Publications by authors named "Mohamed A Kasem"

2 Publications

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Exploring optical spectroscopic techniques and nanomaterials for virus detection.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 27;28(1):78-89. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Viral infections pose significant health challenges globally by affecting millions of people worldwide and consequently resulting in a negative impact on both socioeconomic development and health. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a clear example of how a virus can have a global impact in the society and has demonstrated the limitations of detection and diagnostic capabilities globally. Another virus which has posed serious threats to world health is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is a lentivirus of the retroviridae family responsible for causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Even though there has been a significant progress in the HIV biosensing over the past years, there is still a great need for the development of point of care (POC) biosensors that are affordable, robust, portable, easy to use and sensitive enough to provide accurate results to enable clinical decision making. The aim of this study was to present a proof of concept for detecting HIV-1 pseudoviruses by using anti-HIV1 gp41 antibodies as capturing antibodies. In our study, glass substrates were treated with a uniform layer of silane in order to immobilize HIV gp41 antibodies on their surfaces. Thereafter, the HIV pseudovirus was added to the treated substrates followed by addition of anti-HIV gp41 antibodies conjugated to selenium nanoparticle (SeNPs) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The conjugation of SeNPs and AuNCs to anti-HIV gp41 antibodies was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential while the surface morphology was characterized by fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The UV-vis and zeta potential results showed that there was successful conjugation of SeNPs and AuNCs to anti-HIV gp41 antibodies and fluorescence microscopy showed that antibodies immobilized on glass substrates were able to capture intact HIV pseudoviruses. Furthermore, AFM also confirmed the capturing HIV pseudoviruses and we were able to differentiate between substrates with and without the HIV pseudoviruses. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of biomolecules related to HIV and therefore this system has potential in HIV biosensing applications.
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January 2021

Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy due to Schistosoma mansoni: Report on 17 cases from an endemic area.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2011 Apr;14(2):107-10

Department of Neurosurgery, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Background: After malaria, schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent tropical disease. The prevalence of oviposition in CNS of infected persons varies from 0.3 to 30%. The conus medullaris is a primary site of schistosomiasis, either granulomatous or acute necrotizing myelitis.

Objective: To report the clinical, radiological, and laboratory results of spinal cord schistosomiasis (SCS) and to design proper therapeutic regimens.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen patients (13 males and four females) with SCS were enrolled between 1994 and 2009 at Mansoura University Hospitals. Their median age at diagnosis was 19 years (13-30 years). Independent neurological, radiological, and laboratory assessments were performed for both groups, excluding pathological confirmation that was done earlier in eight patients (Group 1). In the group 2 (nine patients), indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test for bilharziasis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed. Higher positive titer in CSF than serum indicated SCS plus induction of antibilharzial and corticosteroid protocols for 12 months with a three-year follow-up.

Results: Rate of neurological symptoms of granulomatous intramedullary cord lesion was assessed independently in 16 cases and acute paraparesis in one case. All patients in group 2 had positive IHA against Schistosoma mansoni with median CSF and serum ranges 1/640 and 1/320, respectively. Seven patients (41.18%) had complete recovery, eight patients (47.06%) showed partial recovery, and no response was reported in two patients (11.76%) (P = 0.005). There was no recorded mortality in the current registry.

Conclusions: Rapid diagnosis of SCS with early medical therapies for 12 months is a crucial tool to complete recovery.
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April 2011