Publications by authors named "Mohamed Amer"

89 Publications

Comparison of Right Anterior Mini-Thoracotomy Versus Partial Upper Sternotomy in Aortic Valve Replacement.

Adv Ther 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Siegburg-Wuppertal, University Witten-Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

Introduction: Propensity score analysis of midterm outcomes after isolated aortic valve replacement through right anterior mini-thoracotomy and partial upper sternotomy could provide information about the most beneficial minimally invasive technique for the patient based on the preoperative risk factors.

Methods: Between March 2015 and February 2021, 694 minimally invasive isolated aortic valve surgeries were performed at our institution. Among these, 441 right anterior mini-thoracotomies and 253 partial upper sternotomies were performed. A propensity score analysis was performed in 202 matched pairs.

Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross-clamp time were significantly shorter in the right anterior mini-thoracotomy group than in the partial upper sternotomy group (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Time to first mobilization and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the right anterior mini-thoracotomy group than in the partial upper sternotomy group (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively). A significantly lower incidence of revision surgery was noted in the right anterior mini-thoracotomy group than in the partial upper sternotomy group (p = 0.046). No significant differences in 30-day mortality (p = 1.000) and 1-year mortality (p = 0.543) were noted. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were 96.3% in the right anterior mini-thoracotomy group and 92.7% in the partial upper sternotomy group after 4 years (log rank 0.169), respectively.

Conclusions: Despite the technical challenges, right anterior mini-thoracotomy can be chosen as first-line strategy for isolated aortic valve replacement. For patients unsuitable for this technique, the partial upper sternotomy remains a safe method that can be performed by a wide range of surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-022-02263-6DOI Listing
July 2022

Topical and oral applications of improve healing of deep second-degree burns in rats via modulation of growth factors.

Biomarkers 2022 Jun 29:1-10. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Introduction: Burn injuries are underappreciated injuries that cause significant morbidity and mortality. Burn injuries, especially severe burns, trigger immunological and inflammatory responses, metabolic abnormalities, and distributive shock, all of which can be extended to multiple organ failures. () has been exploited for its medicinal properties for centuries. The goal of the present study is to examine the therapeutic effect of topical and oral administration of against deep second-degree burn in rats.

Materials And Methods: skin burn was created on the back of rats, and wound healing was assessed within the three examined groups; control, topical and oral throughout 30 days. Wound tissues were examined histologically, immunohistochemically for the expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), peroxiredoxin (Prdx6), and mRNA abundance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was assessed.

Results: Our finding showed acceleration of wound contraction with both topical and oral administration. Maturation of granulation tissues was seen in both -supplemented groups. The topical application of revealed marked remodelling of the granulation tissues and higher expression levels of TGF-β1, VEGF, bFGF, and Prdx6 in comparison with control and oral groups ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Both oral and topical applications of have beneficial effects in deep second-degree burn wound healing by boosting the growth factors and antioxidant status of skin tissue. The topical treatment was more efficient in accelerating wound healing and hence could be used efficiently to treat second-degree burns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2022.2085800DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of low-level laser therapy on condylar growth in children treated with functional appliance: a preliminary study.

Lasers Dent Sci 2022 May 20:1-11. Epub 2022 May 20.

Orthodontics Department, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes achieved by combining low-level laser irradiation applied on the condyle area with twin-block therapy in growing class II malocclusion patients.

Methods: Fourteen patients (9 males, 5 females; mean age, 11.4 ± 2 years) with skeletal class II mandibular deficiency were recruited. They were divided into two groups (G 1: twin-block + low-level laser therapy, G 2: twin-block only). A semiconductor diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm was applied on the condyle area (100 mW, 2.5 J, 3.9 J/cm). The laser was applied twice a week in the first month and once a week in the second and third months, totalizing 16 sessions. Skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric parameters were measured and compared at different treatment points.

Results: Mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly increased by 3.6 mm in the experiment group (3.16 SD) and 4.3 mm (4.4 SD) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups at every time point (-value 0.949 at T2). Similarly, a statistically significant positive effect of treatment was found in both groups on ramus height (Co-Go), upper lip to E-Line, SNA angle, ANB angle, and U1/SN angle with no significant difference between groups.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this preliminary study, low-level laser irradiation with the used parameters seems to have no synergetic impact on the skeletal and dental outcomes of twin-block therapy over 9 months. However, more studies are needed to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on condylar growth during functional orthodontic treatment.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41547-022-00158-x.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41547-022-00158-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9120341PMC
May 2022

Modification of reconstruction of left ventricular outflow tract, aortic root and the intervalvular fibrous body for extensive infective endocarditis: a single-centre experience.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2022 Jul;62(2)

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Siegburg-Wuppertal, University Witten-Herdecke, Germany.

Objectives: Extensive infective endocarditis (IE) stays a serious life-threatening disease with high mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to analyse our experience with our modified surgical technique for extensive IE during the last 4 years.

Methods: Between March 2017 and February 2021, all patients with extensive IE required our modified technique consisting of a radical surgical resection of all infected cardiac tissues, the replacement of infected valves and a reconstruction of the intervalvular fibrous body, the aortic root and the left ventricular outflow tract with modified elephant trunk were included in this study.

