Publications by authors named "Mohamed AbdelKader"

31 Publications

Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest in the Pediatric Population Undergoing Cardiac Surgery With Electroencephalography Monitoring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Cardiac surgery for repair of congenital heart defects poses unique hazards to the developing brain. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a simple and effective method for facilitating a bloodless surgical field during congenital heart defect repair. There are, however, some concerns that prolonged DHCA increases the risk of nervous system injury. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is used in adult and, to a lesser extent, pediatric cardiac procedures as a neuromonitoring method. The present study was performed to assess outcomes following DHCA with EEG monitoring in the pediatric population.

Design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Institute of Science Index, and Embase databases were searched from inception for relevant articles. A fixed- or random-effects model, as appropriate, was used.

Setting: Surgical setting.

Participants: Pediatric population (≤18 y old).

Interventions: DHCA (18°C) with EEG monitoring.

Measurements And Main Results: Nineteen articles with 1,267 pediatric patients ≤18 years were included. The event rate of clinical and EEG seizures among patients who underwent DHCA was 12.9% and 14.9%, respectively. Mortality was found to have a 6.3% prevalence. A longer duration of DHCA was associated with a higher risk of EEG seizure and neurologic abnormalities. In addition, seizures were associated with increased neurologic abnormalities and neurodevelopmental delay.

Conclusions: EEG and neurologic abnormalities were common after DHCA. A longer duration of DHCA was found to lead to more EEG seizure and neurologic abnormalities. Moreover, EEG seizures were more common than clinical seizures. Seizures were found to be associated with increased neurologic abnormalities and neurodevelopmental delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.01.039DOI Listing
January 2021

Novel Green Biosynthesis of 5-Fluorouracil Chromium Nanoparticles Using Extract for Treatment of Colorectal Cancer.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 6;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University (NUB), Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third highest major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hence, many strategies and approaches have been widely developed for cancer treatment. This work prepared and evaluated the antitumor activity of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) loaded chromium nanoparticles (5-FuCrNPs). The green biosynthesis approach using aqueous extract was used for CrNPs preparation, which was further loaded with 5-Fu. The prepared NPs were characterized for morphology using scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The results revealed the formation of uniform, mono-dispersive, and highly stable CrNPs with a mean size of 23 nm. Encapsulation of 5-Fu over CrNPs, with a higher drug loading efficiency, was successful with a mean size of 29 nm being produced. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) were also used for the investigation. The drug 5-Fu was adsorbed on the surface of biosynthesized CrNPs in order to overcome its clinical resistance and increase its activity against CRC cells. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to characterize and optimize the formulation factors (5-Fu concentration, CrNP weight, and temperature). Furthermore, the antitumor activity of the prepared 5-FuCrNPs was tested against CRC cells (CACO-2). This in vitro antitumor study demonstrated that 5-Fu-loaded CrNPs markedly decreased the IC50 of 5-Fu and exerted more cytotoxicity at nearly all concentrations than 5-Fu alone. In conclusion, 5-FuCrNPs is a promising drug delivery system for the effective treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13020226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915530PMC
February 2021

The Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Methods to Measure the Intracranial Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Anesth Analg 2021 03;132(3):686-695

Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Although invasive monitoring is the standard method for intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement, it is not without potential for serious complications. Noninvasive methods have been proposed as alternatives to invasive ICP monitoring. The study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the currently available noninvasive methods for intracranial hypertension (ICH) monitoring.

Methods: We searched 5 databases for articles evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive methods in diagnosing ICH in PubMed, Institute of Science Index, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase. The quantitative analysis was conducted if there were at least 2 studies evaluating a specific method. The accuracy measures included the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio.

Results: We included 134 articles. Ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (US ONSD) had high diagnostic accuracy (estimated sensitivity of 90%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87-92, estimated specificity of 88%; 95% CI, 84-91) while the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ONSD had estimated sensitivity of 77%; 95% CI, 64-87 and estimated specificity of 89%; 95% CI, 84-93, and computed tomography (CT) ONSD had estimated sensitivity of 93%; 95% CI, 90-96 and estimated specificity of 79%; 95% CI, 56-92. All MRI signs had a very high estimated specificity ranging from 90% to 99% but a low estimated sensitivity except for sinus stenosis which had high estimated sensitivity as well as specificity (90%; 95% CI, 75-96 and 96%; 95% CI, 91-99, respectively). Among the physical examination signs, pupillary dilation had a high estimated specificity (86%; 95% CI, 76-93). Other diagnostic tests to be considered included pulsatility index, papilledema, transcranial Doppler, compression or absence of basal cisterns, and ≥10 mm midline shift. Setting the cutoff value of ICH to ≥20 mm Hg instead of values <20 mm Hg was associated with higher sensitivity. Moreover, if the delay between invasive and noninvasive methods was within 1 hour, the MRI ONSD and papilledema had a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared to the >1 hour subgroup.

