Publications by authors named "Mohamed AbdAlla Salman"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Predictors of type-2 diabetes remission following bariatric surgery after a two-year follow up.

Asian J Surg 2022 Mar 4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Purpose: Bariatric surgery is evolving as a successful tool for managing morbid obesity and T2DM. This study aimed to identify predictors of diabetes remission after two types of bariatric procedures.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 172 patients with morbid obesity associated with T2DM scheduled for bariatric surgery. Two laparoscopic bariatric procedures were done; single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB, n = 83) and sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 68). Lipid accumulation product index (LAP) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were used to evaluate lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Two years after surgery condition of DM was evaluated as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), or improvement. The primary outcome measure was predictors of diabetes remission.

Results: Two years after surgery, 151 patients were available for evaluation, where 75 patients (49.7%) achieved CR, while PR was found in 36 (23.8%). CR was significantly associated with younger age, shorter duration of DM (p < 0.001, for both), higher C-peptide and GLP-1 levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively), and bypass surgery (p = 0.027). On multivariate analysis, shorter duration of DM, lower BMI, and higher C-peptide levels were the independent factors predicting CR.

Conclusion: Complete remission of T2DM can be achieved in nearly half of the patients two years after SG or SAGB. The duration of diabetes and preoperative BMI and C-peptide levels are the independent factors predicting complete remissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.12.070DOI Listing
March 2022

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Before and After Bariatric Surgery: a Prospective Study with 2-Year Follow-Up.

Obes Surg 2022 04 20;32(4):1141-1148. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is linked to obesity. Bariatric surgery may be associated with calcium and vitamin D deficiencies leading to SHPT. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of SHPT before and after bariatric surgery.

Methods: This prospective study assessed the prevalence of SHPT after sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 38) compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB, n = 86). All patients were followed up for 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: Of the 124 patients, 71 (57.3%) were females, and 53 (42.7%) were males, with a mean age of 37.5 ± 8.8 years. Before surgery, 23 patients (18.5%) suffered from SHPT, and 40 (32.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of SHPT increased to 29.8% after 1 year and 36.3% after 2 years. SHPT was associated with lower levels of vitamin D and calcium and higher reduction of BMD in the hip but not in the spine. After 2 years, SHPT was associated with a significantly lower T-score in the hip. SHPT and vitamin D deficiency were significantly more common in patients subjected to OAGB compared to SG (p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively). There is a strong negative correlation between vitamin D levels and parathormone levels before and after surgery.

Conclusion: Prevalence of SHPT is high in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery, especially with lower vitamin D levels. Bariatric surgery increases the prevalence of SHPT up to 2 years. Gastric bypass is associated with a higher risk of developing SHPT compared to SG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-022-05902-7DOI Listing
April 2022

Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of gall stones after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective controlled study.

Surg Endosc 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cholelithiasis. Besides, rapid weight loss after bariatric surgery upsurges the rate of cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis. This study aimed to compare gallstone development frequency after LSG under ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) prophylaxis.

Methods: This prospective controlled study included 332 patients scheduled for LSG randomized to receive 500 mg UDCA daily for 12 months (UDCA Group) or no treatment (Control Group). Ultrasonography was done 6 and 12 months after surgery to detect gallstones. Cholecystectomy was done for complicated cases of cholelithiasis.

Results: Seventy-one patients were lost to follow-up, and 3 developed severe adverse effects of UDCA and excluded. Data are presented for 130 patients in the UDCA group and 128 in the Control group. Collectively, 11 patients (8.5%) of the UDCA group and 41 (32.0%) of the Control group developed gall stones during the first postoperative year (p < 0.001). Cholecystectomy was indicated in 3 patients (2.3%) of the UDCA group and 9 (7.0%) of the Control group (p = 0.072). On multivariate analysis, higher BMI, dyslipidemia, and lacking UDCA prophylaxis were the independent factors significantly associated with stone development. Also, stone development was associated with higher weight loss after 6 and 12 months.

Conclusion: UDCA 500 mg once daily for 12 months after LSG is effective in reducing gallstone formation at 1 year. UDCA administration reduced the frequency of cholecystectomies from 7 to 2.3%. High BMI and dyslipidemia are the independent preoperative factors significantly associated with stone development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08980-3DOI Listing
January 2022

Effects of Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

World J Surg 2022 Apr 10;46(4):865-875. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: There is a growing interest in the post-operative bone-related effects of bariatric surgery. However, little is known about the comparative effects of the most commonly performed bariatric procedures, namely Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG).

