Publications by authors named "Mohamed Ehab"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gateway Selection in Millimeter Wave UAV Wireless Networks Using Multi-Player Multi-Armed Bandit.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 16;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Addwasir 11991, Saudi Arabia.

Recently, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based communications gained a lot of attention due to their numerous applications, especially in rescue services in post-disaster areas where the terrestrial network is wholly malfunctioned. Multiple access/gateway UAVs are distributed to fully cover the post-disaster area as flying base stations to provide communication coverage, collect valuable information, disseminate essential instructions, etc. The access UAVs after gathering/broadcasting the necessary information should select and fly towards one of the surrounding gateways for relaying their information. In this paper, the gateway UAV selection problem is addressed. The main aim is to maximize the long-term average data rates of the UAVs relays while minimizing the flights' battery cost, where millimeter wave links, i.e., using 30~300 GHz band, employing antenna beamforming, are used for backhauling. A tool of machine learning (ML) is exploited to address the problem as a budget-constrained multi-player multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem. In this setup, access UAVs act as the players, and the arms are the gateway UAVs, while the rewards are the average data rates of the constructed relays constrained by the battery cost of the access UAV flights. In this decentralized setting, where information is neither prior available nor exchanged among UAVs, a selfish and concurrent multi-player MAB strategy is suggested. Towards this end, three battery-aware MAB (BA-MAB) algorithms, namely upper confidence bound (UCB), Thompson sampling (TS), and the exponential weight algorithm for exploration and exploitation (EXP3), are proposed to realize gateways selection efficiently. The proposed BA-MAB-based gateway UAV selection algorithms show superior performance over approaches based on near and random selections in terms of total system rate and energy efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411621PMC
July 2020

Fetal heart examination at the time of 13 weeks scan: a 5 years' prospective study.

J Perinat Med 2019 Oct;47(8):871-878

Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective To evaluate our ability in classifying the fetal heart as normal or abnormal during the 1st trimester scan through fetal cardiac examination and determining the best time for this examination. Methods This was a prospective study performed on 3240 pregnant women to examine the fetal heart. Four chambers view and ventricular outflow tracts were mainly examined during the scan. We used grayscale and color mapping in the diagnosis. Color Doppler was used if additional information was needed, and all patients were rescanned during the 2nd trimester to confirm or negate our diagnosis. Results The cardiac findings were normal at both scans in 3108 pregnancies. The same cardiac abnormality was detected at both scans in 79 cases. In 36 cases there was false-positive diagnosis at the early scan; in 20 of these cases, there were mildly abnormal functional findings early in pregnancy with no abnormality found later. In 17 fetuses, there was discordance between the early and later diagnosis due to missed or incorrect diagnoses. The best time to do fetal heart examination during 1st trimester is between 13 and 13 + 6 weeks. Conclusion A high degree of accuracy in the identification of congenital heart disease (CHD) can be achieved by a 1st trimester fetal echocardiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0222DOI Listing
October 2019

A Novel Morphological Analysis of DXA-DICOM Images by Artificial Neural Networks for Estimating Bone Mineral Density in Health and Disease.

J Clin Densitom 2019 Jul - Sep;22(3):382-390. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt.

One of the best methods for diagnosing bone disease in humans is site-specific and total bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machines. The basic disadvantage of this technology is inconsistent BMD measurements among different DXA machines from different manufacturers due to different image analysis algorithms. The objective of the present study was to apply artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate total BMD for diagnosing a population of Egyptians with and without pathology, using extracted features from DXA-DICOM images based on the Histogram and Binary algorithms as compared to reference BMD measurements by DXA machine. The sample size comprised 3000 male and female participants with an age range 22-49 years, who were referred to us for diagnosis and/or treatment and for DXA total body scans in the period from January 2016 till December 2017. We constructed an entry computer data-logging visible unit, where we applied morphological operations to get a specific bone image, and used their extracted feature vectors as inputs to ANNs with cascade training, gathering, and testing for DXA-DICOM image processing. The multilayer feed-forward ANN set up its initial weights, carried out training and initiated the recall mode, and finally observed its decision and interaction based on estimated BMD. The ANN construction was carried out using a 3-layer architecture, with one hidden layer of 85 neurons. The input layer has neuron numbers equal to 256 for the Histogram and 77,365 for Binary algorithms, respectively. Total BMD estimation performance based on the Binary algorithm was capable of identifying all DXA-DICOM images with an accuracy of 100% for the training, cross-validation, and testing of the ANN phases. We believe this strategy will represent the means for standardizing bone measurements of all DXA machines, regardless of the manufacturer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2018.08.006DOI Listing
July 2020

Emerging role of nutrition and the non-coding landscape in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of literature.