Conclusions: Our study showed several promising tools for diagnosing ICH. Moreover, we demonstrated that using multiple, readily available, noninvasive methods is better than depending on a single sign such as physical examination or CT alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005189DOI Listing
March 2021

Ethyl acetate extract of (L.) Gaertn. reduces methotrexate-induced renal damage in rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

J Tradit Complement Med 2020 Sep 28;10(5):478-486. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, P.O. Box 71524, Assiut, Egypt.

Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent and an immunosuppressant used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, its use is limited by its multi-organ toxicity, including nephrotoxicity, which is related to MTX-driven oxidative stress. Silencing oxidative stressors is therefore an important strategy in minimizing MTX adverse effects.Medicinal plants rich in phenolic compounds are probable candidates to overcome these oxidants. Herein, . ethyl acetate extract showed powerful radical-scavenging potential (IC = 0.0716) comparable to those of the standard natural (ascorbic acid, IC = 0.045) and synthetic (BHA, IC = 0.056) antioxidants. The effect of . ethyl acetate extract against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats was evaluated by administering the extract (400 mg/kg/day) or the standard antioxidant silymarin (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 5 days before and 5 days after a single MTX injection (20 mg/kg, i.p.). showed slight superiorities over silymarin in restoring the MTX-impaired renal functions, with approximately twofold decreases in overall kidney function tests. also improved renal antioxidant capacity and reduced the MTX-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, inhibited MTX-initiated apoptotic and inflammatory cascades, and attenuated MTX-induced histopathological changes in renal tissue architecture.Phytochemical investigation of the extract led to the purification of the phenolics quercitrin (), cinchonains 1a () and 1b (), -clovamide (), -clovamide (), and glochidioboside (); a structurally similar with many of the reported antioxidant and nephroprotective agents. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that exhibits nephroprotective effect against MTX-induced kidney damage via its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Taxonomy: Functional Disorder, Traditional Medicine, Herbal Medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484958PMC
September 2020

Alogliptin: a novel approach against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatic injury via modulating SIRT1/FoxO1 pathway.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2020 Jul 18;9(4):561-568. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Translational and Clinical Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University (MIU), Cairo, Egypt.

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most potent alkylating agents and is widely used in the treatment of numerous neoplastic conditions, autoimmune diseases and following organ transplantation. Due to its ability to induce oxidative stress and subsequent apoptosis, CP is affiliated with many adverse effects with special emphasis on the highly prevalent hepatotoxicity. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DDP-IV) inhibitors are being rediscovered for new biological effects due to their ability to target multiple pathways, among which is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) axis. This could offer protection to multiple organs against reactive oxygen species (ROS) through modulating sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression and, in turn, inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor of the O class 1 (FoxO1), thus inhibiting apoptosis. Accordingly, the current study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic benefit of alogliptin (Alo), a DPP-IV inhibitor, against CP-induced hepatotoxicity through enhancing PI3K/Akt/SIRT1 pathway. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The CP-treated group received a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg; i.p.). The Alo-treated group received Alo (20 mg/kg; p.o.) for 7 days with single CP injection on Day 2. Alo successfully reduced hepatic injury as witnessed through decreased liver function enzymes, increased phospho (p)-PI3K, p-Akt, superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, SIRT1 expression, p-FoxO1 and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). This resulted in decreased apoptosis, as witnessed through decreased caspase-3 levels and improved histopathological picture. In conclusion, the current study succeeded to elaborate, for the first time, the promising impact of Alo in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfaa059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467234PMC
July 2020

Triple Procedure for Dense Cataractous Neovascular Glaucoma Patients.

J Ophthalmol 2020 21;2020:1251203. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Purpose: One of the most difficult refractory glaucomas is the neovascular type (NVG), and its association with dense cataract adds to this difficulty. This study aimed to provide results of the triple surgical procedure for such conditions.

Methods: 12 eyes of 12 patients with NVG and dense cataract were included in this case series study. The mean age of patients was 57.25 ± 5.9 years. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 47.25 ± 4.04 mmHg with maximum antiglaucoma therapy. The mean best corrected distant visual acuity (BCDVA) in LogMAR was 2.13 ± 0.38. All patients received intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg (0.05 ml) bevacizumab followed by phacoemulsification, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) including panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). Mean IOP and BCDVA changes were the main outcome results of this study.

Results: The follow-up period was 2 years. The mean BCDVA was improved to 1.22 ± 0.35, 1.13 ± 0.34, 1.12 ± 0.37, 1.06 ± 0.38, and 1.01 ± 0.37 at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, after this procedure. This improvement was statistically significant when compared with preoperative BCDVA ( < 0.0001). The mean postoperative IOP was dropped to 20.08 ± 4.1, 17.08 ± 2.1, 17.17 ± 5, 15.75 ± 4.7, and 16.17 ± 6.1 mmHg, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean IOP was statistically significantly lower than preoperative IOP ( < 0.0001) at the previously mentioned time points. The success rate was complete in 90.9% of eyes and qualified in 100% of eyes. Iris and angle neovascularization had regressed significantly in all patients, and no serious complications occurred during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: This triple surgery can safely improve patients with NVG and dense cataract regarding BCDVA and IOP control. This trial is registered with NCT04143620.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1251203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327584PMC
June 2020

Evaluation of primary internal limiting membrane peeling in cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2020 7;6. Epub 2020 May 7.

1Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Background: Epiretinal membranes (ERMs) have been reported after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) can prevent post-PPV ERM formation but has a potential negative impact on macular structure and function.

Purpose: To investigate the anatomical and functional outcomes of ILM peeling during PPV for primary RRD.

Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized study that included 60 eyes of 60 patients with a primary macula-off RRD and less than grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Eyes were allocated into 2 groups; Group A underwent PPV without ILM peeling and Group B had ILM peeling. At postoperative month 6, all patients underwent retinal imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography and macular function was assessed using multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Baseline characteristics and postoperative anatomical and visual outcomes were recorded and statistically analyzed.

Results: We enrolled 30 eyes of 30 patients in each group. In Group A, mean age was 44.6 years, while the mean age of Group B patients was 49.9 years. Postoperative LogMAR visual acuity was significantly better in Group A than in Group B (p < 0.001). ERMs were demonstrated on OCT in 13.3% of Group A and none of Group B patients (p = 0.04). Retinal dimples were found in 53.3% of Group B and none of Group A eyes (p < 0.001). OCTA showed a greater vessel density of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) in Group A compared to Group B eyes (p = 0.046), while no difference was found regarding deep capillary vessel density (p = 0.7). Mean amplitude of mfERG P1 wave was significantly higher in Group A eyes than in Group B (p = 0.002). Both the SCP vessel density and P1 amplitude were positively correlated with visual acuity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study suggests that ILM peeling prevents ERM development in eyes undergoing PPV for uncomplicated macula-off RRD, but potential damage to macular structure and function were found. Retrospectively registered on 09/24/2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID of NCT04139811.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40942-020-00213-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204288PMC
May 2020

Anti-Alzheimer's flavanolignans from Ceiba pentandra aerial parts.

Fitoterapia 2020 Jun 7;143:104541. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Biochemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510, Japan.

Four flavanolignans, ceibapentains A (1) and B (2) and cinchonains Ia (3) and Ib (4), were isolated for the first time from an ethyl acetate extract of Ceiba pentandra (L) (Bombacaceae) aerial parts. The ceibapentains A (1) and B (2) are new compounds and their structures, including the absolute configurations, were determined by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism analyses, then compared with reported data. Compounds 1-4 were tested for their anti-Alzheimer's activity via an assessment of their inhibitory effect on amyloid β42 aggregation using a thioflavin T assay. The results revealed that cinchonain Ia (3) showed a higher inhibitory effect (91%) than the standard curcumin (70%). Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited moderate activity, with inhibition ratios of 43%, 47%, and 58%, respectively. A molecular docking study on the binding mode of 3 and curcumin with an amyloid β1-40 peptide fibril structure indicated a high affinity of cinchonain 1a (3) towards amyloid β1-40 peptide, in agreement with the experimental results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104541DOI Listing
June 2020

Use of Epimacular Amniotic Membrane Graft in Cases of Recurrent Retinal Detachment Due to Failure of Myopic Macular Hole Closure.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2020 02;51(2):101-108

Background And Objective: To study the anatomical and functional outcomes of using epimacular amniotic membrane graft (AMG) to close myopic macular holes (MMHs) in patients with recurrent retinal detachment (RD).

Patients And Methods: Fourteen patients with recurrent MMH-RD were enrolled in a single-arm, prospective study. Pars plana vitrectomy with peeling of any residual internal limiting membrane, preserved AMG was placed over the macular hole (MH) after air-fluid exchange, all patient left on 16% of CF.

Results: Fourteen patients (11 females and three males) with an average age of 58.7 years were included; follow-up was 6 months. Thirteen patients (93%) showed retinal reattachment and closure of the hole confirmed by optical coherent tomography. The mean logMAR of best-corrected visual acuity improved to 1.38 compared to 2.2 preoperatively (P < .002, paired t-test), with no serious intraoperative or postoperative complications.

Conclusion: Epimacular AMG for MMH-RD is a safe and effective treatment for closure of myopic MHs. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2020;51:101-108.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/23258160-20200129-06DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison Between Silicone Oil and Gas in Tamponading Giant Retinal Breaks.

Clin Ophthalmol 2020 15;14:127-132. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare anatomical and visual outcomes after using silicone oil (SO) or CF gas as tamponades after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal detachment (RD) associated with giant retinal tears (GRTs).

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for cases that underwent PPV for GRT-associated RD. We excluded eyes that had prior vitreoretinal surgery, a history of ocular trauma or worse than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Baseline demographic and ocular characteristics, surgical details and postoperative anatomical and visual outcomes were recorded and statistically analyzed.

