Publications by authors named "Mohamed A Habila"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Supplementation with selenium nanoparticles alleviates diabetic nephropathy during pregnancy in the diabetic female rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 22. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The bioactivity of nanoparticles has engendered a promise in scientific communities for developing novel therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the protective effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against kidney injury in streptozocin-induced diabetes during pregnant (DDP) rats. The female rats were separated into three groups (n = 8). Group 1 received the vehicle, normal saline. Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kg of streptozocin. Group 3 received a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozocin, followed by treatment with SeNPs at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg twice a week for 6 weeks (1 week before gestation and continuing for 5 additional weeks). The structure formed by the fabricated SeNPs with citric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid indicated that nano-Se was associated with a carbon matrix. The diabetic group suffered from polyuria, a reduction in body weight, delayed gestation, and only 40% successful pregnancy compared with the control rats. Interestingly, SeNPs significantly reduced the rate of urination, accelerated the start of gestation, and increased the percentage of successful pregnancy in females with DM. Severe changes were observed in the pancreatic β-cells of the diabetic rats, with darkly stained and fragmented chromatin in nuclei, while SeNPs partially restored the normal morphological features of the pancreatic β-cells. The concentrations of urea, creatinine, MDA, and glucose were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while GSH was significantly reduced compared with controls. Interestingly, SeNPs restored all of these parameters to values at or near control levels. SeNPs were capable of improving the histological structure of the kidney in mothers with DDP. Hence, the present work is relevant to GDM demonstrating SeNPs shielding the kidney structure and function in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15905-zDOI Listing
August 2021

An efficient and magnetically recoverable g-CN/ZnS/CoFeO nanocomposite for sustainable photodegradation of organic dye under UV-visible light illumination.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 17;201:111429. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Advanced Materials Research Chair, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Effective improvement of an easily recoverable photocatalyst is equally vital to its photocatalytic performance from a practical application view. The magnetically recoverable process is one of the easiest ways, provided the photocatalyst is magnetically strong enough to respond to an external magnetic field. Herein, we prepared graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-CN), and ZnS quantum dots (QDs) supported ferromagnetic CoFeO nanoparticles (NPs) as the gCN/ZnS/CoFeO nanohybrid photocatalyst by a wet-impregnation method. The loading of CoFeO NPs in the g-CN/ZnS nanohybrid resulted in extended visible light absorption. The ferromagnetic g-CN/ZnS/CoFeO nanohybrid exhibited better visible-light-active photocatalytic performance (97.11%) against methylene blue (MB) dye, and it was easily separable from the aqueous solution by an external bar magnet. The g-CN/ZnS/CoFeO nanohybrid displayed excellent photostability and reusability after five consecutive cycles. The favourable band alignment and availability of a large number of active sites affected the better charge separation and enhanced photocatalytic response. The role of active species involved in the degradation of MB dye during photocatalyst by g-CN/ZnS/CoFeO nanohybrid was also investigated. Overall, this study provides a facile method for design eco-friendly and promising g-CN/ZnS/CoFeO nanohybrid photocatalyst as applicable in the eco-friendly dye degradation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111429DOI Listing
June 2021

Production of Terretonin N and Butyrolactone I by Thermophilic TM8 Promoted Apoptosis and Cell Death in Human Prostate and Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2021 May 10;26(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Practice, College of Pharmacy, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The anticancer activity of terretonin N () and butyrolactone I (), obtained from the thermophilic fungus TM8, was intensively studied against prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and ovary adenocarcinoma (SKOV3) human cell lines. According to this study, both compounds showed potent cytotoxicity towards ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV3) with IC 1.2 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively. With respect to metastatic prostate cells (PC-3), the two compounds and showed a significantly promising cytotoxicity effect with IC of 7.4 and 4.5 μg/mL, respectively. The tested fungal metabolites showed higher rates of early and late apoptosis with little or no necrotic apoptotic pathway in all treated prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and ovary adenocarcinoma (SKOV3) human cell lines, respectively. The results reported in this study confirmed the promising biological properties of terretonin N (1) and butyrolactone I (2) as anticancer agents via the induction of cellular apoptosis. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which cellular apoptosis is induced in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126039PMC
May 2021

Graphene [email protected] TiO nanoparticles as electrocatalyst materials for voltammetric detection of hazardous methyl parathion.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 05 29;188(6):216. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia.

