionic (GCP2) peroxidases were purified with molecular masses of 25 and 40 kDa, respectively. The K values of GCP1 toward H O and guaiacol were lower than GCP2. The anionic GCP2 exhibited high affinity toward some lignin monomers, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, cinnamic and ferulic acids. Therefore, GCP2 is considered as a lignin peroxidase and contributed in lignin synthesis. The activity of GCP1 and GCP2 was stable at a wide pH range 5.5-8.0 and 6.0-7.5, respectively. Both peroxidases showed the same thermal stability range 20-50°C. GCP2 was more resistant against the effect of metal ions than GCP1. GCP2 showed high ability to remove of phenol and p-chlorophenol from effluent compared to GCP1. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Generally, garden cress is used as a test plant to conduct biomonitoring of pollution in urban soil on a wide scale because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness. Peroxidase is an important antioxidant enzyme, which elevated when plant subjected to pollution. Recently, we reported that the increase of peroxidase activity was strongly correlated with high phenolic content and antioxidant activity during the germination of garden cress. In the present study, anionic peroxidase GCP2 may play an important role in lignification process and removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol from polluted soil/wastewater as well as resisted the harmful effect of heavy metals. Cationic peroxidase GCP1, as a natural scavenger, had high affinity toward H O coupled to oxidation of some plant phenolic compounds suggesting its role in consuming of excess H O .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13526DOI Listing
January 2021

A contradictory action of procoagulant ficin by a fibrinolytic serine protease from Egyptian latex.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2020 Sep 20;27:e00492. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokii, Cairo, Egypt.

is one of the most popular and edible plants. Its trees emanate latex of high medical importance. The well-studied procoagulant effect of ficin is a hallmark of this latex which protrudes an interesting question of how can the plant control this effect? In the present work, we purified and characterized a serine protease (FPIII) with fibrinolytic activity from latex and study the anticoagulant character of the latex. FPIII was inhibited by PMSF and its molecular weight was 48 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of FPIII were detected at 8.5 and 60 °C, respectively. The activation energy of FPIII was 7 kcal/mol and was thermal stable up to 60 °C. FPIII tended to hydrolyze different protein substrates and showed a good catalytic efficiency (K/K). The anticoagulant effects and fibrinogenolytic activities of latex crude extract and FPIII were detected, which controls the procoagulant effect of ficin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334393PMC
September 2020

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from (Cav.) cabrera leaf and bark grown in Egypt.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Dec 22;35(23):5369-5372. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

(Anacardiaceae) is a shrub cultivated in Egypt for ornamental purpose. The major components of bark oil were -limonene (29.74%), followed by myrtenal (14.02%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.34%), while -caryophyllene (55.86%), -limonene (27.71%) and -pinene (3.54%) were predominant in the leaf oil. These isolated oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against ATCC 33591 ATCC 29213, ATCC 25922, ATCC 10145, MTCC183 and NRRL 595, and two clinical isolates of . The leaf oil showed a remarkable inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 25 to 300 µg/mL, while the bark oil was active against ATCC 25922 and ATCC 10145 only. Furthermore, the bark and leaf oils revealed potent cytotoxic effects on HepG2 and Caco-2 cells with IC values of 1.56 to 24.12 µg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1765343DOI Listing
December 2021

Retreatment of chronic hepatitis C patients who failed previous therapy with directly acting antivirals: A multicenter study.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 20;96:367-370. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Aim Of The Study: The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different DAAs regimens in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) Egyptian patients who failed to achieve SVR after their treatment with SOF-based regimens.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational multicenter study that included CHC patients that failed to achieve cure on SOF-based regimens who were re-treated using different DAAs regimen and were allocated according to national guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis C. Primary outcome was to assess the SVR12 rate among prior non-responders after retreatment with a second course of DAAs.

Results: Our study included 172 patients who failed to achieve SVR after treatment with SOF-based treatment regimen [age: 51.2 ± 11.3, 58.7% men]. Included patients were retreated using SOF/DCV/RBV, SOF/ r/PAR /OMB /RBV, SOF/DCV/SIM, SOF/LDV ± RBV or SIM/SOF. SVR12 was successfully attained in 95.35% (164/172) of the included non-responders.