Results: We included 88 eyes; 48 eyes had CF gas and 40 eyes had SO as a tamponading agent. Mean age was 39 years. All eyes underwent 23G PPV with no adjuvant scleral buckling and phacovitrectomy was performed for all phakic eyes. Final retinal reattachment was achieved in 86 eyes (97.7%). One eye from each group had recurrent RD. Postoperative vision was significantly better in the gas group (p= 0.008). Prolonged increase of IOP developed in 6 eyes in the SO group and 5 eyes in the gas group. Prolonged uveitis developed in 4 eyes in the gas group and 6 eyes in the oil group (P= 0.04). Epiretinal membranes (ERM) developed in 10 eyes in the gas group and 9 eyes in the oil group. We found no significant difference between both groups regarding postoperative glaucoma or ERM formation.

Conclusion: Both agents achieved similar favorable anatomical outcomes in a series of eyes with fresh GRT-associated RD and low-grade PVR, with better visual outcome and less frequent uveitis associated with the use of gas tamponade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S237783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970250PMC
January 2020

Iron mineral-humic acid complex enhanced Cr(VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

Chemosphere 2020 May 11;247:125902. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, PR China.

Microorganisms, iron minerals, and humic acid are widely common in the soil and water environment and closely interact within environmental processes. In this study, the Cr(VI) removal by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (S. oneidensis) was examined in the presence of goethite and humic acid (HA) to mimic the real environment situation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technologies were used to probe the Cr(VI) reduction mechanism. Our results showed that S. oneidensis alone could reduce 65% of 1.0 mM Cr(VI) after 8 h of the reduction process. Meanwhile, Cr(VI) reduction rate was declined to 56% in the presence of goethite or humic acid. Contrary, the Cr(VI) reduction rate was mightily increased to 79% by the ternary complex of S. oneidensis-goethite-HA where reduced humic acid (HA) acted as electron shuttles and diminished the bacterial adhesion to the goethite surface thereby enhanced electron transfer and increased the extent of Cr(VI) reduction by 1.3 fold. XPS analysis indicated that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), and the final yields were Cr(OH) and CrO precipitated on the surface of bacterial cells. S. oneidensis could also reduce Fe(III) in goethite to Fe(II), which in turn reduced Cr(VI). These results suggested that iron mineral-humic acid complex could enhance the microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and revealed the promotion role of HA in the Cr(VI) bioreduction process. This study affords inclusive insights on the Cr(VI) reduction kinetics and mechanisms in the most complicated systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125902DOI Listing
May 2020

Association of vitamin D receptor TaqI and ApaI genetic polymorphisms with nephrolithiasis and end stage renal disease: a meta-analysis.

BMC Med Genet 2019 12 10;20(1):193. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The deficiency of vitamin D receptor (VDR) or its ligand, vitamin D3, is linked to the development of renal diseases. The TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) polymorphisms of VDR gene are widely studied for their association with renal disease risk. However, studies have largely been ambiguous.

Methods: Meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the association of TaqI (2777 cases and 3522 controls) and ApaI (2440 cases and 3279 controls) polymorphisms with nephrolithiasis (NL), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and end stage renal disease (ESRD).

Results: The VDR TaqI C-allele under allele contrast was significantly associated with ESRD in both fixed effect and random effect models, and ApaI C-allele with ESRD only under fixed effect model. Cochrane Q-test showed no evidence of heterogeneity for TaqI polymorphism and a significant heterogeneity for Apa I polymorphism. No publication bias was observed for both the polymorphisms.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis identifies TaqI and ApaI polymorphisms of VDR gene as risk factors for renal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-019-0932-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902508PMC
December 2019

Static-Aligned Piezoelectric Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Nanofibers/MWCNT Composite Membrane: Facile Method.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Sep 1;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Kuwait College of Science and Technology (KCST), Doha District 13133, Kuwait.

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric electrospun nanofibers have been intensively used for sensing and actuation applications in the last decade. However, in most cases, random PVDF piezoelectric nanofiber mats have moderate piezoelectric response compared to aligned PVDF nanofibers. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of alignment conducted by a collector setup composed of two-metal bars with gab inside where the aligned fiber can be formed. That is what we called static aligned nanofibers, which is distinct from the dynamic traditional technique using a high speed rotating drum. The two-bar system shows a superior alignment degree for the PVDF nanofibers. Also, the effect of added carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different concentrations to PVDF nanofibers is studied to observe the enhancement of piezoelectric response of PVDF nanofibers. Improvement of β-phase content of aligned (PVDF) nanofibers, as compared to randomly orientated fibers, is achieved. Significant change in the piezoelectricity of PVDF fiber is produced with added CNTs with saturation response in the case of 0.3 wt % doping of CNTs, and piezoelectric sensitivity of 73.8 mV/g with applied masses down to 100 g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10090965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403798PMC
September 2018