Objectives: To systematically assess the differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and biochemical and hormonal markers of bone metabolism among patients undergoing RYGB and SG.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies aBMD at different sites, as well as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), 25-OH-vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) after RYGB and SG.

Results: Fourteen studies were included (717 patients, 50.63% in the RYGB arm). Based on data collected at 1 year, 2 years and > 2 years, there were no significant differences in aBMD measurements at the total hip, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and the whole body with no statistical heterogeneity among different comparisons. Patients in the RYGB group showed significantly higher concentrations of BALP at 1 year (SMD = 0.52, 95%CI, 0.23-0.81, p = 0.0004) and PTH at > 2 years of follow-up (SMD = 0.68, 95%CI, 0.31-1.05, p = 0.0003) compared to the SG group.

Conclusion: There were no significant differences in aBMD measurements at the hip, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and the total body following RYGB and SG procedures. However, BALP and PTH concentrations were significantly higher after RYGB surgeries compared to SG. Attention should be paid to patients undergoing RYGB to prevent the expected skeletal fragility over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06429-1DOI Listing
April 2022

Improvement of Coronary Calcium Scores After Bariatric Surgery in People with Severe Obesity.

Obes Surg 2022 02 22;32(2):472-479. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a direct measure of coronary atherosclerosis. The study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery on CAC scores in people with severe obesity subjected to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Methods: This prospective study included 129 people with severe obesity in two groups; the LSG group (n=74) subjected to surgery and the diet group (n=55), managed by a diet regimen and lifestyle modification. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary calcium score (CCS) measured by computed tomography initially and after 3 years.

Results: The two groups had a comparable CAD risk before treatment according to FRS or CCS. After treatment, CCS improved significantly in the LSG group (p=0.008) but not in the diet group (p=0.149). There was no correlation between FRS and CCS (r=0.005, p=0.952). Treatment resulted in significant weight reduction and improved fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in the two groups. The change of weight, blood glucose, and HDL, and remission of diabetes mellitus (DM) were significantly higher in the LSG group compared to the diet group.

Conclusion: LSG may reduce the risk of developing future cardiovascular comorbidities evidenced by reducing CAC scores. Significant weight reduction and improvement of cardiovascular risk factors may recommend LSG as a cardioprotective procedure in people with severe obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-021-05801-3DOI Listing
February 2022

Correlation Between Preoperative Gastric Volume and Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Int J Gen Med 2021 12;14:8135-8140. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

General Surgery Department, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Long-term studies reported inadequate weight loss or weight regain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This study investigated a possible relationship between preoperative gastric volume (GV) measured by CT volumetry and weight loss one year after LSG.

Methods: This prospective study included 120 patients scheduled for LSG. 3D CT gastric volumetry was done before surgery. The weight loss in the first year was serially recorded. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between preoperative GV and postoperative weight loss after one year. The secondary outcomes were the correlation between preoperative GV and other patients' characteristics as age and body mass index (BMI).

Results: Weight and BMI decreased significantly up to 12 months. The percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 6 and 12 months was significantly higher than at three months. Preoperative GV was 1021 ± 253, ranging from 397 to 1543 mL. GV was not related to sex, age, weight, height, postoperative weight, and BMI.

Conclusion: Preoperative gastric volume cannot predict weight loss one year after LSG. It is not correlated with age, sex, or preoperative weight, and BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S335368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594781PMC
November 2021

Effect of preoperative diet regimen on liver size before laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients.

Surg Endosc 2022 May 6;36(5):2981-2986. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Low caloric diet can reduce liver volume; however, there is no consensus regarding preoperative weight reduction before bariatric surgery. This study evaluates the effect of preoperative very-lowcalorie diet (VLCD) in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Methods: This prospective study included patients scheduled for LSG stratified into two groups, Diet Group (n = 183) who followed a preoperative VLCD regimen for three weeks and underwent assessment of the liver lobes span before and after regimen, and Control Group (n = 138) who underwent sonographic assessment once before surgery and were operated upon without diet. The outcome measures were the impact of preoperative diet on the liver span, intraoperative complications, anthropometric factors affecting the liver span.