A sensitive voltammetric sensor has been developed for hazardous methyl parathion detection (MP) using graphene [email protected] TiO nanoparticle ([email protected] TiO NP) electrocatalyst. The [email protected] TiO NPs were prepared through the sol-gel method and characterized by various physicochemical and electrochemical techniques. The [email protected] TiO NP-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) addresses excellent electrocatalytic activity towards MP detection for environmental safety and protection. The developed strategy of [email protected] TiO NPs at GCE surfaces for MP detection achieved excellent sensitivity (2.359 μA μM cm) and a low detection limit (LOD) 0.0016 μM with a wide linear range (0.002 to 48.327 μM). Moreover, the fabricated sensor shows high selectivity and long-term stability towards MP detection; this significant electrode further paves the way for real-time monitoring of environmental quantitative samples with satisfying recoveries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04847-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of Anionic and Cationic Pollutants Remediation by Limestone-Chitosan-Alginate Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solution.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, Collage of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca 21955, Saudi Arabia.

In this work, low-cost and readily available limestone was converted into nanolimestone chitosan and mixed with alginate powder and precipitate to form a triple nanocomposite, namely limestone-chitosan-alginate (NLS/Cs/Alg.), which was used as an adsorbent for the removal of brilliant green (BG) and Congo red (CR) dyes in aqueous solutions. The adsorption studies were conducted under varying parameters, including contact time, temperature, concentration, and pH. The NLS/Cs/Alg. was characterized by SEM, FTIR, BET, and TEM techniques. The SEM images revealed that the NLS/Cs/Alg. surface structure had interconnected pores, which could easily trap the pollutants. The BET analysis established the surface area to be 20.45 m/g. The recorded maximum experimental adsorption capacities were 2250 and 2020 mg/g for CR and BG, respectively. The adsorption processes had a good fit to the kinetic pseudo second order, which suggests that the removal mechanism was controlled by physical adsorption. The CR and BG equilibrium data had a good fit for the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting that adsorption processes occurred on the heterogeneous surface with a multilayer formation on the NLS/Cs/Alg. at equilibrium. The enthalpy change (ΔH) was 37.7 KJ mol for CR and 8.71 KJ mol for BG, while the entropy change (ΔS) was 89.1 J K mol for CR and 79.1 J K mol BG, indicating that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124385PMC
April 2021

Synergetic effect of Sn doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via ultrasonication technique and its photocatalytic and antibacterial activity.

Environ Res 2021 06 1;197:111115. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

The current work reports the photocatalytic and antibacterial performance of tin (Sn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized via ultrasonic aided co-precipitation technique. The increase of Sn concentration decreased the lattice parameter and increased the crystallite size without changing the ZnO structure. The hexagonal shaped particles and sheets obtained for 3% and 5% Sn substituted ZnO, respectively. The increase of dopant concentration reduced the reflectance and optical band gap energy of Sn doped ZnO. The vibrational band present at 1443 cm confirmed the successful bond formation of Sn-O-Zn. The 5% Sn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited greater dye elimination rate of methylene blue compared to 3% Sn. The antibacterial activity of Sn doped ZnO showed the higher zone of inhibition about 14 mm against different pathogens. The 5% Sn doped ZnO photocatalyst improve the transfer rate of photo excite carrier and decrease the rate of recombination which greatly influence on the photocatalytic and antibacterial performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111115DOI Listing
June 2021

Regulatory Role of Nano-Curcumin against Tartrazine-Induced Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis-Related Genes Expression, and Genotoxicity in Rats.