Monomeric Camelus dromedarius GSTM1 at low pH is structurally more thermostable than its native dimeric form.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(10):e0205274. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Protein Research Chair, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Glutathione S‒transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play an important role in detoxification, cellular signalling, and the stress response. Camelus dromedarius is well-adapted to survive in extreme desert climate and it has GSTs, for which limited information is available. This study investigated the structure-function and thermodynamic properties of a mu-class camel GST (CdGSTM1) at different pH. Recombinant CdGSTM1 (25.7 kDa) was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Dimeric CdGSTM1 dissociated into stable but inactive monomeric subunits at low pH. Conformational and thermodynamic changes during the thermal unfolding pathway of dimeric and monomeric CdGSTM1 were characterised via a thermal shift assay and dynamic multimode spectroscopy (DMS). The thermal shift assay based on intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed that CdGSTM1 underwent a two-state unfolding pathway at pH 1.0-10.0. Its Tm value varied with varying pH. Another orthogonal technique based on far-UV CD also exhibited two-state unfolding in the dimeric and monomeric states. Generally, proteins tend to lose structural integrity and stability at low pH; however, monomeric CdGSTM1 at pH 2.0 was thermally more stable and unfolded with lower van't Hoff enthalpy. The present findings provide essential information regarding the structural, functional, and thermodynamic properties of CdGSTM1 at pH 1.0-10.0.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205274PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179282PMC
April 2019

Clomiphene citrate and human chorionic gonadotropin are both effective in restoring testosterone in hypogonadism: a short-course randomized study.

BJU Int 2018 11 14;122(5):889-897. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: To compare serum testosterone response and symptom improvement in men with hypogonadism in response to treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or a combination of both therapies.

Patients And Methods: A total of 282 men with hypogonadism, wishing to preserve their fertility, were randomized to one of three treatment arms: CC 50 mg (n = 95); 5000 IU hCG injections twice weekly (n = 94); or a combination of both therapies (CC + hCG; n = 94). All participants had complete medical history and had undergone thorough physical examination, including body mass index (BMI) assessment. Laboratory tests included serum total testosterone and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements. Quantitative Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (qADAM) questionnaire scores were also recorded. Morning samples of total serum testosterone levels were assessed at three time points: baseline, 1 and 3 months.

Results: Testosterone levels increased at 1 and 3 months in all three groups. The mean baseline testosterone level was 2.31 ± 0.66 nmol/L, BMI was 30.8 ± 6.2 kg/m , and qADAM score was 20.5 ± 3.8. Testosterone levels increased in all groups at all time points, with a final mean value of 5.17 ± 1.77 nmol/L (223% increase) with no statistically significant difference among the groups. qADAM scores had increased in all groups at 1 month (CC group: 6.36; hCG group: 5.08; CC + hCG group: 7.26) and at 3 months (CC group: 12.73; hCG group: 11.82; CC + hCG group: 15.13) with a significant difference in intergroup analysis for the CC + hCG group compared with the other two groups (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: All three treatments were equally effective in restoring testosterone levels. Single-agent CC is simple, cheap and may be used as treatment for hypogonadism when maintenance of fertility is desired. This approach seems to be as effective as either hCG alone or a combination of hCG and CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14401DOI Listing
November 2018

Asenjonamides A-C, antibacterial metabolites isolated from Streptomyces asenjonii strain KNN 42.f from an extreme-hyper arid Atacama Desert soil.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2018 03 23;71(4):425-431. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

School of Science and Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, UK.

Bio-guided fractionation of the culture broth extract of Streptomyces asenjonii strain KNN 42.f recovered from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil in northern Chile led to the isolation of three new bioactive β-diketones; asenjonamides A-C (1-3) in addition to the known N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoethyl)acetamide (4), a series of bioactive acylated 4-aminoheptosyl-β-N-glycosides; spicamycins A-E (5-9), and seven known diketopiperazines (10-16). All isolated compounds were characterized by HRESIMS and NMR analyses and tested for their antibacterial effect against a panel of bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-017-0012-0DOI Listing
March 2018

Outcomes of variation in technique and variation in accuracy of measurement in penile length measurement.

Int J Impot Res 2018 Feb 27;30(1):21-26. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Sexual and Reproductive Medicine Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Accurate data regarding the size of the erect penis is of great importance to several disciplines working with male patients, but little data exists on the best technique to measure penile length. While some previous small studies have suggested good correlation between stretched penile length, others have shown significant variability. Penile girth has been less well studied, and little data exist on the possible errors induced by differing observers and different techniques. Much of the published data report penile length measured from the penopubic skin junction-to-glans tip (STT) rather than pubic bone-to-tip (BTT). We wished to assess the accuracy of different techniques of penile measurements with multiple observers. Men who achieved full erection using dynamic penile Doppler ultrasound for the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction or a desire for objective penile measurement were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were penile scarring, curvature, or congenital abnormality. In each case, the penis was measured by one of the seven andrology specialists in a private air-conditioned (21 °C) environment. Each patient had three parameters measured: circumference (girth) of the penile shaft, length from suprapubic skin-to-distal glans (STT), and pubis-to-distal glans (BTT). The three measurements were recorded in the stretched flaccid state, and the same three measurements were then repeated in the fully erect state, following induction of full erection with intracavernosal injection. We analyzed the accuracy of each flaccid measurement using the erect measurements as a reference, for the overall patient population and for each observer. In total, 201 adult men (mean age 49.4 years) were included in this study. Assessing the penis in the stretched and flaccid state gave a mean underestimate of the erect measurement of ~20% (STT length 23.39%, BTT length 19.86%, and circumference 21.38%). In this large, multicenter, multi-observer study of penis size, flaccid measurements were only moderately accurate in predicting erect size. They were also significantly observer dependent. Measuring penile length from pubic bone to tip of glans is more accurate and reliable, the discrepancy being most notable in overweight patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-017-0013-3DOI Listing
February 2018

CKD complications in kidney-transplanted patients going back to dialysis: impact on patients outcomes.