Gene 2018 Oct 27;675:54-61. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Medical Education Development Unit (MEDU), Armed Forces College of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

With the advent of recent advances in molecular techniques and whole genome sequencing, we have come to know that the non-coding landscape (including non-coding RNAs, tRNAs and even telomeres) plays a major role in the regulation of cellular processes. Furthermore, the deregulation of this landscape has been found to contribute to and even bring about the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases. One of such diseases is diabetes mellitus (type 2 specifically) whose incidence rate and global burden is constantly increasing. Nutrition has been proven to be a key player in the development, onset and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, non-coding DNA based molecular markers are emerging as biomarkers of T2D, susceptibility, and perhaps dietary supplements can modulate non-coding DNA based markers expression and function in T2D management. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the developmental origins and genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, how each component of the non-coding landscape contributes to the development and progression of the disease and finally we discuss how dietary interventions modulate the non-coding landscape in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.06.082DOI Listing
October 2018

Underexpression of miR-486-5p but not Overexpression of miR-155 is Associated with Lung Cancer Stages.

Microrna 2018 ;7(2):120-127

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Evidence is increasing that microRNAs (miR) are particularly important in lung homeostasis and development and have been shown to be involved in many pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis, Lung Cancer (LC) and other smoking-related diseases.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of miR-155 and miR-486-5p in tissues from LC patients and healthy endobronchial mucosa as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing LC.

Methods: Bronchoscopic and thoracoscopic tissue biopsies were taken from 50 LC patients and other 50 control subjects without lung mass, who were planned for a clinical bronchoscopy. The expressions of miR-155 and miR-486-5p in both tumor tissue and healthy mucosa were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Histopathology showed that 72% of LC patients were in advanced stages III and IV, with non-small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinoma being the most common diagnosis. miR-155 was significantly overexpressed while, miR-486-5p was underexpressed, in LC patients as compared to controls. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves of miR-155 (<-0.9) and miR-486 (>-0.62) had sensitivity of 92 and 96% and specificity of 80 and 84%, respectively, in discriminating LC patients from controls with benign solitary pulmonary nodules.

Conclusion: miR-155 was highly overexpressed, yet it did not correlate with stages, while miR-486- 5p was extremely underexpressed and significantly correlated with stages of LC. Thus, their detection represents an excellent diagnostic/prognostic tool to support more established techniques linked to LC spread locally and systemically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211536607666180212124532DOI Listing
November 2018

Comparative modeling of combined transport of water and graded-size molecules across the glomerular capillary wall.

J Theor Biol 2016 Apr 22;394:109-116. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Medical Biophysics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Chronic kidney disease is a common and growing problem worldwide that necessitates recognition of individual risk and appropriate laboratory testing before its progression to end-stage renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation for survival. Clearance studies using various graded-size probe molecules established that the passage of molecules/proteins across the glomerular capillary barrier of mammalian kidneys is increasingly restricted as their size increase. Few mathematical models were developed to describe the dynamics of the size-selective functions of macromolecules across membranes and gelatins. In the present study, we compare the behavior of three mathematical descriptions for the Fiber Matrix theory, an Extended Fiber Matrix theory, and an Alternative Statistical Physics analysis to describe the size-selective function of the glomerular capillary barrier; using mainly its hemodynamic, morphometric and hydrodynamic variables; in two experimental rat models. The glomerular basement membrane was represented as a homogeneous three-dimensional network of fibers of uniform length (Lf), radius (Rf), total fractional solid volume of fibers (Vf) and characteristic Darcy permeability. The models were appropriate for simulating in vivo fractional clearance data of neutral Dextran and Ficoll macromolecules from two experimental rat models. We believe that the Lf, Rf and Vf best-fit numerical values may signify new insights for the diagnosis of human nephropathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.01.019DOI Listing
April 2016

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Vertical Transmission in 12-Month-Old Infants Born to HCV-Infected Women and Assessment of Maternal Risk Factors.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Apr 26;2(2):ofv089. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Egypt.

Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an underappreciated cause of pediatric liver disease, most frequently acquired by vertical transmission (VT). Current guidelines that include the option of screening infants for HCV RNA at 1-2 months are based on data prior to current real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing. Previous studies have demonstrated VT rates of 4%-15% and an association with high maternal viral load. We evaluated HCV RNA in infants with HCV VT and assessed maternal risk factors in a prospective cohort in Cairo, Egypt. Methods.  Pregnant women were screened for HCV from December 2012 to March 2014. For those with HCV viremia, their infants were tested at 12 months for HCV RNA using real-time PCR. Maternal risk factors assessed for HCV VT association included HCV RNA levels, mode of delivery, and maternal IL28B genotype. Results.  Of 2514 women screened, a total of 54 women were viremic (2.1%) and delivered 56 infants. Of those, 51 infants of 49 women were tested at 12 months of age. Only 7 infants were viremic, with an HCV VT rate of 14.3% (7 of 49). Median HCV RNA in the infants was 2100 IU/mL. None of the maternal risk factors analyzed were associated with transmission. Conclusions.  In Egypt where HCV is highly endemic, we observed an overall 12-month HCV VT rate of 14.3%. Further studies should focus on better identification of pregnant women more likely to vertically transmit HCV and earlier testing of infants to identify those likely to develop chronicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498289PMC
April 2015

Reliability of risk-based screening for hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Egypt.

J Infect 2015 May 23;70(5):512-9. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) only recommends risk-based HCV screening for pregnant women in the United States. This study sought to determine the reliability of risk-based versus universal HCV screening for pregnant women in Egypt, a country with the world's highest HCV prevalence that also relies on risk-based screening, and to identify additional characteristics that could increase the reliability of risk-based screening.

Methods: Pregnant women attending the Cairo University antenatal clinic were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and RNA, and demographic characteristics and risk factors for infection were assessed.

Results: All 1250 pregnant women approached agreed to participate (100%) with a mean age of 27.4 ± 5.5 years (range:16-45). HCV antibodies and RNA were positive in 52 (4.2%) and 30 (2.4%) women respectively. After adjustment, only age (OR:1.08, 95%CI:1.002-1.16, p < 0.01), history of prior pregnancies (OR:1.20, 95%CI:1.01-1.43, p < 0.04), and working in the healthcare sector (OR:8.68, 95%CI:1.72-43.62, p < 0.01), remained significantly associated with chronic HCV infection.

Conclusions: Universal antenatal HCV screening was widely accepted (100%) and traditional risk-based screening alone would have missed 3 (10%) chronically infected women, thereby supporting universal screening of pregnant women whenever possible. Otherwise, risk-based screening should be modified to include history of prior pregnancy and healthcare employment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2015.01.009DOI Listing
May 2015

Electronic nose for tracking different types of leukaemia: future prospects in diagnosis.

Hematol Oncol 2014 Sep 12;32(3):165-7. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Departments of Medical Biophysics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2096DOI Listing
September 2014

Electronic noses for monitoring benzene occupational exposure in biological samples of Egyptian workers.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2013 Mar 26;26(1):165-72. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Medical Biophysics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Objectives: Benzene is commonly emitted in several industries, leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposure hazards. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it is still a component of petroleum products and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued higher occupational exposures in industrial settings in developing countries.

Materials And Methods: We investigated the potential use of an electronic nose (e-nose) to monitor the headspace volatiles in biological samples from benzene-exposed Egyptian workers and non-exposed controls. The study population comprised 150 non-smoking male workers exposed to benzene and an equal number of matching non-exposed controls. We determined biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk including: benzene in exhaled air and blood; and its urinary metabolites such as phenol and muconic acid using gas chromatography technique and a portable e-nose.

Results: The average benzene concentration measured in the ambient air of the workplace of all studied industrial settings in Alexandria, Egypt; was 97.56 ± 88.12 μg/m(3) (range: 4.69-260.86 μg/m(3)). Levels of phenol and muconic acid were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in both blood and urine of benzene-exposed workers as compared to non-exposed controls.

Conclusions: The e-nose technology has successfully classified and distinguished benzene-exposed workers from non-exposed controls for all measured samples of blood, urine and the exhaled air with a very high degree of precision. Thus, it will be a very useful tool for the low-cost mass screening and early detection of health hazards associated with the exposure to benzene in the industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13382-013-0086-2DOI Listing
March 2013

Effects of sleep disordered breathing on functional capacity and quality of life in chronic kidney disease Egyptian patients.