Results: Diet regimen resulted in a significant reduction of the right and left lobes. The percentage of the reduction of the left lobe span was significantly higher than that of the right lobe (p < 0.001). Change of the size of the two lobes was correlated positively with weight and body mass index and initial size of both lobes. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of operative complications.

Conclusion: VLCD for three weeks before bariatric surgery effectively reduced liver size. The reduction is more in the left lobe. The changes of both lobes were correlated well with the pre- and post-regimen weight and BMI. It was also positively correlated with the initial size of both lobes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08592-xDOI Listing
May 2022

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy has A Positive Impact on Subclinical Hypothyroidism Among Obese Patients: A Prospective Study.

World J Surg 2021 10 26;45(10):3130-3137. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: The effect of bariatric surgery on postoperative thyroid function remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in thyroid functions after gastric sleeve operation for morbidly obese Egyptian patients.

Methods: This was a prospective study that recruited 128 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy through the period from December 2016 to April 2020. We measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), and free triiodothyronine. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by a TSH level > 4.5 mIU/L but a normal FT4 level. All patients were followed for 12 months after the procedure.

Results: Preoperatively, 30 (23.4%) patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly to reach 7.8% at the end of follow-up (p < 0.001). None of the patients developed de novo hypothyroidism at the end of follow-up. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were more likely to be females (p = 0.037) and had significantly higher waist circumference (p < 0.001), DBP (p = 0.02), serum cholesterol (p < 0.001), and serum triglyceride (p < 0.001). However, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at the end of follow-up had significantly higher BMI at the end of the sixth month (p = 0.048). Similarly, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at the end of follow-up had significantly higher serum cholesterol (p = 0.002), LDL, (p = 0.038), and serum triglyceride (p < 0.001) at the end of the sixth months of follow-up. A similar trend was noted at the end of the 12th month. The preoperative value of serum TSH correlated significantly with serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Conclusion: The positive effect of the LSG procedure on the hypothyroid bariatric population, including enhanced thyroid function, was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06201-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Intraoperative Factors Associated With Early Recipient Death After Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 08 3;19(8):817-825. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

From the Department of Surgery, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Living donor liver transplant is the gold standard therapy for patients with terminal hepatic disorders for whom no alternative therapy is available. The primary aim was to assess different intraoperative factors that may predict early death after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplant. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of small-for-size syndrome on mortality.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective multicenter cohort study was performed on records from 145 adults with cirrhosis who had received a right lobe living donor liver transplant. Patients were divided according to the occurrence of short-term mortality (death within the first month after transplant). The primary intraoperative parameters included graft weight, surgical duration, mean blood pressure, serum lactate and sodium bicarbonate, transfusions, durations of cold and warm ischemia and anhepatic phase, input and output during surgery, and portal venous pressures.

Results: There were statistically significant variations between both cohorts for number of units of packed red blood cells, durations of cold and warm ischemia and anhepatic phase, preclamp and postreperfusion portal venous pressures, average urine output, mean serum lactate, mean blood pressure, and surgical duration (P ⟨ .001). Also, there were significant differences in the number of platelets, units of fresh frozen plasma, and mean sodium bicarbonate (P = .025, .003, and .035, respectively). Of the 25 patients who died within the early postoperative period, 20 had developed small-for-size syndrome (P ⟨ .001).

Conclusions: A variety of intraoperative risk factors may affect early posttransplant mortality, which suggests the high complexity of living donor liver transplants and the need for well-trained experienced teams to perform these surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2021.0084DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes of epicardial fat thickness after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective study.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):523-530

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Purpose: Epicardial fat thickness is an interesting parameter of early atherosclerosis. We prospectively assessed whether weight loss following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) leads to a significant reduction in the epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and the correlation between the decline in the epicardial fat thickness with other clinical parameters.

Methods: A prospective analysis of 98 cases that were scheduled to undergo LSG and followed up for 12 months was conducted. EFT was assessed using two-dimensional (2 D) echocardiography.