J Nephrol 2018 02 24;31(1):147-155. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Department, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, 54 rue Montalembert, BP69, 63003, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France.

Aims: The management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications is not always adequate in patients with a failed kidney transplant. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of CKD complications and assess whether they may lead to worse outcomes in this patient population.

Method: We analyzed 49 kidney transplant recipients with a failed transplant (T+) and matched non-transplanted patients (T-) starting dialysis between 2000 and 2010 in five dialysis centers in France. CKD complications at dialysis initiation, hospitalizations and death were recorded and compared between the two groups.

Results: At dialysis initiation, T+ patients were more likely to have bicarbonate < 22 mmol/l (77.6 vs. 22.0%, p < 0.01), phosphate > 1.5 mmol/l (77.6 vs. 59.2%, p = 0.03), arterial blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (75.5 vs. 93.9%, p = 0.01), body mass index < 23 (59.2 vs. 32.7%, p = 0.01) and albumin < 38 g/l (69.4 vs. 36.7%) than T- patients. T+ patients were hospitalized more frequently in the year following dialysis initiation (40.8 ± 7.0 vs. 16.3 ± 5.3%, log rank p = 0.01) and 5-year survival rate was lower than in T- patients (82.1 ± 6.2 vs. 64.0 ± 7.4%, log rank p = 0.02). However risk of hospitalization and mortality was lesser after adjustments for CKD complications.

Conclusion: Despite regular follow-up by nephrologists, CKD complications before initiation of dialysis are more frequent in T+ patients than in T- patients. A better management of CKD complications in T+ patients could improve outcomes after dialysis initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-017-0449-zDOI Listing
February 2018

MPN10 score and survival of molecularly annotated myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2018 04 22;59(4):844-854. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

b Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

JAK2, CALR, MPL and triple-negative mutational status has a direct impact on symptom severity and disease burden assessed by MPN10 score in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Among 93 patients; median MPN10 score was 48 (5-76) in JAK2 mutants versus 25 (4-80) in JAK2 negative (p < .001); 22.5 (4-65) in CALR mutants versus 35 (5-80) in CALR negative (p < .050) and 21 (10-48) in triple negative versus 40 (4-80) in JAK2/CALR/MPL mutants (p < .001). At three years, progression free and overall survival of JAK2-positive versus JAK2-negative patients were 62% versus 100% (p < .001); 85% versus 100% (p = .011) and were 100% versus 78% (p = .067); 100% versus 92% (p = .197) in CALR-positive versus CALR-negative patients and 100% versus 75% (p = .004); 100% versus 90% (p = .015) in triple negative versus mutant patients, respectively. MPN10 score in association with driver gene mutations can be used as a predictor of survival in MPN patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2017.1365852DOI Listing
April 2018

Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: sonographic criteria and merits of prenatal diagnosis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Sep 26;30(18):2250-2256. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

b Radiology Department, Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Purpose: To determine the sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), using both gray scale ultrasound, and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI).

Materials And Methods: A prospective multicenter study, recruiting patients at risk of fetal ICH over four years. All cases with fetal ICH had serial ultrasound assessments, including TUI, fetal and postnatal MRIs.

Results: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with fetal ICH, two cases had extracerebral (subdural) hemorrhage, 16 cases had intracerebral (intraventricular) hemorrhage and three cases had combined hemorrhage. The mean gestational age at which they were diagnosed was 29.8 ± 5.2 weeks. Seventy-six percent of cases had no identifiable risk factors. IUGR was associated with 57.9% of cases. Using grey scale ultrasound, we demonstrated clear cut sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal ICH. TUI enabled us to detect some midline cerebral lesions not detected by grey scale 2D ultrasound alone. Fetal and postnatal MRI confirmed those findings.

Conclusion: Ultrasonography can be used in the detection, classification and monitoring the progression of various types of ICH. TUI is an additional diagnostic tool that might help to detect the exact size, and extent of those lesions. Fetal MRI is not superior, but might aid in the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1245283DOI Listing
September 2017

Noncyanogenic Cyanoglucoside Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors from Simmondsia chinensis.

Org Lett 2016 Apr 1;18(8):1728-31. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100080, China.

Two new noncyanogenic cyanoglucoside dimers, simmonosides A and B (1 and 2), were identified from the aqueous extract of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) leaves. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples of noncyanogenic cyanoglucoside dimers containing a unique four-membered ring, representing novel dimerization patterns at α,β-unsaturated carbons of a nitrile group in 1 and γ,δ-unsaturated carbons in 2. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit promising COX-2 inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 13.5 and 11.4 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.6b00206DOI Listing
April 2016

A local signature of LTP-like plasticity induced by repetitive paired associative stimulation.