Conclusion: The current multicenter study proved the efficacy of various DAAs regimens issued by the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis for retreatment of relapsed CHC Egyptian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.022DOI Listing
July 2020

Egyptian liver library: An indexed database for liver disease evidence in Egypt.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2019 Jun 4;20(2):109-113. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Liver diseases are among the most challenging health care problems worldwide. In Egypt, we established different care programs to combat liver diseases including schistosomiasis and viral hepatitides. A lot of research work addressing liver diseases in Egypt have been published with special focus on these two major fields. Other liver disease seems to be neglected although present and contributing to the liver disease burden in Egypt. In this report we reviewed the available evidence published from Egypt and elucidate areas of weakness and future research needs. Our search for Egyptian liver disease evidence retrieved 4683 articles, 67% of them were relevant to the topic. Out of the relevant articles; 1646/3265 (50.4%) were discussing clinical science, 1131 (34.7%) were discussing basic science and 488 (14.9%) were discussing both basic and clinical sciences. Cairo university (16.8%, n = 513) and Mansoura university (9.3%, n = 285) had the largest number of publications related to liver disease in Egypt respectively. The most commonly reported diseases were hepatitis C in 719/3361 articles (21.4%), parasitic liver infestations in 663 articles (19.7%), hepatocellular carcinoma in 544 articles (16.2%), liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in 537 articles (16%), and drug induced liver injury in 516 articles (15.4%). Most of the reviewed articles (36%) were discussing treatment of chronic liver diseases (n = 1201) followed by diagnostics (28%, n = 940), pathogenesis and pathophysiology (21%, n = 706). This review will direct attention to areas with less research like hepatitis B related liver disease, HIV/HCV co-infections, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to encourage future research in these topics. In conclusion; our results ring a bell inviting the development of a roadmap for liver research in Egypt targeting to put future policies to cover areas of weakness in liver research with an ultimate goal of tackling liver disease and its overwhelming socioeconomic burden in our developing country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2019.05.004DOI Listing
June 2019

Reporting quality in systematic reviews of studies: a systematic review.

Curr Med Res Opin 2019 09 28;35(9):1631-1641. Epub 2019 May 28.

Evidence Based Medicine Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Systematic reviews (SRs) and/or meta-analyses of research have an important role in establishing the foundation for clinical studies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reporting quality of SRs of studies using the PRISMA checklist. Four databases were searched including PubMed, Virtual Health Library (VHL), Web of Science (ISI) and Scopus. The search was limited from 2006 to 2016 to include all SRs and/or meta-analyses (MAs) of pure studies. The evaluation of reporting quality was done using the PRISMA checklist. Out of 7702 search results, 65 SRs were included and evaluated with the PRISMA checklist. Overall, the mean overall quality score of reported items of the PRISMA checklist was 68%. We have noticed an increasing pattern in the numbers of published SRs of studies over the last 10 years. In contrast, the reporting quality was not significantly improved over the same period ( = .363). There was a positive but not significant correlation between the overall quality score and the journal impact factor of the included studies. The adherence of SRs of studies to the PRISMA guidelines was poor. Therefore, we believe that using reporting guidelines and journals paying attention to this fact will improve the quality of SRs of studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2019.1607270DOI Listing
September 2019

Real-world results of direct-acting antivirals use for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in old patients.

Eur Geriatr Med 2019 Apr 24;10(2):295-302. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Old people with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) were considered a difficult-to-treat category with more frequent adverse events until recently. Interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) improved treatment adherence and quality of life of old patients. In this study, we aimed at reporting the real-world efficacy and safety of DAAs, in addition to predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) in old chronic HCV population.

Methods: This is a prospective observational intention-to-treat analysis that included old chronic hepatitis C genotype-4 patients (> 65 years) treated in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment center in Egypt. Treatment regimens were allocated according to national guidelines for treatment of hepatitis C. Primary outcome was undetectable HCV-RNA at 12-week post-treatment by PCR. Secondary outcomes were identification of predictors of SVR and assessment of safety related issues.

Results: Our study included 864 patients (64% females) with mean age of 67.7 ± 2.8 years. Overall SVR rate was 98.9% while SVR rates for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin, paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/simeprevir/daclatasvir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/simeprevir, interferon/sofosbuvir/ribavirin and sofosbuvir/ribavirin were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 99.3%, 98% and 94.2%, respectively. DAAs were well tolerated. None of the patients discontinued the treatment due to adverse effects. Higher albumin, higher platelet count, lower bilirubin and lower stage of fibrosis were among predictors of favourable response.