Results: Our modified technique was performed on 41 patients during the study period. The age median was 74 [interquartile range (IQR): 66.5-76.5] and 61.0% (n = 25) were female. Thirty-three patients (80.5%) were in New York Heart Association Class III-IV and 7 patients (17.1%) in cardiogenic shock. The median logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation II as predicted risk of mortality was 35% (IQR: 28-78%). The median cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross-clamping time were 126 (IQR: 86.5-191) and 78 (IQR: 55.5-108) min, respectively. Intraoperative mortality and 30-day mortality were 4.8% (2 patients) and 19.5% (8 patients), respectively. Low cardiac output with necessity for mechanical support, stroke and new renal dialysis developed in 9.8% (4 patients), 17.1% (7 patients) and 22.0% (9 patients), respectively. New pacemaker implantation was noted in 39.0% (16 patients). Intensive care stay and hospital stay had medians of 6 (IQR: 5-12) and 14 (IQR: 12.5-20.5) days, respectively. One-year mortality and 4-year mortality were 34.1% (14 patients) and 39.0% (16 patients), respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were 60.3% (95% confidence interval: 46.2-78.6%) at 3 years.

Conclusions: Our modified technique can be performed in patients with extensive IE with acceptable early and mid-term morbidity and mortality. We believe that this technique is an available option for this ill-fated group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezac311DOI Listing
July 2022

Percutaneous versus surgical femoral access in minimally invasive cardiac operations.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2022 May;61(6):1348-1354

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objectives: Both surgical and percutaneous femoral accesses for the establishment of extracorporeal circulation are used in minimally invasive cardiac surgeries. The goal of this study was to compare the outcomes with the MANTA vascular closure device after percutaneous arterial decannulation via the surgical approach.

Methods: Between November 2018 and January 2021, a total of 490 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive cardiac operations at our institution. Cannulation and decannulation of femoral vessels were under direct vision surgically or percutaneously. The MANTA system was used to close the femoral artery in all patients with percutaneous cannulation. Demographic, clinical and procedural data were collected retrospectively.

Results: Surgical cut-down and suture closure of the femoral artery was performed in 222 patients (45.3%); percutaneous access and closure with the MANTA system was used in 268 patients (54.7%). The surgical group presented a significantly higher incidence of any access site complication compared to the percutaneous group [18 patients (8.1%) vs 6 patients (2.2%); P = 0.003]. Lymph fistula and wound healing disorders occurred more frequently in the surgical group (3.2% vs 0% [P = 0.004] and 3.6% vs 0% [P = 0.002], respectively). Median procedural duration and stays in the intensive care unit were significantly lower in the percutaneous group {127 [interquartile range (IQR) 97-158] min vs 150 (IQR 117-185) min (P < 0.001) and 1 (IQR 1-2) day vs 2 (IQR 1-3) days (P = 0.008), respectively}.

Conclusions: Percutaneous access and closure with the MANTA system are feasible, safe and associated with lower incidences of all-cause access site complications and shorter stays in the intensive care unit compared to surgical access and closure in minimally invasive cardiac surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab520DOI Listing
May 2022

Considerable Production of Ulvan from Ulva lactuca with Special Emphasis on Its Antimicrobial and Anti-fouling Properties.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Jul 26;194(7):3097-3118. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, NIOF, Cairo, Egypt.

In the current study, a significant amount of ulvan was extracted from Ulva lactuca collected from Alexandria coastline, Egypt, using a simple extraction method. According to the chemical analysis, the obtained polysaccharide content is estimated to be 36.50 g/100 g with a high sulfate content of 19.72%. Physio-chemically, the FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of sulfated groups attached to the carbohydrate backbone. The GC-MS results revealed the presence of various monosaccharides with relative abundances in the order: fucopyranose (22.09%) > L-rhamnose (18.17%) > L-fucose (17.46%) > rhamnopyranose (14.29%) > mannopyranose (8.59%) > α-D-glactopyranose (7.64%) > galactopyranose (6.14%) > β-arabinopyranose (5.62%). In addition, the SEM-EDX depicted an amorphous architecture with a majority wt% for the elements of C, O, and S. The partially purified ulvan demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against some fish and human pathogenic microbes. The inhibition zone diameter ranged from 11 to 18 mm. On the other hand, the prepared ulvan-chitosan hydrogel significantly improved the antimicrobial activity as the inhibition zone diameter ranged from 12 to 20. Moreover, when compared to the controls, the extracted ulvan demonstrated anti-fouling properties and successfully disrupted the biofilm formed on a glass slide submerged in seawater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-03867-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205838PMC
July 2022

Expression, Purification, and Comparative Inhibition of Urease by Regio-Selectively Alkylated Benzimidazole 2-Thione Derivatives.

Molecules 2022 Jan 27;27(3). Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis Department, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, ARADI, Alexandria 21934, Egypt.

The urease enzyme has been an important target for the discovery of effective pharmacological and agricultural products. Thirteen regio-selectively alkylated benzimidazole-2-thione derivatives have been designed to carry the essential features of urease inhibitors. The urease enzyme was isolated from as a recombinant urease utilizing the His-tag method. The isolated enzyme was purified and characterized using chromatographic and FPLC techniques showing a maximal activity of 200 mg/mL. Additionally, the commercial urease was purchased and included in this study for comparative and mechanistic investigations. The designed compounds were synthesized and screened for their inhibitory activity against the two ureases. Compound inhibited and ureases with IC values of 0.11; and 0.26 mM; respectively. While compound showed IC values of 0.01; and 0.29 mM; respectively. Compounds and were docked against urease (PDB ID: 1E9Y; resolution: 3.00 Å) and exhibited correct binding modes with free energy (ΔG) values of -9.74 and -13.82 kcal mol; respectively. Further; the in silico ADMET and toxicity properties of and indicated their general safeties and likeness to be used as drugs. Finally, the compounds' safety was authenticated by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay against fibroblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8838460PMC
January 2022

Anticancer and antibacterial potentials induced post short-term exposure to electromagnetic field and silver nanoparticles and related pathological and genetic alterations: in vitro study.