Results: A total of 98 cases and 70 controls were enrolled. EFT demonstrated a significant reduction at follow-up in the whole group (median 8.9 (1.95) versus 7.65 (1.67) mm, respectively). The degree of reduction was higher in the LSG cohort compared to control cohort 1.3 (0.4) versus 1 (0.4), respectively;  < .001). The univariate regression analysis demonstrated a notable correlation of the EFT with the weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and creatinine with a -value of <.0001, .001, .022, and .018, respectively while the multivariate analysis showed a strong correlation between EFT and weight and creatinine with a -value of <.0001 and .033 respectively.

Conclusion: LSG can have a favourable impact on metabolic syndrome aspects, namely EFT, as it can decrease it considerably.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1903072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143592PMC
December 2021

Changes of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness After Sleeve Gastrectomy in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients: a Prospective Study.

Obes Surg 2021 08 12;31(8):3541-3547. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: There are insufficient data showing the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Therefore, in the current work, we investigated the improvement of metabolic syndrome and CIMT in patients with obesity after LSG.

Methods: This study involved 120 consecutively selected Egyptian patients with a high cardiovascular risk who underwent LSG and were followed up for 12 months.

Results: CIMT declined from 0.95 ± 0.17 mm to 0.83 ± 0.12 (p < 0.001) after 12 months. In addition, the mean fasting blood glucose and fasting inulin level dropped significantly from 153.3 ± 63.6 to 108.8 ± 33.8 mg/dl and from 23.1 ± 7.1 mU/ml to 14.1 ± 6.4 respectively (p < 0.001). Furthermore, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) declined from 7.02 ± 1.7 to 5.5 ± 0.96 (p < 0.001). At the end of the follow-up period, metabolic parameters such as HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, and ALT decreased significantly from their respective baselines (p value < 0.001). Moreover, the reduction in CIMT showed a strong positive correlation with the degree of weight loss at 6 months and 12 months of follow-up.

Conclusion: LSG led to a substantial decrease in CIMT. Moreover, it significantly impacted cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-021-05419-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Factors associated with resolution of type-2 diabetes mellitus after sleeve gastrectomy in obese adults.

Sci Rep 2021 03 16;11(1):6002. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Many bariatric procedures are more effective for improving type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than conventional pharmacotherapy. The current research evaluated factors linked to complete and partial remission or improvement of T2DM after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The current prospective study included all diabetic patients who were submitted LSG between January 2015 and June 2018 and completed a 2-year follow-up period. Patients were assessed at baseline and 2 years after LSG. This work comprised of 226 diabetic cases. Two years after LSG, 86 patients (38.1%) achieved complete remission of DM, and 24 (10.6%) reached partial remission. Only 14 patients (6.2%) showed no change in their diabetic status. On univariate analysis, age ≤ 45 years, duration of diabetes ≤ 5 years, use of a single oral antidiabetic, HbA1c ≤ 6.5%, HOMA-IR ≤ 4.6, C-peptide > 2.72 ng/mL, and BMI ≤ 40 kg/m predicted complete remission. The independent predictors of complete remission were age ≤ 45 years, duration of diabetes ≤ 5 years, use of a single oral antidiabetic, HOMA-IR ≤ 4.6, and C-peptide > 2.72 ng/mL. A combined marker of young age, short duration of DM, and low HOMA-IR predicted complete remission with sensitivity 93% and specificity 82%. Independent predictors of complete remission of T2DM after LSG were younger age, shorter duration, single oral antidiabetic, lower HOMA-IR, and higher C-peptide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85450-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966796PMC
March 2021

Study of factors affecting Small for Size Syndrome Post-Adult living donor liver transplantation.

Asian J Surg 2021 Feb 12;44(2):452-458. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Aim: Recently, increasing evidence showed that small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) is a multifactorial disease which is precipitated by various perioperative factors other than graft size. We conducted the current work to evaluate perioperative effectors, which can increase the risk of SFSS following adult living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

Methods: This is a retrospective study on 110 adult cirrhotic cases (mean age of 48.4 ± 6.9 years old) who underwent adult LDLT. Most cases were males (89%). Cases were categorized into two groups based on the occurrence of SFSS. The groups were compared regarding preoperative (gender, age, comorbidities, baseline investigations), intraoperative (mean blood pressure and glucose; mean operation time; number of packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate units; time of cold and warm ischemia, and anhepatic phase; preclamping and post-reperfusion portal pressures), and postoperative factors (relevant investigations, hospital stay).