Molecules 2020 Dec 9;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The present study evaluates the regulatory effect of Nano-Curcumin (Nano-CUR) against tartrazine (TZ)-induced injuries on apoptosis-related gene expression (i.e., p, CASP-3 and CASP-9), antioxidant status, and DNA damages in bone marrow in treated rats. Male rats were arbitrarily separated into five groups, and each group was comprised of 10 rats each. The 1st group served as control (G1). The 2nd group ingested 7.5 mg TZ/kg. b.w. (body weight). The 3rd group ingested Nano-CUR 1 g/kg b.w. The 4th and 5th groups were respectively administered with (1 g Nano-CUR + 7.5 mg TZ/kg. b.w.) and (2 g Nano-CUR + 7.5 mg TZ/kg. b.w.). At the end of the experiment, blood samples, livers, and kidneys were collected. Livers and kidneys were homogenized and used for the analysis of reduced glutathione, malonaldhyde, total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxide antioxidant enzyme activities, apoptosis-related gene expression, and genotoxicity by comit test. The ingestion of TZ for 50 days resulted in significant decreases in body, and kidney weights in rats and a relative increase in the liver weight compared to control. In contrast, the ingestion of Nano-CUR with TZ remarkably upgraded the body weight and relative liver weight compared to the normal range in the control. Aditionally, TZ ingestion in rats increased the oxidative stress biomarkers lipid peroxide (LPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) significantly, whereas it decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Similarly, the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) significantly deteriorated in response to TZ ingestion. Moreover, the results revealed a remarkable up-regulation in the level of expression for the three examined genes, including p, CASP-3, and CASP-9 in TZ-ingested rats compared to the control. On the other hand, the comet assay result indicates that the ingestion of TZ induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Notably, the administration of Nano-CUR protected the kidney and liver of TZ-ingested rats as evidenced by a significant elevation in all antioxidant activities of tested enzymes (i.e, SOD, GPx, and CAT), vital recovery in GSH and TAC levels, and a statistical decrease in LPO and MDA compared to TZ-ingested rats. Interestingly, the ingestion of rats with TZ modulates the observed up-regulation in the level of expression for the chosen genes, indicating the interfering role in the signaling transduction process of TZ-mediated poisoning. The results indicate that the administration of Nano-CUR may protect against TZ-induced DNA damage in bone marrow. According to the results, Nano-CUR exerted a potential protective effect against oxidative stress, DNA damage, and the up-regulation of apoptosis-related genes induced by TZ ingested to rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763955PMC
December 2020

Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microextraction of Lead(II) Traces from Water and Aqueous Extracts before FAAS Measurements.

Molecules 2020 Oct 19;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey.

Microextraction procedures for the separation of Pb(II) from water and food samples extracts were developed. A deep eutectic solvent composed of α-benzoin oxime and iron(III) chloride dissolved in phenol was applied as a phase separator support. In addition, this deep eutectic mixture worked as an efficient extractor of Pb(II). The developed microextraction process showed a high ability to tolerate the common coexisting ions in the real samples. The optimum conditions for quantitative recoveries of Pb(II) from aqueous extracts were at pH 2.0, conducted by adding 150 µL from the deep eutectic solvent. The quantitative recoveries were obtained with various initial sample volumes up to 30 mL. Limits of detection and limits of quantification of 0.008 and 0.025 µg L were achieved with a relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.9, which indicates the accuracy and sensitivity of the developed procedure. Recoveries from the reference materials, including TMDA 64.2, TMDA 53.3, and NCSDC-73349, were 100%, 97%, and 102%, respectively. Real samples, such as tap, lake, and river water, as well as food samples, including salted peanuts, chickpeas, roasted yellow corn, pistachios, and almonds, were successfully applied for Pb(II) analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after applying the developed deep eutectic solvent-based microextraction procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587555PMC
October 2020

Nano-clay as a solid phase microextractor of copper, cadmium and lead for ultra-trace quantification by ICP-MS.