Infect Agent Cancer 2022 Feb 4;17(1). Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University (ACU), 4th Industrial Zone, Banks Complex, 6th October City, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Resistance to antibiotics and anticancer therapy is a serious global health threat particularly in immunosuppressed cancer patients. Current study aimed to estimate the antibacterial and anticancer potentials of short-term exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) either in sole or combined form.

Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated via determination of the bacterial viable count reduction percentage following exposure, whereas their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line was detected using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and cell cycle analysis. Also, oxidative stress potential and molecular profile were investigated.

Results: ELF-EMF and AgNPs significantly (p < 0.01) reduced K. pneumonia viable count of compared to that of S. aureus in a time dependent manner till reaching 100% inhibition when ELF-EMF was applied in combination to 10 µM/ml AgNPs for 2 h. Apoptosis induction was obvious following exposure to either ELF-EMF or AgNPs, however their apoptotic potential was intensified when applied in combination recording significantly (p < 0.001) induced apoptosis as indicated by elevated level of MCF-7 cells in the Pre G1 phase compared to control. S phase arrest and accumulation of cells in G2/M phase was observed following exposure to AgNPs and EMF, respectively. Up-regulation in the expression level of p53, iNOS and NF-kB genes as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2 and miRNA-125b genes were detected post treatment.

Conclusions: The antibacterial and anticancer potentials of these agents might be related to their ability to induce oxidative stress, suggesting their potentials as novel candidates for controlling infections and triggering cancer cells towards self-destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-022-00416-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8817517PMC
February 2022

Proficiency of Carboxymethylcellulose as a Cryoprotectant. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of Cryopreserved Heterogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Exosomal Hydrogel on Critical Size Skin Wounds in Dogs.

Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res 2021 Jul;15(3):178-191

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Fresh stem cell exosomes are usually obtained and reused in the same individual. It cannot be kept viable for a long period of time regardless of the lengthy preparation time. Freezing is typically used to preserve the viability of perishable materials and increase their lifetime. Regrettably, normal freezing of biomaterials leads to cell damage. Therefore, a cryoprotectant can save the cells from the conventional cryodamage. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NA-CMC) is a powdery substance that is used to manufacture bio-safe hydrofilm gels because of its high viscosity, cytocompatibility, and nonallergenic nature. Sterile CMC hydrogel was prepared, part of which was loaded with exosomal solution derived from MSCs. The gel was kept at -20°C for preservation. Two bilateral full-thickness circular skin wounds of 2-cm diameter were created on the back of experimental dogs. The wounds were at least 2.5 cm apart. Treatment started 24 hours after wound creation. Group I received CMC gel solely, whereas group II received frozen CMC exosomal gel. The gel was applied 4 times, a single application per day with 1- day interval. Clinically, the frozen exosomal gel significantly promoted wound healing with no scaring. Histologically, enhanced dermal fibroblasts and organized collagen deposition were seen in the treated group. CMC proved to be an efficient cryoprotectant and a suitable vehicle for exosomes. Deep freezing was proven to conserve the viability, extended the preservation, and facilitated the usage of exosomal gel. This technique of preserved cell-free therapy is inexpensive, time-saving, and proficient and seems suitable for treating cutaneous wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijhoscr.v15i3.6848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748238PMC
July 2021

Telmisartan attenuates diabetic nephropathy by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation, and upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in diabetic rats.

Life Sci 2022 Feb 27;291:120260. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to renal failure. Telmisartan (TEL) is an approved angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker for the treatment of hypertension and possesses nephroprotective efficacy. The study investigated the beneficial effect of TEL on renal oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in type 1 diabetic rats, pointing to the possible role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and TEL (5 and 10 mg/kg) was supplement for 8 weeks. TEL ameliorated hyperglycemia, prevented body weight loss and kidney hypertrophy, decreased serum creatinine and urea, and prevented histopathological alterations in diabetic rats. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), NF-κB p65 and TNF-α were increased, whereas GSH, SOD and Bcl-2 were decreased in the kidney of diabetic rats. Treatment with TEL ameliorated oxidative stress, suppressed NF-κB p65 and TNF-α, and boosted cellular antioxidant defenses and Bcl-2. TEL upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 in the kidney of both normal and diabetic rats. In addition, TEL downregulated VEGF and MMP-9 in the kidney of diabetic rats. In silico molecular docking simulations revealed the potent binding affinity of TEL to NF-κB, MMP-9, Keap1 and HO-1. In conclusion, TEL attenuates DN by ameliorating hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis and upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120260DOI Listing
February 2022

derived hyaluronic acid and bacillus Calmette-Guérin purified proteins as immune enhancers to rabies vaccine and related immuno-histopathological alterations.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2021 Sep 30;10(3):229-239. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

International Center for Training and Advanced Researches (ICTAR-Egypt), Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: One of the essential goals regarding the successful control of rabies infection is the development of a safe, effective, and inexpensive vaccine. the current study aimed to evaluate the inactivation potential of β-propiolactone (βPL), binary ethyleneimine (BEI), and hydrogen peroxide (HO).