Results: Postoperatively, 23 patients developed SFSS (20.9%). SFSS group had significantly lower preoperative graft recipient weight ratio (GRWR) (0.76 ± 0.1% versus 1.03 ± 0.15, respectively; p < 0.001), and elevated MELD scores (19 ± 2.1 versus 17.9 ± 4; p = 0.024). Preclamping and post-reperfusion portal pressures of ≥22.5 and 17.5 mmHg, exhibited a sensitivity of 95.7% and 91.3% and specificity of 87.4% and 88.9% respectively, for SFSS prediction.

Conclusion: SFSS risk is significantly linked to GRWR, MELD score, and intraoperative portal haemodynamics. Intraoperative portal haemodynamics exhibited good diagnostic accuracy for SFSS prediction and represented promising indicators for the prediction of SFSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2020.10.016DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on vasoactive mediators in obese hypertensive patients: A prospective study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 02 26;94(2):193-203. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The causal relationship between obesity and high blood pressure is established; however, the detailed pathways for such association are still under research. This work aims to assess the changes in neprilysin, vasoconstrictor and vasodilatory molecules in obese hypertensive patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Patients: The present prospective study was done on 59 hypertensive obese patients in whom LGS was performed. Blood pressure, as well as blood samples for neprilysin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, renin, endothelin-1 "ET-1", aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide "ANP" and B-type natriuretic peptide "BNP", were assessed before and 15 months after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the remission of hypertension (HTN).

Results: After 15 months, remission of hypertension was seen in 42 patients (71%). The declines in the following measurements were significantly higher in patients with remission than those with persistent HTN: aldosterone (p = .029567), angiotensin II (p < .000001), angiotensinogen (p = .000021), neprilysin (p = .000601), renin (p = .000454) and endothelin-1(p = .000030). There was a significantly higher increment in ANP (p = .000002) and a non-significant increment in BNP (p = .081740). Angiotensin II 15 months after LSG and Δ ANP % were significant independent predictors of persistent HTN.

Conclusion: In the setting of LSG, aldosterone, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, renin and neprilysin were significantly lower in patients with remission of HTN after 15 months than those with persistent HTN, and natriuretic peptides were significantly higher. A lower postoperative level of angiotensin II and a larger percentage increment of ANP are independently associated with hypertension remission after LSG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14352DOI Listing
February 2021

Role of vitamin D supplements in prevention of hungry bone syndrome after successful parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism: A prospective study.

Scand J Surg 2021 Sep 6;110(3):329-334. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

General Surgery Department, Kasralainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: We postulated that the preoperative correction of vitamin D levels can significantly reduce the incidence of hunger bone syndrome among patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.

Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized, open-label study on 102 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and coexisting vitamin D deficiency who were scheduled to undergo parathyroidectomy. Patients were divided into the following two groups: group I which included 52 patients who did not receive preoperative vitamin D supplementation; and group II which included 50 patients who received cholecalciferol 1000-2000 IU daily or 50000 IU weekly until they achieve vitamin D levels >20 ng/mL (group IIa = 25 patients) or vitamin D levels >30 ng/mL (group IIb = 25 patients).

Results: The incidence of hunger bone syndrome in group IIb was lower than group I and group IIa (8% versus 16% versus 23%, respectively); however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (p = 0.22). Patients with hunger bone syndrome were significantly younger and had higher serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, and bone mineral density at baseline than patients without hunger bone syndrome. On the other hand, patients with hunger bone syndrome had significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline than patients without hunger bone syndrome (p = 0.001). The ROC curve showed that the baseline level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not an independent discriminator of hunger bone syndrome (area under curve = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.34); p = 0.011).

Conclusions: Preoperative course of vitamin D supplements has no preventive role on the postoperative incidence of hunger bone syndrome among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and coexisting vitamin D deficiency undergoing parathyroidectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1457496920962601DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Bariatric Surgery on the Cardiovascular System in Obese Cases with Pulmonary Hypertension.

Obes Surg 2021 02 16;31(2):523-530. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Introduction And Aim: Recently, the incidence of obesity has been rising exponentially. Clinical studies have demonstrated that different subtypes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) are linked to obesity. The current work mainly aims to assess the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on PH in a cohort of obese cases.