Sleep Breath 2013 May 9;17(2):621-8. Epub 2012 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and investigated its effects on the muscle functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) Egyptian patients, either maintained or not maintained on hemodialysis (HD).

Methods: The study population comprised 100 CKD patients who were divided into patients maintained on HD (n = 60; M/F = 28:32) and patients not maintained on HD (n = 40; M/F = 24:16). Patients were observed overnight using the pulse-oximetry technique and further subdivided into patients with SDB and patients without SDB, according to their calculated oxygen desaturation index (cutoff 5). All patients were subjected also to estimation of Kt/V ratio (which is a measure for the efficiency of HD), body-composition analysis, biochemical analysis, muscle functional capacity, and QoL measurements using standard methods and questionnaires, respectively.

Results: Primary outcomes were intergroup differences regarding physical capacity and muscle performance, QoL, and body-composition measurements. CKD patients in general, either maintained on HD or not, suffer from SDB, and the levels of urea and creatinine may increase the incidence of SDB in CKD patients not maintained on HD. CKD patients maintained on HD with SDB had poorer functional capacity, physical performance, and muscle composition, in comparison with those without SDB.

Conclusions: Overall, SDB appears to partly contribute to the total diminished functional capacity of HD patients. Thus, CKD patients maintained on HD with SDB had significantly lower sleep quality and QoL as compared to those not maintained on HD with or without SDB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-012-0732-0DOI Listing
May 2013

Modeling combined transport of water and charged graded-size molecules across the glomerular capillary wall.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Jun 9;396(3):590-5. Epub 2010 Apr 9.

Medical Biophysics Department, Medical Research Institute, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

Clearance studies using various probe molecules established that the passage of molecules/proteins across the glomerular capillary wall of mammalian kidneys is increasingly restricted as their size and net negative charge increase. An extended mathematical model, based on the Fiber Matrix theory, was developed to describe the dynamics of the size- and charge-selective functions of the glomerular capillary barrier using mainly its hemodynamic, morphometric, and electrostatic variables. The glomerular basement membrane was represented as a homogeneous three-dimensional network of fibers of uniform length (L(f)), radius (R(f)), and packing density (N(fv)) and characteristic Darcy permeability. The model was appropriate for simulating fractional clearance data of neutral and charged solutes from an experimental modeling exercise. We believe that the L(f) and R(f) best-fit numerical values may signify new insights for the diagnosis of some human nephropathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.042DOI Listing
June 2010

Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TUR-BT) then Concomitant Radiation and Cisplatin Followed by Adjuvant Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Muscle Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2007 Mar;19(1):77-86

The Departments of Radiation Oncology&Nuclear Medicine,Ain Shams University.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerance of bladder preservation trimodality protocol combining maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with concomitant chemoradiation (CCRT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.

Patients And Methods: Between January 2004 and May 2006, 40 patients with invasive TCC (T2-T4a) presented to the Radiation Oncology and Urosurgery departments - Ain Shams University hospitals and were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. Patients were treated using concurrent cisplatin and 45Gy radiotherapy (induction phase) after maximal TUR-BT. Patients were reevaluated 2 weeks after induction CCRT, by cystoscopy, repeated biopsy and urine cytology. Those with complete pathologic response (CR) received consolidation CCRT to 64.8Gy. Patients with less than CR were advised to undergo radical cystectomy (RC). Four cycles of adjuvant gemcitabine 1250mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 70mg/m2 on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks, were given following definitive therapy.

Results: Twenty-four patients achieved CR after initial 45Gy CCRT, 22 of them received additional consolidation CCRT. Eight of 14 patients who did not achieve CR after induction CCRT underwent RC. A total of 30 patients (75%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty percent (20%) and 13.7% of patients experienced at least one severe (grade 3) toxicity during induction and consolidation phase of CCRT, respectively, mainly neutropenia, cystitis, proctatitis and nausea and vomiting, while 46% experienced at least one severe (grade 3 or 4) toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy, mainly neutropenia (32%), thrombocytopenia (11%) and nausea and vomiting (29%). Local and/or regional failure was recorded in 40% of patients and distant metastasis was reported in 25%. Eighteen patients (45%) retained functioning and healthy urinary bladder at the end of follow-up. The 2-year actuarial survival and progression free survival (PFS) were 67% (95% CI 52.2%-82.7%) and 58% (95% CI 42.3%-74.0%), respectively. There was significantly better 2 year survival for patients having complete TUR-BT before CCRT.