Conclusion: Different DAAs regimens were safe and effective in old Egyptian patients with chronic HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41999-019-00167-3DOI Listing
April 2019

Purification and characterization of deoxyribonuclease from small intestine of camel .

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2017 Dec 28;15(2):463-467. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Molecular Biology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

The chromatography of deoxyribonuclease (DNase) from small intestine of camel by DEAE-Sepharose separated three isoforms DNase 1, DNase 2 and DNase 3. The DNase 3 was purified to homogeneity by chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The molecular weight of DNase 3 was 30 kDa using gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of DNase 3 was reported at 7.0 using Tris-HCl buffer. The temperature optimum of DNase 3 was found to be 50 °C. The enzyme was stable up to 50 °C for one h incubation. The Km value was 28.5 µg DNA, where this low value indicated the high affinity of enzyme toward DNA as substrate. No activity of DNase 3 was determined in the absence of metal cations. Mg and Ca caused significant enhancement in the enzyme activity by 90 and 75%, respectively. The mixture of Mg and Ca caused 100% of enzyme activity. Ni, Co, Ba, Zn and Cd showed very strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity. In conclusion, the characterization of DNase 3 indicated that the enzyme is considered as a member of DNase I family. The low Km value of the DNA suggested that the high digestion of DNA of camel forage by small intestine DNase 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296583PMC
December 2017

Evaluation of saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 26;275(12):2925-2931. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Audio-Vestibular Unit, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Purpose: The aim of the current work was to evaluate the function of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) by recording the cervical-evoked myogenic potentials (C-VEMP) on those children and to compare C-VEMP results in ANSD children of pre-lingual onset to those in ANSD children of post-lingual onset.

Methods: The study included 38 ANSD children of pre-lingual onset, 16 ANSD children of post-lingual onset, and 20 control children. All participant children were subjected to C-VEMP testing using 500 Hz tone burst stimuli.

Results: The vast majority of ANSD children of pre-lingual onset (35 out of 38; 92.1%) had bilateral intact C-VEMP response with C-VEMP parameters (amplitude, asymmetric ratio, latency, and inter-aural latency difference) that were not statistically different than those in the control children. Only three children had bilateral absent C-VEMP response. On the other hand, the majority of ANSD children of post-lingual onset (11 out of 16; 68.75%) had bilateral absent C-VEMP response. The remaining five children had bilateral intact C-VEMP response with C-VEMP parameters that were not statistically different than those in the control children.

Conclusions: The pathology of ANSD spares the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve in the vast majority of ANSD children of pre-lingual onset, while it involves them in the majority of ANSD of post-lingual onset reflecting different site(s) of lesion between the two ANSD categories. Such results have important clinical implications as regards to the management of ANSD in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-018-5149-3DOI Listing
December 2018

Antimicrobial cellulosic hydrogel from olive oil industrial residue.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Oct 25;117:179-188. Epub 2018 May 25.

Chemistry Department, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt.

The cellulose-based antimicrobial hydrogel was prepared from seed and husk cellulosic fibers of olive industry residues by load silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto grafted acrylamide monomer (Am) cellulosic fibers. The grafting approach was the free radical mechanism by utilizing ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator in aqueous medium and N,N methylene bisacrylamide (MBAm) as a cross linker. The effect of different grafting conditions on the properties of produced hydrogels has been studied by determining the grafting parameters, i.e. concentration of Am, MBAm, grafting time and temperature to optimize grafting yield (G %), grafting efficiency (GE %), and swelling %. Characterizations of the obtained hydrogels were performed through monitoring swelling behavior, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and EDX. AgNPs were grown into the prepared hydrogel. Hydrogel/AgNPs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrogel loaded AgNPs exhibit high efficient antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.179DOI Listing
October 2018

The possible effect of human menopausal gonadotropin on the audio-vestibular system.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Dec 7;45(6):1166-1172. Epub 2018 May 7.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt.

Objective: Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) is one of the commonest drugs used for ovarian stimulation with no reports on the audio-vestibular system. This study aims to examine HMG on the hearing profile of patients planning intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Methods: This prospective study was conducted from June 2016 to June 2017 in a tertiary referral hospital. The audio-vestibular system of a total of 30 patients was evaluated using pure tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in the form of a DP-gram) and Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) immediately before therapy and at the day 10 after therapy. Audio-vestibular adverse effects including hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and otalgia were also considered.