Materials And Methods: Estimating the inactivation kinetics of βPL, BEI, and HO revealed that the tested inactivants could completely and irreversibly inactivate rabies virus within 2, 12, and 4 hours, respectively while maintaining its viral immunogenicity. The potency of βPL, BEI, and HO inactivated vaccines was higher than the World Health Organization acceptance limit and were in the order of 3.75, 4.21, and 3.64 IU/mL, respectively. Monitoring the humoral and cellular immunity elicited post-immunization using derived hyaluronic acid (HA) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin purified protein derivative (PPD) adjuvanted rabies vaccine candidates were carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Results demonstrated that both adjuvants could progressively enhance the release of anti-rabies total immunoglobulin G as well as the pro-inflammatory mediators (interferon-gamma and interleukin-5) relative to time. However, a higher immune response was developed in the case of HA adjuvanted rabies vaccine compared to PPD adjuvanted one. The harmful consequences of the tested adjuvants were considered via investigating the histopathological changes in the tissues of the immunized rats using hematoxylin and eosin stain. Lower adverse effects were observed post-vaccination with HA and PPD adjuvanted vaccines compared to that detected following administration of the currently used alum as standard adjuvant.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that HA and PPD could serve as a promising platform for the development of newly adjuvanted rabies vaccines with elevated immune enhancing potentials and lower risk of health hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2021.10.3.229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511591PMC
September 2021

Combined duodenal stenting and endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy using forward-viewing echoendoscope: a one-scope technique.

Endoscopy 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1640-8177DOI Listing
October 2021

Bioactivity Studies of Hesperidin and XAV939.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 26;6(30):20042-20052. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

The International Center for Advanced Researches (ICTAR-Egypt), Cairo 307422, Egypt.

The present work aimed to evaluate the reactivity of natural bioflavonoid hesperidin (HSP) and synthetically derived XAV939 (XAV) against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human breast cancer (MDA-MB231) cancer cell lines, and related molecular and pathological profiles. Data recorded revealed that the cytotoxic potential of the tested products was found to be cell type- and concentration-dependent. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value of the HSP-XAV mixture against MDA-MB231 was significantly decreased in the case of using the HSP-XAV mixture against the HepG2 cell line. Also, there was a significant upregulation of the phosphotumor suppressor protein gene (P53) and proapoptotic genes such as B-cell lymphoma-associated X-protein (Bax, CK, and Caspase-3), while antiapoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) was significantly downregulated compared with the untreated cell control. The cell cycle analysis demonstrated that DNA accumulation was detected mainly during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle accompanied with the elevated reactive oxygen species level in the treatment of HepG2 and MDA-MB231 cell lines by the HSP-XAV mixture, more significantly than that in the case of cell control. Finally, our finding suggests that both HSP and XAV939 and their mixture may offer an alternative in human liver and breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340382PMC
August 2021

Nose-to-brain delivery of chrysin transfersomal and composite vesicles in doxorubicin-induced cognitive impairment in rats: Insights on formulation, oxidative stress and TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 pathways.

Neuropharmacology 2021 10 31;197:108738. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, 11566, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Many cancer survivors suffer from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment known as 'Chemobrain'. Doxorubicin -topoisomerase II inhibitor- is widely used in breast cancer, hematological cancers and other neoplasms. However, it is reported to precipitate cognitive impairment in cancer patients via inducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Chrysin -5,7 dihydroxyflavone- has promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, but suffers low bioavailability owing to its poor solubility and extensive metabolism. In the present study, chrysin was successfully formulated as transfersomal lipid vesicles and chitosan composite vesicles (CCV) exhibiting a nanometric size range, high drug entrapment efficiency, and controlled release over a 72h period. Intranasal administration of optimized chrysin formulations at a reduced dose of 0.5 mg/kg improved doxorubicin-induced memory impairment in rats evidenced by behavioral testing, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress markers; catalase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide. This could reduce caspase-3 expression inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, chrysin formulations were able to inhibit doxorubicin-induced Tol-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) protein expression which in turn, reduced procaspase-1, Cysteinyl Aspartate Protease-1 (caspase-1) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) protein expression via inhibiting Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Collectively, our findings suggest the enhanced therapeutic potential of chrysin when formulated as transfersomes and CCV against chemotherapy-induced chemobrain via hindering acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress and TLR4-NF-kB(p65)-NLRP3 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108738DOI Listing
October 2021

Genetic and Histopathological Alterations in Caco-2 and HuH-7 Cells Treated with Secondary Metabolites of Marine fungi.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2022 Jun 11;53(2):480-495. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Uniersity, 11847, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The present work aimed to study the activity of naturally derived fungal secondary metabolites as anticancer agents concerning their cytotoxicity, apoptotic, genetic, and histopathological profile. It was noticed that Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus induced variable toxic potential that was cell type, secondary metabolite type, and concentration dependent. Human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) showed less sensitivity than hepatocyte-derived cellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7), and in turn, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) was variable. Also, the apoptotic potential of Aspergillus species-derived fungal secondary metabolites was proven via detection of up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. The expression level was cell type dependent. Concurrently, apoptotic profile was accompanied with cellular DNA accumulation at the G2/M phase, as well as an elevation in Pre-G1 phase but not during G0/G1 and S phases. Also, there were characteristic apoptotic features of treated cells presented as abnormal intra-nuclear eosinophilic structures, dead cells with mixed euchromatin and heterochromatin, ruptured cell membranes, apoptotic cells with irregular cellular and nuclear membranes, as well as peripheral chromatin condensation. It can be concluded that Aspergillus secondary metabolites are promising agents that can be used as supplementary agents to the currently applied anti-cancer drug regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12029-021-00640-yDOI Listing
June 2022

The First 100 Cases of Two Innovations Combined: Video-Assisted Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Through Right Anterior Mini-Thoracotomy Using a Novel Aortic Prosthesis.

Adv Ther 2021 05 31;38(5):2435-2446. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Siegburg-Wuppertal, University Witten-Herdecke, Siegburg, Germany.