Conclusion: Trimodality approach is a reasonable and safe alternative to RC with manageable toxicities. Longer follow-up with a larger number of patients is necessary to assess its impact on overall and disease-free survival. Key Words: Bladder cancer , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Gemcitabine.
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March 2007

Changes in Mice Brain Spontaneous Electrical Activity during Cortical Spreading Depression due to Mobile Phone Radiation.

Int J Biomed Sci 2008 Jun;4(2):130-4

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Benha, Benha, Egypt;

The objective of the present study was to investigate changes in spontaneous EEG activity during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in mice brain. The cortical region of anaesthetized mice were exposed to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from a mobile phone (MP, 935.2-960.2 MHz, 41.8 mW/cm(2)). The effect of EMFs on EEG was investigated before and after exposure to different stimuli (MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl). The records of brain spontaneous EEG activity, slow potential changes (SPC), and spindle shaped firings were obtained through an interfaced computer. The results showed increases in the amplitude of evoked spindles by about 87%, 17%, and 226% for MP, 2% KCl, and MP & 2% KCl; respectively, as compared to values for the control group. These results showed that the evoked spindle is a more sensitive indicator of the effect of exposure to EMFs from MP.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614696PMC
June 2008

Bone densitometric analysis in egyptian hemodialysis patients.

Int J Biomed Sci 2008 Jun;4(2):120-4

Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt;

End-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the ultimate consequence of chronic renal failure, and in such cases dialysis is generally required. Almost all dialysed patients have abnormal bone histology and lower values of glomerular filtration rate have been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) at all sites. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on body-composition (BC), specially segmental and total BMD in Egyptian ESRF patients. Forty ESRF patients (20 male/20 female; age range: 21.00-74.00 yr) undergoing regular HD 3 times/week (duration range: 0.08-20.00 yr) using bicarbonate dialysis and polysulphon membrane were matched with 40 healthy controls for age, height, and sex. Blood samples were obtained and serum levels of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (P), osteocalcin (OC), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were monitored for all participants. BC was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. HD patients manifested lower segmental and total BMD values in comparison with age-matched healthy controls (Z-score: -0.17 ± 1.12) due to significantly higher levels of P (4.04 ± 1.33 vs. 3.39 ± 0.51 mg/dl, p<0.001), PTH (538.17 ± 363.99 vs. 48.86 ± 19.64 ng/L, p<0.0001), and OC (50.39 ± 34.91 vs. 16.32 ± 5.37 μg/L, p<0.0001). Pelvis, lumbar spine, and total BMD (g/cm(2)) for HD patients were significantly correlated with HD duration (yr) (R=0.94, 80, and 92, respectively; p<0.0001). Thus, BC analysis is of utmost importance for efficiently providing tailored individual mineral supplementation to HD patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614695PMC
June 2008

Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on in vitro Filtration of Water and Albumin across Glomerular Basement Membrane.

Int J Biomed Sci 2006 Jun;2(2):121-34

Division of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; ; Department of Biophysics, Medical Research Institute, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt;

Most of the interest in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) stems from the observation that it undergoes morphological changes in renal disease. Studies on persistent proteinuria in experimental animal models have shown that the permeability properties of the GBM have been altered as a result of protein degradation and cross-linking of type IV collagen via its NC1 domains promoted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and extrusion of tubular cell contents. We used the in vitro ultrafiltration technique to assess permeability properties of bare isolated GBM films to water and albumin in the Munich Wistar Fromter rat model of glomerular injury. Hydraulic permeability for water and albumin solutions and albumin fractional clearances were measured for rats treated with lisinopril [an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor] and were compared with those measured for rats treated with dimethylthiouria (an ROS scavenger) and their control groups, at four pressure levels (50, 100, 200, and 300 mmHg). The ACE inhibitors and ROS scavengers treatment regimens for studied rats in addition to significantly lowering their systolic blood pressure and urinary protein excretion values to normal levels, have significantly increased their in vitro hydraulic and Darcy permeability, which is a measure of the intrinsic hydraulic conductance of the GBM, either in the absence or presence of albumin; in comparison with control animals. We believe that these favorable effects may derive from ROS scavenging beneficial effects that preserve the GBM protein structure by reducing entactin and laminin degradation and type IV collagen cross-linking.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614589PMC
June 2006

A novel method for diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis based on an electronic nose.