Results: Significant elevations in hearing thresholds were found on comparing thresholds at the day 10 at the onset of the study. The elevations were mostly at frequencies (1000, 2000 and 8000Hz) and did not affect speech perception. For DPOAE, significant differences were observed at all F2 frequencies on comparing both amplitudes and signal to noise ratios. Otologic complaints were significant for tinnitus and hearing loss.

Conclusion: Significant auditory and vestibular adverse effects may result from HMG therapy, indicating the importance of prompt monitoring of auditory functions in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2018.04.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Immobilization of Trichoderma harzianum α-amylase on PPyAgNp/FeO-nanocomposite: chemical and physical properties.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 26;46(sup2):201-206. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

d Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science , King Abdulaziz University , Jeddah , Saudi Arabia.

In this study, a new support has been developed by immobilization of α-amylase onto modified magnetic FeO-nanoparticles. The characterization of soluble and immobilized α-amylases with regards to kinetic parameters, pH, thermal stability and reusability was studied. The effect of polypyrrole/silver nanocomposite (PPyAgNp) percentage on weight of FeO and pH on the immobilization of α-amylase was studied. The highest immobilization efficiency (75%) was detected at 10% PPyAgNp/FeO-nanocomposite and pH 7.0. Immobilization of α-amylase on PPyAgNp/FeO-nanocomposite was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The reusability of the immobilized enzyme activity was 80% of its initial activity after 10 reuses. The immobilized enzyme was more stable towards pH, temperature and metal ions compared with soluble enzyme. The kinetic study appeared higher affinity of immobilized enzyme (K 2.5 mg starch) compared with soluble enzyme (K 3.5 mg starch). In conclusion, the immobilization of α-amylase on PPyAgNp/FeO-nanocomposite could successfully be used in industrial and medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1453828DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical criteria of positional vertical nystagmus in vestibular migraine.

Acta Otolaryngol 2017 Jul 27;137(7):720-722. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

b Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology , Menoufia University , Shebien Elkoom , Egypt.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to identify key diagnostic criteria for positional vertical nystagmus caused by vestibular migraine (VM).

Materials And Methods: The study group included a case series of 13 subjects with VM (10 females and three males with age 38.6 ± 8.9 years); they were complaining of positional vertigo. They were subjected to thorough audiovestibular examination and treated with cinnarizine or topiramate Results: The entire study group demonstrated positional vertical nystagmus (eight patients had up-beating nystagmus and five patients had down-beating nystagmus). The vertigo and nystagmus were elicited in one or more of the following positions: the right & left Dix-Hallpike, supine with head center, head right, and head left positions. The nystagmus had no latency period. It was persistent, non-fatigable and markedly reduced by visual fixation. Prophylactic therapy of VM (topiramate or cinnarizine) cured the positional vertigo in 92% of the study group. Neither the positional vertigo nor the nystagmus recurred in a 3-6 months follow-up period.

Conclusions: VM can induce characteristic form of vertical positional nystagmus and vertigo, which would be treated by medications used for controlling the VM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2017.1318220DOI Listing
July 2017

Evaluation of the radiological criteria to diagnose large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Feb 30;81:84-91. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Otolaryngology Department, Audiology Unit, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Objective: The main objective of the current work is to increase the sensitivity of the radiological diagnosis of the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). The specific aims were to compare between the two famous criteria to diagnose large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), (i.e., Valvassori and Cincinnati), to correlate between vestibular aqueduct (VA) measurements in the axial view and those in 45° oblique reformate in children with LVAS, and to define radiological criteria to diagnose LVA in the 45° oblique reformate.

Methods: The study group included 61 children with LVAS according to Cincinnati criteria (greater than 0.9mm at the midpoint or greater than 1.9mm at the operculum in the axial view). All participants were subjected to full Audiological evaluation and CT scanning in axial plane. The axial data were then transferred to workstation for post-processing with 3D reformatting software (Baxara 3D) in order to obtain the 45° oblique reformates. VA measurements were done at 4 points: midpoint and operculum in both the axial plane and the 45° oblique reformate.