Anal Methods 2020 11 7;12(41):4949-4955. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Heavy metal microextraction and determination in daily used water is accurately achieved by applying nano-clay as an extractor. The conditions for adsorption/elution of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) were investigated by adjusting the pH of samples, sample volume and the type of eluent. The nano-clay showed superior efficiency for microextraction of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) at pH 2 using 2 mL of nitric acid (1 M) as the eluent. The microextraction procedure showed high recovery% by changing the sample volume from 15 mL to 70 mL. The preconcentration factor was found to be 37.5. The LOD and LOQ were 1.8, 1.3, and 1.9 μg L and 5.3, 3.9, and 5.7 μg L for Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) respectively. The addition/recovery from different water samples showed recovery% in the range 88-105 which confirms the efficiency and the accuracy of the developed solid phase microextraction using nano-clay for enrichment of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay01343aDOI Listing
November 2020

Bioremediation of Explosive TNT by .

Molecules 2020 Mar 19;25(6). Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Nitroaromatic and nitroamine compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are teratogenic, cytotoxic, and may cause cellular mutations in humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. Microbial-based bioremediation technologies have been shown to offer several advantages against the cellular toxicity of nitro-organic compounds. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the ability of to degrade nitrogenous explosives, such as TNT, by microbiological assay and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In this study, fungus was shown to have the ability to decompose, and TNT explosives were used at doses of 50 and 100 ppm on the respective growth media as a nitrogenous source needed for normal growth. The GC/MS analysis confirmed the biodegradable efficiency of TNT, whereas the initial retention peak of the TNT compounds disappeared, and another two peaks appeared at the retention times of 9.31 and 13.14 min. Mass spectrum analysis identified 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde with the molecular formula CHO and a molecular weight of 126 g·mol as the major compound, and 4-propyl benzaldehyde with a formula of CHO and a molecular weight of 148 g mol as the minor compound, both resulting from the biodegradation of TNT by . In conclusion, could be used in microbial-based bioremediation technologies as a biological agent to eradicate the toxicity of the TNT explosive. In addition, future molecular-based studies should be conducted to clearly identify the enzymes and the corresponding genes that give the ability to degrade and remediate TNT explosives. This could help in the eradication of soils contaminated with explosives or other toxic biohazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144562PMC
March 2020

Phosphonium-based Ionic Liquid Modified Activated Carbon from Mixed Recyclable Waste for Mercury(II) Uptake.

Molecules 2019 Feb 5;24(3). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Advanced Materials Research Chair, Chemistry Department P. O. Box 2455, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The contamination of water surfaces by mercury is a dangerous environmental problem due to its toxicity, which leads kidney damage. Activated carbon from mixed recyclable waste modified by phosphonium-based ionic liquid (IL-ACMRW) was therefore prepared and evaluated for Hg(II) remediation. The activated carbon used in this study was prepared from mixed waste, including cardboard, papers and palm wastes as cheap raw materials. The mixed Recyclable Waste Activated Carbon was combined with trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium Bis2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinate (Cyphos IL 104) ionic liquid to form an adsorbent with organic-inorganic content, in order to improve the Hg(II) uptake from aqueous solutions. FTIR confirms the presence of P, C=O and OH after this modification. The adsorption process was investigated and the evaluated results showed that the capacity was 124 mg/g at pH 4, with a contact time of 90 min, an adsorbent dose of 0.4 g/L, and a Hg(II) concentration of 50 mg/L. This Hg(II) adsorption capacity is superior than that reported in the literature for modified multiwall carbon nanotubes. The adsorption of Hg(II) on the modified activated carbon from mixed recyclable waste was found to follow the pseudo second-order kinetics model. Isotherms of adsorption were analyzed via Freundlich and Langmuir models. The results indicated that Freundlich is the best model to describe the process, suggesting multilayer adsorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384760PMC
February 2019

One-Step Carbon Coating and Polyacrylamide Functionalization of Fe₃O₄ Nanoparticles for Enhancing Magnetic Adsorptive-Remediation of Heavy Metals.