Introduction: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) via right anterior mini-thoracotomy (RAMT) is less traumatic than via other surgical routes; using a novel aortic valve may confer long-term resistance against valve deterioration, and thus be useful in younger, more active patients. Here we aim to validate using the INSPIRIS RESILIA valve with minimally invasive RAMT.

Methods: Between April 2017 and June 2019, 100 patients underwent video-assisted minimally invasive AVR by RAMT, using the INSPIRIS RESILIA aortic valve. Cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was through femoral vessels. Clinical data were prospectively entered into our institutional database.

Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross-clamping times were 79 ± 38 and 41 ± 17 min. Surgical access was successful in 100% of cases. There were no cases of intraoperative mortality, 30-day mortality, cerebrovascular events, rethoracotomy for bleeding, valve-related reoperation, right internal mammary artery injury, or conversion to sternotomy. Intensive care and hospital stays were 2 ± 1 and 6 ± 3 days, respectively. One patient had a pacemaker fitted. Postoperative dialysis was necessary in one patient. Trace to mild aortic valve regurgitation occurred in two patients. No structural valve deterioration (SVD) and paravalvular leak were seen. At 1-year follow-up mean effective orifice area (EOA) was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, peak gradient was 22.1 ± 3.1 mmHg, and mean gradient was 11.5 ± 2.3 mmHg.

Conclusion: Our preliminary experience suggests that RAMT for AVR using the INSPIRIS RESILIA aortic valve is safe, effective, and reproducible. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and durability of this new valve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01705-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010499PMC
May 2021

DNA barcoding of the spider crab Menaethius monoceros (Latreille, 1825) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Mar 19;19(1):42. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Zoology Department (Marine Biology Section), Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11884, Egypt.

Background: Most spider crab species inhabiting the Red Sea have not been characterized genetically, in addition to the variation and complexity of morphological identification of some cryptic species. The present study was conducted to verify the identification of two morphotypes of the spider crab Menaethius monoceros (Latreille, 1825) in the family Epialtidae Macleay, 1838, collected from the Red Sea, Egypt. DNA barcoding of two mitochondrial markers, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S, was used successfully to differentiate between these morphotypes.

Results: DNA barcoding and genetic analyses combined with morphological identification showed that the two morphotypes were clustered together with low genetic distances ranged from 1.1 to 1.7% COI and from 0.0 to 0.06% 16S. Hence, this morphological variation is considered as individual variation within the same species.

Conclusion: The present study successively revealed that genetic analyses are important to confirm the spider crab's identification in case of morphological overlapping and accelerate the accurate identification of small-sized crab species. Also, DNA barcoding for spider crabs is important for better future evaluation and status records along the Red Sea coast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-021-00141-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979839PMC
March 2021

Results of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of hair growth: An Egyptian experience.

Dermatol Ther 2021 05 17;34(3):e14940. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Recently, low level laser therapy was evaluated as an effective stimulating hair growth. Hair loss is the most common complaint in dermatology (specially females). It causes a significant psychosocial distress and decreased quality of life in affected patients and exists in different types, but the most common types are androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium (TE). Although there are many treatments with highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments need additional treatment modalities. To evaluate the efficacy and safety low level laser therapy for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and TE. A prospective interventional study included 20 female patients, 13 were diagnosed as FPHL, and 7 were diagnosed TE. Patients received two sessions per week with Hair Growth System (TOPHAT655) a bicycle-helmet type device. Treatment session of 20 minutes for 16 successive weeks (total of 32 treatments) with follow-up. Patients were evaluated by software-analyzed trichoscopic images, as the primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline to post-treatment. Global photography and patient satisfaction were determined as a secondary end point. Twenty patients completed the study (13 FPHL, 7 TE). FPHL patients baseline hair counts were 222.3 ± 33.5 (N = 13), in TE patients baseline hair counts were 271.2 ± 39.0 (N = 7). Post-treatment hair counts were 255.3 ± 30.4 (N = 13) In FPHL patients (P = .007), and 294.2 ± 38.1 (N = 7) in TE patients (P = .143). Low level laser therapy of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in FPHL, and there is no significance difference in TE patients with no serious adverse events. Additional studies should be considered to determine the long-term effects of low-level laser therapy treatment on hair growth and maintenance, and to optimize laser modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14940DOI Listing
May 2021

Giant spotted grouped pigmented nevus: A case report.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Jul 15;48(7):925-927. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Spotted grouped pigmented nevus is a distinct form of non-giant congenital melanocytic nevi. Histopathologically, it tends to proliferate around the skin appendages. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with clinical and pathological findings consistent with the diagnosis of spotted grouped pigmented nevus of more than 20 cm diameter, which is considered giant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.13986DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular identification, genotyping of virulence-associated genes, and pathogenicity of cellulitis-derived .

Vet World 2020 Dec 19;13(12):2703-2712. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Poultry Diseases Department, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, P.O. 12622, Giza, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Avian colibacillosis, which is caused by avian pathogenic (APEC), is a major bacterial disease that affects birds of all ages worldwide, causing significant economic losses. APEC manifests in several clinical forms, including cellulitis, and its high pathogenicity is attributed to harboring numerous virulence-associated genes (VGs). This study evaluated the pathogenicity of the cellulitis-derived (O78) strain through molecular identification of genes coding for seven virulence factors and by conducting an assessment of capability for cellulitis induction in broiler chickens.

Materials And Methods: This study was performed using a previously isolated and identified cellulitis-derived (O78), which was screened for seven VGs using molecular detection and identification through polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Experimental infection by subcutaneous (SC) inoculation in broilers and its pathogenicity was confirmed by cellulitis induction. The impact of cellulitis on broiler performance was assessed.