Results: Only 81% of ears of children with LVAS (99 ears) fit Valvassori criterion (i.e., larger than 1.5mm at midpoint), while 19% (23 ears) of them were missed. There were statistically significant correlations among the diameters of the VA in the axial view (both in the midpoint and operculum) and their counterparts in the 45° oblique reformate. Values equal to or greater than 1.2mm in the midpoint and 1.3mm in the operculum are proposed to be the criteria to diagnose LVA in the 45° oblique reformate. Finally, no significant correlations were found between the degree of hearing loss and VA diameters at the axial or 45° oblique reformate.

Conclusion: Cincinnati criteria are more sensitive than Valvassori criterin in the diagnosis of LVAS. We recommend the application of Cincinnati criteria instead of Valvassori criteria in order not miss cases with LVAS. Measurement of VA in the 45° oblique reformate is a reliable method to diagnose LVA. Criteria to diagnose LVA in the 45° oblique reformate were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.12.012DOI Listing
February 2016

Epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Apr 23;78(4):623-30. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Audiology Unit, Otolaryngology Department, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Objectives: This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type.

Methods: Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty children having normal hearing with no history of otological or neurological disorders served as the control group. All children participating in the study were subjected to full medical and audiological history, otological examination, neurological examination, audiological evaluation and electroencephalogram recording.

Results: Mean age of the children in the control group was 3.56 ± 2.1 years and mean age of the children in the study group was 3.8 ± 2.2 years. While none of the control children had abnormal electroencephalogram, 38 (42.2%) of children with congenital SNHL had epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality. The epileptiform abnormality was generalized in 14 children (36.8%), focal temporal in 17 children (44.7%) and focal other than temporal in 7 children (18.4%). According to the hemispheric side affected, the abnormality was right in 14 children (36.8%), left in 10 children (26.3%) and bilateral in 14 children (36.8%). No statistically significant predominance of specific site or side of the epileptiform abnormality was found. Similarly, no statistical significant prevalent of the epileptiform abnormality was found in relation to the age or sex of children, duration of hearing loss or etiology of hearing loss (i.e., genetic vs. neonatal insults). On the other hand, the epileptiform abnormality was statistically prevalent in children with moderate degree of hearing loss, and in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

Conclusions: The epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality is a common finding in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss especially those with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, suggesting the affection of the central nervous system despite the absence of neurological symptoms or signs. These findings raise the question of the requirement of medical treatment for those children and the effect of such treatment in their rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.01.018DOI Listing
April 2014

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2010 Apr 26;160(7):2054-65. Epub 2009 Nov 26.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-009-8864-9DOI Listing
April 2010

Evaluation of inner hair cell and nerve fiber loss as sufficient pathologies underlying auditory neuropathy.

Hear Res 2009 Sep 14;255(1-2):84-90. Epub 2009 Jun 14.

Otolaryngology Department, Audiology Unit, El-Minia University Hospitals, El-Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.

Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder characterized by normal function of outer hair cells, evidenced by intact cochlear microphonic (CM) potentials and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), with absent or severely dys-synchronized auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). To determine if selective lesions of inner hair cells (IHCs) and auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) can account for these primary clinical features of auditory neuropathy, we measured physiological responses from chinchillas with large lesions of ANFs (about 85%) and IHCs (45% loss in the apical half of the cochlea; 73% in the basal half). Distortion product OAEs and CM potentials were significantly enhanced, whereas summating potentials and compound action potentials (CAPs) were significantly reduced. CAP threshold was elevated by 7.5dB, but response synchrony was well preserved down to threshold levels of stimulation. Similarly, ABR threshold was elevated by 5.6dB, but all waves were present and well synchronized down to threshold levels in all animals. Thus, large lesions of IHCs and ANFs reduced response amplitudes but did not abolish or severely dys-synchronize CAPs or ABRs. Pathologies other than or in addition to ANF and IHC loss are likely to account for the evoked potential dys-synchrony that is a clinical hallmark of auditory neuropathy in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2009.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735340PMC
September 2009

Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2008 Aug 15;150(2):127-37. Epub 2008 Feb 15.

Molecular Biology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-008-8142-2DOI Listing
August 2008

Fasciola gigantica: enzymes of the ornithine-proline-glutamate pathway--characterization of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.