Patients And Methods: The present prospective work included 37 obese cases with PH for whom LSG was done. Only cases with PH and presurgical right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) ≥ 35 mmHg using Doppler echocardiogram were enrolled. Fifteen months later, patients were reassessed regarding new weight and BMI in addition to changes in RVSP.

Results: At the end of follow-up, the average BMI improved from 45.8 + 3.9 to 33.8 + 2.5 Kg/m (p value < 0.001). Improved right ventricular (RV) size compared to baseline echo was observed in 20 patients. RV size decreased from 2.68 + 0.44 cm to 2.34 + 0.36 cm (p value < 0.001). Notable decrease of PH to less than 30 mmHg occurred in 33 patients. Mean RVSP decreased from 39.62 + 2.1 to 31.81 + 3.1 mmHg (p value < 0.001). LSG significantly decreased the requirements for PH drugs and supplemental oxygen therapy.

Conclusion: The current work suggests that LSG-induced weight loss may result in a considerable decrease in pulmonary pressures as well as RV size with a concurrent resolution of other metabolic comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04852-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Long-term effects of one-anastomosis gastric bypass on liver histopathology in NAFLD cases: a prospective study.

Surg Endosc 2021 04 16;35(4):1889-1894. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Weight reduction can effectively improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a constant companion of severe obesity. This study aimed to determine the effect of one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) on pathological liver changes in severely obese cases with NAFLD.

Methods: The present prospective research comprised 67 subjects with morbid obesity scheduled for OAGB during the period from February 2015 to August 2018. Clinical, biological, and histologic data were evaluated pre and 15 months postoperatively.

Results: Fifteen months after surgery, a considerable reduction was noted in the grades of fat deposition, liver cell ballooning, and lobular inflammatory changes, in addition to the total NAS score. Fifteen months after surgery, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) disappeared in 42% of the patients. A significant regression of fibrosis stage occurred after surgery in 79.1% of patients (p < 0.001). After surgery, patients had substantial reductions in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and Low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001, for all comparisons). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia resolved in 54%, 59%, and 69% of the patients, respectively.

Conclusion: OAGB resolved NASH from nearly 42% of patients and reduced the histological features of NAFLD 15 months after surgery. Bariatric procedures might be adopted as a therapeutic modality in severely obese cases with NAFLD after the failure of lifestyle modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07725-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Acceleration of Gastric Emptying and Improvement of GERD Outcome After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Non-diabetic Obese Patients.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul;30(7):2676-2683

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Purpose: Obesity has become a pandemic nowadays. Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed to manage obesity. Currently, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a widely accepted procedure given its feasibility and efficacy. Previous studies revealed conflicting results regarding the change of gastric emptying following sleeve gastrectomy. The primary aim of the present study is to assess gastric motor function by gastric emptying scintigraphy in a cohort of non-diabetic patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) for treatment of severe obesity.

Methods: This prospective observational study included 100 obese, non-diabetic patients attending the surgery clinic at Cairo University Hospitals and Al Azhar University Hospitals. LSG was performed following a standardized protocol, with no complications observed. All patients had gastric emptying scintigraphy done through a standard semisolid meal (250 kcal), marked with 0.5 mCiTc 99, pre-operatively and 3 months after LSG.

Results: The mean age was 38.71 years (9.2) and males comprised 57% of the cohort. The body mass index, low-density lipoproteins, and glycated hemoglobin declined significantly at 3-month postsurgery. The scintigraphy study revealed a significantly reduced percent retention at equivalent time points 3 months after LSG. In addition, the percent of patients suffering from GERD decreased significantly after LSG.

Conclusion: Gastric emptying becomes faster after LSG in morbidly obese non-diabetic patients. GERD symptoms improve after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04547-8DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of weight loss induced by laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on liver histology and serum adipokine levels.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Oct 14;35(10):1769-1773. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

General Surgery Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background & Aim: Bariatric surgery is a valid treatment option for persons with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study prospectively examined the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on liver histopathology, and blood levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and pre-B cell enhancing factor/Nampt/visfatin.