Results: Molecular genotyping proved that the isolate harbored five virulence genes (N, A, , , and C) and was negative for 1 and genes. The amplified products for N, , and A were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the results indicate the highest similarity and matching with submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. SC inoculation of bacteria in broiler chickens resulted in cellulitis, as indicated by thick red edematous skin with yellowish-white material in the SC tissue at the inoculation site, and the abdominal muscle showed redness and increased vacuolization. Histopathological examination revealed moderate-to-severe caseous inflammatory reaction with a marked accumulation of heterophils and mononuclear cells in the SC fatty tissue. The average feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower in infected chickens in comparison with those of the control non-infected chickens.

Conclusion: This study proves that molecular techniques are accurate for pathogenicity determination in virulent bacteria, with the advantages of being rapid, time-saving, and economical. Cellulitis is associated with economic losses that are represented by a lower BWG and FCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.2703-2712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811558PMC
December 2020

Molecular breeding for rust resistance in wheat genotypes.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 3;48(1):731-742. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Genetic Resources Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

Rusts are a group of major diseases that have an adverse effect on crop production. Those targeting wheat are found in three principal forms: leaf, stripe, and stem rust. Leaf rust causes foliar disease in wheat; in Egypt, this causes a significant annual yield loss. The deployment of resistant genotypes has proved to be a relatively economical and environmentally sustainable method of controlling the disease. Gene pyramiding can be performed using traditional breeding techniques. Additionally, pathotypes can be introduced to examine specific leaf rust genes, or the breeder may conduct more complex breeding methods. Indirect selection via DNA markers linked to resistance genes may facilitate the transfer of targeted genes, either individually or in combination, even in a disease-free environment. The use of selective crosses to counter virulent races of leaf, stripe, and stem rust has resulted in the transfer of several resistance genes into new wheat germplasm from cultivated or wild species. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) technology has been adopted in a wide variety of novel approaches and is becoming increasingly recognized in wheat breeding. Moreover, several researchers have reported the transference of leaf and stripe rust resistance genes into susceptible wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06015-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Video-Assisted Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Through Right Anterior Minithoracotomy for All Comers With Aortic Valve Disease.

Innovations (Phila) 2021 Mar-Apr;16(2):169-174. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

40628 Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Clinic of Cardiac Surgery, Leipzig Heart Centre, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: Right anterior minithoracotomy is a promising technique for aortic valve replacement and has shown excellent results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Against this background, we analyzed our institutional experience in this technique during the last 3 years.

Methods: Between April 2017 and March 2019, 513 consecutive all comers with aortic valve disease underwent video-assisted minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through a 3-cm skin incision as right anterior minithoracotomy at our institution. A camera and automatic fastener technology were used for the valve implantation in all patients. Clinical data were prospectively entered into our institutional database.

Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass time accounted for 68 ± 24 min and the myocardial ischemic time 38 ± 12 minutes. Thirty-day mortality and overall mortality was 0.4% (2 patients) and 1.4% (7 patients), respectively. Postoperative cerebrovascular events were noted in 8 patients (1.5%). Intensive care stay and hospital stay were 2 ± 2 and 9 ± 7 days, respectively. Pacemaker implantation, injury of the right internal mammary artery, and conversion to full sternotomy were noted in 7 patients (1.4%), 3 patients (0.6%), and 1 patient (0.2%), respectively. Paravalvular leak need to intervention was noted in 2 patients (0.4%). Rethoracotomy rate was 2% (11 patients). Transient postoperative dialysis was necessary for 14 patients (3%).

Conclusions: Video-assisted minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through the right anterior minithoracotomy is a safe approach and yields excellent outcomes in high-volume centers. The use of a camera and automatic fastener technology facilitates this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1556984520977212DOI Listing
November 2021

First Experiences with MANTA Vascular Closure Device in Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery.

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Aug 20;69(5):455-460. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Siegburg-Wuppertal, University Witten-Herdecke, Siegburg, Germany.

Background:  To more minimize the minimally invasive valve surgeries, percutaneous vascular access and closure has been used for the establishment of extracorporeal circulation. This study investigates early clinical outcomes of patients who received MANTA for femoral artery closure as first experiences in minimally invasive valve surgery.

Methods:  Between January 2019 and July 2019, 103 consecutive patients (mean age: 58 ± 11 years) underwent video-assisted minimally invasive valve surgery through right anterior minithoracotomy at two cardiac surgery referral centers in Germany. Percutaneous cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass and femoral artery closure with MANTA were performed in all patients: 18-F and 14-F MANTA were used in 88 (85.4%) and 15 (14.6%) patient, respectively. Mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and double valve surgeries were performed in 51 (49.5%), 39 (37.9%), 7 (6.8%), and 6 (5.8%), patients, respectively. Clinical data were prospectively entered into our institutional database.

Results:  Cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross-clamping time were 69 ± 23 and 38 ± 14 minutes, respectively. Except for two patients with late pseudoaneurysm on 15th and 23th postoperative day, neither major nor minor vascular complications nor vascular closure device failure according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definition criteria was observed. Additionally, no wound healing disorders or conversion to surgical closure was observed.

Conclusions:  MANTA as percutaneous femoral artery closure after decannulation of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe, feasible, and effective approach and yields excellent early outcomes. Larger size studies are needed to evaluate more the efficacy and safety of MANTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718773DOI Listing
August 2021

Engineering nature for gaseous hydrocarbon production.

Microb Cell Fact 2020 Nov 13;19(1):209. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

EPSRC/BBSRC Future Biomanufacturing Research Hub, Synthetic Biology Research Centre SYNBIOCHEM Manchester Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, BBSRC/EPSRC, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.