Molecules 2017 Nov 27;22(12). Epub 2017 Nov 27.

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Magnetic nanoparticles are used in adsorptive removal of heavy metals from polluted wastewater. However, their poor stability in an acidic medium necessitates their protection with a coating layer. Coating magnetic nanoparticles with carbon showed proper protection but the heavy metal removal efficiency was slightly weak. However, to boost the removal efficiencies of surface functionalization, polyacrylamide was applied to carbon-coated Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. In this paper, to facilitate the synthesis process, one-step carbon coating and polyacrylamide functionalization were conducted using the hydrothermal technique with the aim of enhancing the adsorptive removal capacity of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles towards some heavy metals such as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Cd(II). The results showed that the one-step process succeeded in developing a carbon coating layer and polyacrylamide functionality on Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. The stability of the magnetic Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles as an adsorbent in an acidic medium was improved due to its resistance to the dissolution that was gained during carbon coating and surface functionalization with polyacrylamide. The adsorptive removal process was investigated in relation to various parameters such as pH, time of contact, metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The polyacrylamide functionalized Fe₃O₄ showed an improvement in the adsorption capacity as compared with the unfunctionalized one. The conditions for superior adsorption were obtained at pH 6; time of contact, 90 min; metal solution concentration, 200 mg/L; adsorbent dose, 0.3 g/L. The modeling of the adsorption data was found to be consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which suggests a fast adsorption process. However, the equilibrium data modeling was consistent with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorptive removal process, including Δ°, Δ°, and Δ°, indicated a spontaneous and endothermic sorption process. The developed adsorbent can be utilized further for industrial-based applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149930PMC
November 2017

Synthesis and application of [email protected]@TiO2 for photocatalytic decomposition of organic matrix simultaneously with magnetic solid phase extraction of heavy metals prior to ICP-MS analysis.

Talanta 2016 07 26;154:539-47. Epub 2016 Mar 26.

Erciyes University, Fen Fakultesi, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address:

Interference of organic compounds in the matrix of heavy metal solution could suppress their pre-concentration and detection processes. Therefore, this work aimed to develop simple and facile methods for separation of heavy metals before ICP-MS analysis. [email protected]@TiO2 core-double shell magnetic adsorbent was prepared and characterized by TEM, SEM, FTIR, XRD and surface area, and tested for Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction (MSPE) of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). TEM micrograph of [email protected]@TiO2 reveals the uniform coating of TiO2 layer of about 20nm onto the [email protected] nanoparticles and indicates that all nanoparticles are monodispersed and uniform. The saturation magnetization from the room-temperature hysteresis loops of Fe3O4 and [email protected]@TiO2 was found to be 72 and 40emug(-1), respectively, suggesting good separability of the nanoparticles. The [email protected]@TiO2 showed maximum adsorption capacity of 125, 137, 148 and 160mgg(-1) for Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively, and the process was found to fit with the second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. [email protected]@TiO2 showed efficient photocatalytic decomposition for tartrazine and sunset yellow (consider as Interfering organic compounds) in aqueous solution under the irradiation of UV light. The maximum recovery% was achieved at pH 5, by elution with 10mL of 2M nitric acid solution. The LODs were found to be 0.066, 0.049, 0.041 and 0.082µgL(-1) for Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively while the LOQs were found to be 0.20, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.25µgL(-1) for Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.03.081DOI Listing
July 2016

Design, synthesis and applications of core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle multifunctional nanostructures.