Patients & Methods: In 81 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent LSG, paired liver biopsies and blood specimens were obtained before and 18 months after LSG. Differences between preoperative and 18 months postoperative data were tested by paired Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank test as appropriate.

Results: At follow up, there was a significant improvement in biochemical markers for glucose homeostasis, including fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels, and homeostatic model assessment index. Postoperative liver function tests, namely serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level, showed a significant improvement compared to before weight loss. The number of patients who had definite, borderline, or no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was 43 (53%), 27 (33%), and 11 (14%), respectively, at baseline, and 9 (11%), 32 (40%), and 40 (49%) at 18-month post-surgery follow up. A significant reduction in steatosis, liver fibrosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning was observed in the postoperative biopsies (P < 0.001 each). In addition, at the follow-up assessment, there was a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels and significant decline in serum levels of leptin, resisitin, and pre-B cell enhancing factor/Nampt/visfatin.

Conclusion: Weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy was associated with a significant improvement in several metabolic parameters, liver enzyme levels, liver histopathology, and changes in serum adipokine levels towards antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15029DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on fibrosis stage in patients with child-A NASH-related cirrhosis.

Surg Endosc 2021 03 9;35(3):1269-1277. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, 11311, Egypt.

Purpose: Bariatric surgery can improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Yet data on the effect on fibrosis are insufficient and controversial. This work endeavored to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in cases that have compensated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related cirrhosis and its impact on fibrosis stage.

Methods: The current prospective work involved 132 cases with Child-A NASH-related cirrhosis suffering from morbid obesity scheduled for LSG. They were subjected to preoperative assessment, wedge biopsy, and ultrasound-guided true-cut liver biopsy after 30 months. Patients were included if proved to have F4 fibrosis initially. The liver condition was assessed based on the NALFD Activity Score (NAS). The primary outcome measure was the impact of LSG on fibrosis stage and its relation to weight loss.

Results: The analysis included only 71 patients who completed the 30-month follow-up period. By the end of the follow-up interval, there was a substantial weight loss with a reasonable resolution of comorbidities. The median NAS decreased significantly from 6 (1-8) to 3 (0-6) after surgery. Fibrosis score regressed to F2 in 19 patients (26.8%) and F3 in 29 (40.8%). Patients with improved scores had a significantly higher amount of weight loss (p < 0.001). Improvement was more frequent in males (p = 0.007). By 30 months after treatment, 53.8% of cases with borderline NASH and 36.8% of those with probable NASH showed complete resolution, and 44.7% of patients with NASH showed improvement. Steatosis improved in 74.6% of patients (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In patients with NASH-related liver cirrhosis of Child class A, LSG may be a secure approach for the management of morbid obesity. It has a long-term benefit for both obesity and liver condition with significant improvement of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07498-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-term Impact of Mini-Gastric Bypass on Inflammatory Cytokines in Cohort of Morbidly Obese Patients: a Prospective Study.

Obes Surg 2020 Jun;30(6):2338-2344

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, 11311, Egypt.

Purpose: One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is a promising bariatric procedure. We performed this study to evaluate the changes in a group of inflammatory cytokines 12 months after OAGB.

Methods: A single-arm prospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent OAGB. The serum levels of the following adipocytokines were monitored pre- and 12 months postoperatively: adiponectin, leptin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), serum amyloid A (SAA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1).

Results: A total of 62 patients were included with a mean age of 43.9 ± 6.8 years old. The serum adiponectin increased significantly from 7.64 ± 0.29 to 8.76 ± 0.42 μg/mL 12 months after the operation (p < 0.001). hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased significantly 12 months after the OAGB from 3323.35 ± 643.4 ng/mL and 3.72 ± 7.7 pg/mL to 1376.81 ± 609.4 ng/mL and 3.64 ± 6.9 pg/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). The MCP-1 showed significant increase in its level after OAGB as well (p = 0.014). In contrary, there were no significant changes in serum levels of IL-8 (p = 0.12) and TNF-α (p = 0.84) 12 months after the operation. The correlation analysis showed significant correlations between initial body mass index (BMI) with serum adiponectin, IL-8, and serum SAA.