The development of sustainable routes to the bio-manufacture of gaseous hydrocarbons will contribute widely to future energy needs. Their realisation would contribute towards minimising over-reliance on fossil fuels, improving air quality, reducing carbon footprints and enhancing overall energy security. Alkane gases (propane, butane and isobutane) are efficient and clean-burning fuels. They are established globally within the transportation industry and are used for domestic heating and cooking, non-greenhouse gas refrigerants and as aerosol propellants. As no natural biosynthetic routes to short chain alkanes have been discovered, de novo pathways have been engineered. These pathways incorporate one of two enzymes, either aldehyde deformylating oxygenase or fatty acid photodecarboxylase, to catalyse the final step that leads to gas formation. These new pathways are derived from established routes of fatty acid biosynthesis, reverse β-oxidation for butanol production, valine biosynthesis and amino acid degradation. Single-step production of alkane gases in vivo is also possible, where one recombinant biocatalyst can catalyse gas formation from exogenously supplied short-chain fatty acid precursors. This review explores current progress in bio-alkane gas production, and highlights the potential for implementation of scalable and sustainable commercial bioproduction hubs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01470-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661322PMC
November 2020

Early recovery patterns of olfactory disorders in COVID-19 patients; a clinical cohort study.

Am J Otolaryngol 2020 Nov - Dec;41(6):102725. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Otolaryngology Department, Tanta Univ., Egypt; Otolaryngology, Kafr-Elsheikh Univ., Egypt.

Introduction: A rapidly evolving evidence suggests that smell dysfunction is a common symptom in COVID-19 infection with paucity of data on its duration and recovery rate.

Objectives: Delineate the different patterns of olfactory disorders recovery in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study included 96 patients with olfactory complaint confirmed to be COVID-19 positive with recent onset of anosmia. All patients were inquired for smell recovery patterns using self-assessment questionnaires.

Results: Ninety six patients completed the study with mean age 34.26 ± 11.91 years. Most patients had sudden anosmia 83%. Loss of smell was accompanied by nonspecific inflammatory symptoms as low-grade fever (17%) and generalized body ache (25%). Nasal symptoms were reported by 33% of patients. Some patients reported comorbidities as D.M (16%), hypertension (8%) or associated allergic rhinitis (25%), different patterns of olfactory recovery showed 32 patients experiencing full recovery (33.3%) while, 40 patients showed partial recovery (41.7%) after a mean of 11 days while 24 patients (25%) showed no recovery within one month from onset of anosmia.

Conclusion: The sudden olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with COVID-19. Hyposmia patients recover more rapidly than anosmic ones while the middle age group carried the best prognosis in olfactory recovery. Females possess better potentiality in regaining smell after recovery and the association of comorbidities worsen the recovery rate of olfactory dysfunction in patients with COVID19.

Level Of Evidence: Level 2b a cross-sectional cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489267PMC
November 2020

Renewable and tuneable bio-LPG blends derived from amino acids.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2020 14;13:125. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

EPSRC/BBSRC Future Biomanufacturing Research Hub, BBSRC/EPSRC, Synthetic Biology Research Centre SYNBIOCHEM Manchester Institute of Biotechnology and School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M1 7DN UK.

Background: Microbial biorefinery approaches are beginning to define renewable and sustainable routes to clean-burning and non-fossil fuel-derived gaseous alkanes (known as 'bio-LPG'). The most promising strategies have used a terminal fatty acid photodecarboxylase, enabling light-driven propane production from externally fed waste butyric acid. Use of (a robust extremophile microbial chassis) with these pathways has enabled bio-LPG production under non-sterile conditions and using waste biomass as the carbon source. Here, we describe new engineering approaches to produce next-generation pathways that use amino acids as fuel precursors for bio-LPG production (propane, butane and isobutane blends).

Results: Multiple pathways from the amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine were designed in for the production of propane, isobutane and butane, respectively. A branched-chain keto acid decarboxylase-dependent pathway utilising fatty acid photodecarboxylase was the most effective route, generating higher alkane gas titres over alternative routes requiring coenzyme A and/or aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. Isobutane was the major gas produced in standard (mixed amino acid) medium, however valine supplementation led to primarily propane production. Transitioning pathways into strain TQ10 enabled fermentative production of mixed alkane gases under non-sterile conditions on simple carbon sources. Chromosomal integration of inducible (~ 180 mg/g cells/day) and constitutive (~ 30 mg/g cells/day) pathways into generated production strains shown to be stable for up to 7 days.

Conclusions: This study highlights new microbial pathways for the production of clean-burning bio-LPG fuels from amino acids. The use of stable production strains could lead to gas production in the field under non-sterile conditions following process optimisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-020-01766-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362463PMC
July 2020

Safety and Haemodynamic Outcomes of Currently Available Suture-less Aortic Valves in Patients With Aortic Stenosis: A Meta-Analysis.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 Sep 8;29(9):1301-1309. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Suture-less aortic valves aim to achieve better outcomes and to aid and facilitate the minimally invasive aortic valve replacement procedure by tackling the issue of cross-clamp time, which is an independent predictor of postoperative outcomes, especially in patients with serious comorbidities. By reducing the number of sutures, the time for suture placement is reduced. Our meta-analysis tried to assess the safety and haemodynamic performance of the suture-less aortic valve prostheses to ascertain their benefits as a viable alternative to current established measures.

Method: From their inceptions to February 2017, six electronic databases were searched. Relevant studies using commercially accessible suture-free valves to replace the aortic valve have been recognised. Based on the predefined endpoints, data were collected and analysed.