Brain Topogr 2015 Mar 14;28(2):238-49. Epub 2014 Sep 14.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Messina, Italy,

Repetitive paired associative stimulation (rPAS) repeatedly pairs electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the contralateral motor hand area (M1) at 5 Hz frequency. So far, there are only few studies concerning the effects of PAS on the modulation of EEG power. Hence, aim of the present study was to investigate rPAS long term after-effects on cortical excitability looking at EEG power spectra. In four experimental sessions, separated by 2 weeks interval, 12 awake subjects received rPAS of the right median nerve and left M1 at a fixed interval (ISI) of 25 ms (real condition), 5 Hz-TMS on left M1, 5 Hz-ENS, of the right median nerve, and rPAS with changing ISI (sham condition). We measured peak-to-peak MEP amplitude, evoked from the target muscle (right abductor pollicis brevis muscle) at rest and the absolute power (POW) in four frequency bands: α (8-12 Hz), β (13-30), θ (4-7) and δ (1-3), under rest conditions. All these parameters were evaluated in three detection blocks: baseline, immediately after and after 30' from the end of the conditioning protocol. Real rPAS induced a long-lasting homotopic cortical excitability modulation, as indexed by MEP amplitude increase, that was paralleled by a long-lasting reduction of α/β-POW and by a widespread θ-δ-POW modulation. rPAS applied over the sensory-motor cortex induced an LTP-like plasticity, as indexed by a robust reduction in the α/β POW positively correlated with the MEP amplitude increase. rPAS25ms may be a useful tool for motor neurorehabilitation promoting a sensory-motor coupling within β oscillations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-014-0396-0DOI Listing
March 2015

Spatially compressed dual-wavelength excitation Raman spectrometer.

Appl Opt 2014 May;53(15):3333-40

The design and operation of a novel dual-laser excitation Raman instrument is described. The use of two lasers of differing wavelengths allows for a Raman spectrum covering all fundamental modes of vibration to be collected while minimizing fluorescence and allowing for spatial compression of the spectrum on an imaging detector. The use of diode lasers with integrated distributed Bragg reflector gratings facilitates the use of an integrated thermoelectric cooler to allow collection of shifted excitation spectra for both of the lasers, further enhancing the rejection of fluorescence. An example is given, which uses seven excitation wavelengths for each laser to reconstruct the Raman spectrum of a solvent in the presence of a highly fluorescent dye by using a sequentially shifted excitation Raman reconstruction algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.003333DOI Listing
May 2014

Caesarean scar pregnancy: hysterotomy is rapid and safe management option.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2014 Aug 19;290(2):381-3. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, 28 al arkam ibn abi al arkam street, Al meraj, al maadi, Cairo, Egypt.

Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is implantation of the gestational sac within the hysterotomy scar. Ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool. Early diagnosis and termination of pregnancy is crucial to avoid the risk of uterine rupture. The termination modalities available are dilatation and curettage, methotrexate therapy, hysteroscopy, uterine artery embolization and laparotomy. We present a case of undisturbed CSP which presented at 6 weeks + 6 days gestation. Our management was termination of pregnancy by exploratory laparotomy and hysterotomy for excision of the mass. The postoperative period was uneventful and there was rapid decline of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to the normal level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-014-3206-8DOI Listing
August 2014

The level of C-reactive protein in chronic hemodialysis patients: a comparative study between patients with noninfected catheters and arteriovenous fistula in two large Gulf hemodialysis centers.

Hemodial Int 2014 Jul 27;18(3):674-9. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Hemodialysis (HD) patients have greater morbidity and mortality when they have a central venous catheter (CVC) rather than an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) access. Inflammation associated with dialysis catheter use and resultant higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels could have an independent adverse effect on patient outcomes. In this prospective study, we investigated whether HD catheters induce inflammation independent of infection. We compared the mean levels of the inflammatory marker (CRP) in 67 patients on maintenance HD using noninfected catheters with 86 HD patients using AVFs at Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases, Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Jahra Hospital, Kuwait, who met our inclusion criteria. C-reactive protein levels were measured every 2 months over a period of 6 months using immunoturbidimetric assay. One hundred fifty-three patients on maintenance HD for more than 6 months were included in the study, with mean age of 52.19 ± 16.06 years; 66% were males and 34% were females. Serial levels of mean CRP were statistically and significantly higher in group with noninfected catheters (1.33, 1.24, and 1.10 mg/dL) compared to those with AVFs (0.65, 0.59, and 0.68 mg/dL) with P value of 0.000. In our study, we found no relation between CRP level and age, sex, hemoglobin, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, and iPTH level in both groups. Hemodialysis patients with a catheter have a heightened state of inflammation independent of infection, and thus our study supports the avoidance of catheters and a timely conversion to AVFs with catheter removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12145DOI Listing
July 2014

Sequentially shifted excitation Raman spectroscopy: novel algorithm and instrumentation for fluorescence-free Raman spectroscopy in spectral space.