Exp Parasitol 2008 Jan 26;118(1):47-53. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Molecular Biology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), proline oxidase (PO), Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), and Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CD) were assessed in Fasciola gigantica. All enzymes are involved in the conversion of ornithine into glutamate and proline. High levels of P5CD suggest that the direction of the metabolic flow from ornithine is more toward glutamate than proline. F. gigantica P5CD1 and P5CD2 were separated from the majority of contaminating proteins in crude homogenate using a CM-cellulose column. A Sephacryl S-200 column was employed for P5CD2 to obtain pure enzyme with increased specific activity. The molecular mass of P5CD2 was estimated to be 50kDa using a Sephacryl S-200 column and SDS-PAGE. It migrated as a single band on SDS-PAGE, indicating a monomeric enzyme. P5CD2 had Km values of 1.44mM and 0.37mM for NAD and P5C, respectively. P5CD2 oxidized a number of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, where the aromatic compounds had higher affinity toward the enzyme. All amino acids examined had partial inhibitory effects on the enzyme. While 3mM AMP caused 31% activation of enzyme, 3mM ADP and ATP inhibited activity by 18% and 23%, respectively. Apart from Cu2+, the divalent cations that were studied caused partial inhibitory effects on the enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2007.06.006DOI Listing
January 2008

Physiological effects of auditory nerve myelinopathy in chinchillas.

Eur J Neurosci 2007 Mar;25(5):1437-46

Otolaryngology Department, Audiology Unit, El-Minia University Hospitals, El-Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.

The goals were to study the physiological effects of auditory nerve myelinopathy in chinchillas and to test the hypothesis that myelin abnormalities could account for auditory neuropathy, a hearing disorder characterized by absent auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) with preserved outer hair cell function. Doxorubicin, a cytotoxic drug used as an experimental demyelinating agent, was injected into the auditory nerve bundle of 18 chinchillas; six other chinchillas were injected with vehicle alone. Cochlear microphonics, compound action potentials (CAPs), inferior colliculus evoked potentials (IC-EVPs), cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions and ABRs were recorded before and up to 2 months after injection. Cochleograms showed no hair cell loss in any of the animals and measures of outer hair cell function were normal (cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions) or enhanced (cochlear microphonics) after injection. ABR was present in animals with mild myelin damage (n = 10) and absent in animals with severe myelin damage that included the myelin surrounding spiral ganglion cell bodies and fibers in Rosenthal's canal (n = 8). Animals with mild damage had reduced response amplitudes at 1 day, followed by recovery of CAP and enhancement of the IC-EVP. In animals with severe damage, CAP and IC-EVP thresholds were elevated, amplitudes were reduced, and latencies were prolonged at 1 day and thereafter. CAPs deteriorated over time, whereas IC-EVPs partially recovered; latencies remained consistently prolonged despite changes in amplitudes. The results support auditory nerve myelinopathy as a possible pathomechanism of auditory neuropathy but indicate that myelinopathy must be severe before physiological measures are affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05401.xDOI Listing
March 2007

Electrophysiological correlates of progressive sensorineural pathology in carboplatin-treated chinchillas.

Brain Res 2007 Feb 2;1134(1):122-30. Epub 2007 Jan 2.

Otolaryngology Department, Audiology Unit, El-Minia University Hospitals, El-Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.

Carboplatin produces progressive damage to auditory nerve fibers, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and inner hair cells (IHC) in the chinchilla cochlea but leaves outer hair cells intact. Within 1 h after injection, many afferent terminals beneath IHCs and myelin lamellae surrounding SGN processes are vacuolated. One day after injection, approximately half of the nerve fibers are missing. IHCs are intact at 2 days, but 20-30% are missing at 3 days. We studied the electrophysiological correlates of this progressive morphological damage by recording cochlear microphonics (CM), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), summating potentials (SP), compound action potentials (CAP) and midbrain evoked potentials (IC-EVP) before and 1 h, 12 h, 1 days, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days and 14 days after carboplatin injection (75 mg/kg IP) in four chinchillas. CM and DPOAEs tended to be unchanged or enhanced. CAP and SP showed little change until Day 3, when amplitudes were reduced in all animals and CAP thresholds were elevated by 9 dB; amplitudes declined further between Days 3 and 5 but not thereafter. IC-EVP amplitudes decreased on Days 3 or 5 but thresholds were relatively unchanged. All animals showed some recovery of IC-EVP between Days 7 and 14, including one with 70% enhancement on Day 14. The results indicate that threshold and amplitude measures fail to detect peripheral pathology until some relatively high threshold level of damage has been exceeded. This has important implications for monitoring peripheral damage and interpreting electrophysiological test results in animals and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1817725PMC
February 2007
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