Results: For incorporation in qualitative and quantitative analyses, 24 studies were recognised, with a total number of 5,073 patients undergoing suture-less aortic valve replacement. Mortality incidence at the 30-day and 12-month follow-ups were 2.5% and 2.7%, respectively, while the incidences of thromboembolic events (1.6%) and paravalvular leak (0.5%) were acceptable.

Conclusions: Current available evidence indicates that sutureless aortic valve replacement is a safe operation showing low mortality and complication rates, with satisfactory haemodynamic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2020.02.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Adapalene gel 0.1% vs ketoconazole cream 2% and their combination in treatment of pityriasis versicolor: A randomized clinical study.

Dermatol Ther 2020 05 30;33(3):e13319. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a chronic superficial fungal infection. Management using azole drugs leads to drug resistance. The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcome of 0.1% adapalene gel vs 2% ketoconazole cream and their combination in PV. This randomized double-blinded study was conducted on 90 PV patients divided into three equal groups. GI was treated with topical ketoconazole 2% cream twice daily and placebo, GII was treated with topical 0.1% adapalene gel twice daily and placebo and GIII was treated with topical combination of 0.1% adapalene gel (at night) and ketoconazole 2% cream (in the morning). All patients received medications for 4 weeks. Evaluation was done at 2 and 4 weeks and included clinical assessment, laboratory assessment, and patient satisfaction. We found that after 4 weeks of treatment, all groups showed significant improvement. There was better response in GIII in terms of lower rate of positive potassium hydroxide staining, higher rate of significantly improved cases and higher rate of well-satisfied patients. However, the difference fell short of statistical significance. We concluded that a combination of adapalene gel and ketoconazole cream is very effective in treatment of PV with no or mild side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13319DOI Listing
May 2020

Preservation techniques of stem cells extracellular vesicles: a gate for manufacturing of clinical grade therapeutic extracellular vesicles and long-term clinical trials.

Int J Vet Sci Med 2020 20;8(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Surgery Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized vesicles released by different cells and have been separated from most of the body fluids. These vesicles play a central role in cell-to-cell communications as carry a distinct cargo including proteins, RNA species, DNAs, and lipids that are meant to be shipped and exchanged between cells at both systemic and paracrine levels. They serve in regulating normal physiological processes. EVs released from stem cells exert similar therapeutic effect to their originating cells. Clinical application of EVs requires the preparation of sufficient and viable active therapeutic EVs as well as implementing suitable methods for long-term preservation to expedite both their clinical and commercial uses. Cryopreservation is the most common method used to preserve decomposable biomaterials. However, cryopreservation causes cryoinjury to cells which therefore necessitate the use of cryoprotectants. Two types of cryoprotectants exist: penetrating and non-penetrating. In freeze drying, the watery content is sublimed from the product after it is frozen. This drying process is pertinent to thermo-liable substances and those unstable in aqueous solutions for prolonged storage periods. In spray drying technique, the solution containing EVs is firstly atomized, then droplets are rapidly converted into a dry powder using heated gas. Even with the exposure to high temperatures of the drying gas, spray drying is considered suitable for heat-sensitive materials. EVs are considered a promising cell-free therapy, but the lack of proper preservation limits its benefits. Preservation of EVs will initiate a vast amount of clinical trials on different species and different clinical problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23144599.2019.1704992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006664PMC
January 2020

In vitro evaluation of electroporated gold nanoparticles and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic field anticancer activity against Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2019 20;57(4):159-167. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

The International Center for Advanced Researches (ICTAR-Egypt), Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The extremely-low frequency electromagnetic field (ELFEMF) has been proposed for use in cancer therapy since it was found that magnetic waves interfere with many biological processes. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been widely used for drug delivery during cancer in vitro studies due to their low cytotoxity and high biocompatibility. The electroporation of cancer cells in a presence of Au-NPs (EP Au-NPs) can induce cell apoptosis, alterations of cell cycle profile and morphological changes. The impact of ELFEMF and EP Au-NPs on morphology, cell cycle and activation of apoptosis-associated genes on Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cell line has not been studied yet.

Materials And Methods: ELFEMF on Hep-2 cells were carried out using four different conditions: 25/50 mT at 15/30 min, while Au-NPs were used as direct contact (DC) or with electroporation (EP, 10 pulses at 200V, equal time intervals of 4 sec). MTT assay was used to check the toxicity of DC Au-NPs. Expression of CASP3, P53, BAX and BCL2 genes was quantified using qPCR. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe cell morphology.

Results: Calculated IC50 of DC Au-NPs 24.36 μM (4.79 μg/ml) and such concentration was used for further DC and EP AuNPs experiments. The up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP3, P53, BAX) and decreased expression of BCL2, respectively, was observed for all analyzed conditions with the highest differences for EP AuNPs and ELFEMF 50 mT/30 min in comparison to control cells. The highest content of cells arrested in G2/M phase was observed in ELFEMF-treated cells for 30 min both at 25 or 50 mT, while the cells treated with EP AuNPs or ELFEMF 50 mT/15 min showed highest ratios of apoptotic cells. HE staining of electroporated cells and cells exposed to ELFEMF's low and higher frequencies for different times showed nuclear pleomorphic cells. Numerous apoptotic bodies were observed in the irregular cell membrane of neoplastic and necrotic cells with mixed euchromatin and heterochromatin.

Conclusions: Our observations indicate that treatment of Hep-2 laryngeal cancer cells with ELFEMF for 30 min at 25-50 mT and EP Au-NPs can cause cell damage inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2019.0018DOI Listing
January 2020
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