An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am 2003 ;30(5):447-57

Biophysics Department, Medical Research Institute, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

The nasal out-breath of persons with chronic nasal and/or paranasal infections may have characteristic strange odors, which in our experience are in most cases related to bacterial and/or fungal infections of the sinuses. The objective of the present study was to examine nasal out-breath samples from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) (with or without polyposis) and healthy control volunteers using the electronic-nose (EN) technology. We developed a simple technique for collecting samples of nasal out-breath in disposable sterile plastic sacks with a tight closing seal. The principal component analysis correctly classified all individual EN patterns for CRS patients and misclassified 2 samples from the healthy controls (80.0% successful classification rate). The artificial neural network analysis correctly classified 60.0% of the patterns of both groups. We believe that the use of methodologies based on EN technology, combined with conventional clinical examinations, may improve the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis.
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January 2004

Home telemonitoring for patients with severe respiratory illness: the Italian experience.

J Telemed Telecare 2003 ;9(2):67-71

Division of Respiratory Diseases, A & C Cartoni Hospital, Rocca Priora, Rome.

We investigated the feasibility of telemonitoring services for patients with severe respiratory illness. In the first phase of the study, patients were observed and treated using face-to-face medical visits for 12 months. In the second phase of the study, the patients were monitored at home for 12 months, during which time determinations of arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate were performed twice a week, and the data were automatically transmitted to the hospital's processing centre via a normal telephone line. Thirty patients on long-term oxygen therapy were enrolled in the study; 23 completed the 12 months of home telemonitoring. The numbers of hospital admissions and of acute home exacerbations during the telemonitoring phase of the study decreased by 50% and 55%, respectively, in comparison with the first phase. Estimates of hospitalization costs for the patients during the second phase were approximately 17% lower than those for the first phase. Patients were satisfied with the quality of the personal telemonitoring process in 96% of cases. We believe that telemedicine can enable the provision of high-quality home care for patients with severe respiratory illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/135763303321327902DOI Listing
June 2003

Long-term follow-up of cellular proliferation as a predictive index for the relapse of nasal polyposis.

Am J Rhinol 2002 Sep-Oct;16(5):237-41

Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.

Background: The objective of this study was to identify a reproducible clinical parameter for predicting relapses of nasal polyposis after surgery.

Methods: Ninety-three patients who had undergone ethmoidectomy of bilateral nasal polyps were followed for 3 years. Nasal polyps were obtained from all patients, and cellular suspensions were analyzed individually using flow cytometry. Based on the percentage of cells in the S phase, we identified three groups of patients (high, medium, and low percentages).

Results: A relapse of nasal polyposis was observed in 15.00, 70.00, and 100.00% of patients from the low-, medium-, and high-percentage groups, respectively. Patients suffering relapses had a high percentage of cells in the S phase.

Conclusions: We identified two cutoff values for the percentage of cells in the S phase; above the first cutoff, some of the patients suffered relapses; above the second cut-off, all patients suffered relapses.
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February 2003

Modeling combined transport of water and test macromolecules across the glomerular capillary barrier: dynamics of the permselectivity.

Eur Biophys J 2002 Jun 25;31(3):163-71. Epub 2002 Jan 25.

Human Physiology Division, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.

The structure, function, and composition of the basement membrane of the glomerular capillaries of the mammalian kidney have been extensively studied, in light of the membrane's important physiological role in glomerular filtration of macromolecules and of its frequent involvement in renal diseases. An analytical mathematical model, based on the fiber matrix theory, was developed to describe the dynamics of the permselective function of the glomerular capillary barrier using mainly its hemodynamic and morphometric variables. The glomerular basement membrane was represented as a homogeneous three-dimensional meshwork of fibers of uniform length (L(f)), radius (R(f)), and packing density (N(fv)) and characterized by a local Darcy permeability (a measure of the intrinsic hydraulic conductance of the glomerular basement membrane). The model was appropriate for simulating in vivo fractional clearance data of neutral test macromolecules from an experimental rat model. We believe that the L(f) and R(f) best-fit numerical values, characterizing a glomerular basement membrane geometrical arrangement, may represent diagnostic measures for renal function in health and disease. That is, these parameters may signify new insights for the diagnosis of some human nephropathies and possibly may explain the beneficial effects and/or sites of action of some pharmacological modifiers (e.g., angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00249-001-0203-1DOI Listing
June 2002