Conclusion: OAGB can significantly impact the inflammatory cytokine profile in obese patients with possible subsequent protection from obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04471-xDOI Listing
June 2020

Long-Term Changes in Leptin, Chemerin, and Ghrelin Levels Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Obes Surg 2020 Mar;30(3):1052-1060

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Aim: Published reports showed conflicting results regarding the sustained alterations in leptin, chemerin, and ghrelin concenratios after metabolic surgery. Therefore, we performed the present work to contrast the alterations in leptin, chemerin, and ghrelin levels one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) versus laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Methods: The present research is a prospective, comparative one that followed 100 cases for whom RYGB or LSG was done. We assessed the serum values of adiposity-associated mediators, including adipokcytokines (leptin and active chemerin) and gastrointestinal hormones (total ghrelin). The primary outcome in the present study was the alterations in leptin, chemerin, and ghrelin values at 12 months after RYGB and LSG.

Results: The serum leptin level decreased significantly in the LSG group with a mean change of - 170.8 ± 29.4 ng/mL (p < 0.001). Similarly, the serum leptin concentration decreased significantly in the RYGB group, with a mean change of - 165.42 ± 53.4 (p < 0.001). In addition, the mean reduction in baseline chemerin levels 12 months after the operation was considerable in the LSG cohort (- 23.24 ± 9.5 ng/mL) and RYGB group (- 22.12 ± 15.9 ng/mL). The ghrelin values demonstrated a notable reduction in the LSG cohort (- 0.083 ± 0.11 pg/mL) and RYGB group (- 0.068 ± 0.097 pg/mL). However, the changes in the three hormones were not substantially different between both groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Both RYGB and LSG result in a considerable, comparable decrease in the postoperative serum concentrations of leptin, chemerin, and ghrelin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-04254-zDOI Listing
March 2020

Study of changes of obesity-related inflammatory cytokines after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2019 10 11;89(10):1265-1269. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Tropical Medicine Department, El-Fayoum University, El Fayoum, Egypt.

Background: Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue may play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The present study aims to evaluate the changes in adipocytokines, bile acids, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) and pro-inflammatory cytokines 6 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Methods: This prospective study included 75 obese patients with body mass index >35 kg/m who underwent LSG. All patients were recruited preoperatively and followed up post-operatively at 6 months, with laboratory assessment of their cytokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, bile acid, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, serum amyloid-A and FGF-19.

Results: There were statistically highly significant changes regarding anthropometric parameters (weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio), blood glucose and lipid profile as well as liver enzymes at 6 months post-sleeve gastrectomy. The present study showed that the levels of serum adiponectin and FGF-19 significantly increased at 6 months of follow-up after surgery (P < 0.001), while the levels of serum leptin, resistin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and serum amyloid-A significantly decreased at 6 months of follow-up after surgery (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences regarding serum bile acid, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1.

Conclusion: Weight loss after LSG is associated with significant improvement of the adipokine levels towards anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory profiles. Future studies should use a larger sample size and longer follow-up periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15427DOI Listing
October 2019

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on the Horizon as a Promising Treatment Modality for NAFLD.

Obes Surg 2020 01;30(1):87-95

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, 11311, Egypt.

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is viewed as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome with hepatic fatty infiltration is the common liver pathology. NAFLD can lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, liver cell failure, and liver malignancy.The present work aims to prospectively study the histological changes that occur in NAFLD obese patients 1-year post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) based on standardized NAS (NAFLD activity score).

Patients: This prospective study included 94 obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Intraoperative wedge liver biopsy was taken from all patients with a follow-up liver biopsy at 12 months after the operation.

Results: LSG produced a marked reduction in body weight with a mean reduction in BMI from 44.54 + 5.45 to 34.23 + 2.66 kg/m at 12 months. There were statistically highly significant improvements regarding metabolic comorbidities, blood pressure, lipid profile, and HbA1C at 12-month post-LSG (P < 0.001). The current study showed a highly statistically significant improvement at 1-year post LSG regarding steatosis grade, hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation as well as fibrosis stage (P < 0.001). Moreover, the present study showed that NAS score significantly decreased from 5.20 + 1.96 at baseline to 2.63 + 1.55 at 1-year follow-up (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our relatively large patient cohort shows a significant improvement of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis at a 1-year follow-up. LSG can lead to resolution of NAFLD, and it may be in the near future another routine indication for bariatric surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-04118-6DOI Listing
January 2020
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