Appl Spectrosc 2013 Aug;67(8):973-84

Department of Chemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

A novel Raman spectrometer is presented in a handheld format. The spectrometer utilizes a temperature-controlled, distributed Bragg reflector diode laser, which allows the instrument to operate in a sequentially shifted excitation mode to eliminate fluorescence backgrounds, fixed pattern noise, and room lights, while keeping the Raman data in true spectral space. The cost-efficient design of the instrument allows rapid acquisition of shifted excitation data with a shift time penalty of less than 2 s. The Raman data are extracted from the shifted excitation spectra using a novel algorithm that is typically three orders of magnitude faster than conventional shifted-excitation algorithms operating in spectral space. The superiority of the instrument and algorithm in terms of background removal and signal-to-noise ratio is demonstrated by comparison to FT-Raman, standard deviation spectra, shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), and conventional multiple-shift excitation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/12-06852DOI Listing
August 2013

Level of C-reactive protein in chronic hemodialysis patients: a comparative study between patients with non-infected catheters and arteriovenous fistula in a large Saudi hemodialysis center.

Ther Apher Dial 2013 Feb 30;17(1):35-9. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Central venous catheters are associated with infection and resultant higher C-reactive protein levels (CRP), suggesting that catheters may be an important determinant of increased inflammatory response. The increased levels of markers such as CRP are associated with increased risk of premature death and hospitalization in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on regular hemodialysis (HD). In this prospective study the mean levels of the inflammatory marker CRP were measured every 2 months over a period of 6 months by using immunoturbidimetric assay in 70 ESRD patients on maintenance HD at Prince Salman Center For Kidney Diseases (PSCKD) who met our inclusion criteria, comparing those dialyzed using a non-infected catheter (35 patients) to those using arteriovenous fistulas (35 patients). Seventy ESRD patients who had been on maintenance HD for more than 6 months were included in the study, with a mean age of 50.09 ± 15.61 years, 80% were males and 20% were females. Serial levels of mean CRP were statistically significantly higher in the group with non-infected catheters (0.83, 0.82, 0.94 mg/dL) compared with those with arteriovenous fistula (0.31, 0.38 and 0.34 mg/dL) with P-values of 0.000, 0.023 and 0.001, respectively. In our study we found no relationship between CRP level and age, sex, hemoglobin albumin, calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone level in both groups. Our study shows that catheters might contribute to increased inflammation independent of infection, and support the avoidance of catheters and a timely conversion to fistulas with catheter removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-9987.2012.01116.xDOI Listing
February 2013

Development and characterization of a laboratory based X-ray diffraction imaging system for material and tissue characterization.

Appl Radiat Isot 2012 Jul 29;70(7):1325-30. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.

Soft tissues feature a degree of short-range order, giving rise to diffraction patterns with broader peaks than crystalline materials. For this reason, an X-ray diffraction system (XRD) for characterization of soft tissue has less stringent requirements in terms of momentum transfer resolution than the one aimed at characterizing crystalline materials. We present results on the characterization of two energy-dispersive XRD systems. The first was based on conical collimation at 5.9° and the second was based on linear collimation at varying angles between 2° and 10°. The systems include a CdTe detector and a W-anode X-ray source. The angular resolution was measured as a function of sample thickness and scattering angle. Preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the method for the characterization of biological tissues, showing insensitivity to small changes in angular acceptance and sample thickness, also showing it is possible to combine scattering data obtained at different angles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.03.023DOI Listing
July 2012

Breast tissue contrast-simulating materials using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction.

Appl Radiat Isot 2012 Jul 29;70(7):1446-50. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.

Breast lesions and normal tissues have different molecular arrangements that affect their diffraction patterns. Different mouldable and non-mouldable materials were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray diffraction system based on a conventional X-ray source (operated at 70 kVp) and a CdTe detector (Amptek XT-100), including a conventional spectroscopic chain. Combinations of materials were identified to have a contrast comparable to that achieved in diffraction imaging for different breast tissues at the momentum transfer values carrying the greatest amount of information (1.1 nm(-1) and 1.6 nm(-1)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.03.027DOI Listing
July 2012

Volatile oils from the plant and hairy root cultures of Ageratum conyzoides L.

Nat Prod Res 2011 May;25(9):909-17

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Two lines of hairy root culture of Ageratum conyzoides L. induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 were established under either complete darkness or 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod conditions. The volatile oil yields from aerial parts and roots of the parent plant, the hairy root culture photoperiod line and the hairy root culture dark line were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.03% and 0.02%, (w/w), respectively. The compositions of the volatiles from the hairy roots, plant roots and aerial parts were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the volatiles from the hairy root cultures were β-farnesene, precocene I and β-caryophyllene, in different amounts, depending on light conditions and also on the age of cultures. Precocene I, β-farnesene, precocene II and β-caryophyllene were the main constituents of the volatile oils from the parent plant roots, whereas precocene I, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and precocene II were the main constituents of the aerial parts of the parent plant. Growth and time-course studies of volatile constituents of the two hairy root lines were compared. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the volatile oils from the roots of the parent plant and those from the hairy roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.531724DOI Listing
May 2011