Nanoscale 2016 Feb;8(5):2510-31

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

With the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnology, studies have been focused on manipulating nanoparticle properties through the control of their size, composition, and morphology. As nanomaterial research has progressed, the foremost focus has gradually shifted from synthesis, morphology control, and characterization of properties to the investigation of function and the utility of integrating these materials and chemical sciences with the physical, biological, and medical fields, which therefore necessitates the development of novel materials that are capable of performing multiple tasks and functions. The construction of multifunctional nanomaterials that integrate two or more functions into a single geometry has been achieved through the surface-coating technique, which created a new class of substances designated as core-shell nanoparticles. Core-shell materials have growing and expanding applications due to the multifunctionality that is achieved through the formation of multiple shells as well as the manipulation of core/shell materials. Moreover, core removal from core-shell-based structures offers excellent opportunities to construct multifunctional hollow core architectures that possess huge storage capacities, low densities, and tunable optical properties. Furthermore, the fabrication of nanomaterials that have the combined properties of a core-shell structure with that of a hollow one has resulted in the creation of a new and important class of substances, known as the rattle core-shell nanoparticles, or nanorattles. The design strategies of these new multifunctional nanostructures (core-shell, hollow core, and nanorattle) are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, different synthesis and fabrication approaches for multifunctional core-shell, hollow core-shell and rattle core-shell architectures are highlighted. Finally, in the last part of the article, the versatile and diverse applications of these nanoarchitectures in catalysis, energy storage, sensing, and biomedicine are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr07004jDOI Listing
February 2016

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of lead(II) as 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine chelates from food and water samples.

Environ Monit Assess 2015 Feb 25;187(2). Epub 2015 Jan 25.

Advanced Materials Research Chair, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for lead(II) as its 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine complex has been established prior to its microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. The influences of various analytical parameters including pH, solvent type and volume, dispersive solvent type and volume, 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine amount, salt effect, and centrifugation time and speed were investigated. The effects of certain alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions on the quantitative extraction of lead(II) were also studied. Quantitative recoveries were obtained at pH 6. The enrichment factor was calculated as 125. The detection limit for lead is 1.1 μg/L. The accuracy of the method was tested with the additions recovery test and analysis of the standard reference materials (SPS-WW2 waste water, NIST SRM 1515 apple leaves, and TMDA-51.3 fortified water). Applications of the present procedure were tested by analyzing water and food samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4160-4DOI Listing
February 2015

Daily intake of selenium and concentrations in blood of residents of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

Environ Geochem Health 2012 Aug 24;34(4):417-31. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 μg Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 μg Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 × 10(2) ± 30.5 μg Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-011-9448-5DOI Listing
August 2012

Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of cadmium (II) adsorption by modified agricultural wastes.

Molecules 2011 Dec 15;16(12):10443-56. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Agricultural wastes have great potential for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. The contamination of water by toxic heavy metals is a worldwide environmental problem. Unlike organic pollutants, the majority of which are susceptible to biological degradation, heavy metals do not degrade into harmless end products. Discharges containing cadmium, in particular, are strictly controlled because of the highly toxic nature of this element and its tendency to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms. This work aims to develop inexpensive, highly available, effective metal ion adsorbents from natural wastes as alternatives to existing commercial adsorbents. In particular, Tamrix articulata wastes were modified chemically by esterification with maleic acid to yield a carboxyl-rich adsorbent. The adsorption behavior of treated Tamrix articulata wastes toward cadmium ions in aqueous solutions in a batch system has been studied as a function of equilibration time, adsorbent dose, temperature and pH. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 195.5 mg/g in a pH 4 solution at 30 °C with a contact time of 120 min, an initial concentration of 400 mg/L and an adsorbent dose of 0.3 g/L. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was shown that the adsorption of cadmium could be described by a pseudo-second-order equation. The experimental data were also analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° have been evaluated and it has been found that the sorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. From all of our data, we conclude that the treated Tamrix articulata wastes investigated in this study showed good potential for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules161210443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264351PMC
December 2011
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