Publications by authors named "Mohamed A Baraka"

10 Publications

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Perspectives of Healthcare Professionals Regarding Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Their Consequences: A Cross Sectional Study in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jul 19;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Program, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 64141, United Arab Emirates.

Factors reported in the literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials include physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber's choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed, validated, and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All of the respondents acknowledged effectiveness, previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) as being key factors influencing physicians' choice during antimicrobial prescribing. The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials were reported to be common practices. Furthermore, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials, and the use of antimicrobials without a physician's prescription (i.e., self-medication) represent key factors which contribute to AMR from participants' perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
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July 2021

Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Risk assessment Among University Students in Saudi Arabia.

Sci Prog 2021 Jan-Mar;104(1):36850421998532

College of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Overweight and obesity have become a significant health hazard among adolescents on account of quick growth in its occurrence rate and its common comorbidities like cardiometabolic disease (CMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adiposity and assess the risk of CMD among university students in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2017-2018, in a sample of 310 subjects (127 males; 183 females). The measurements were taken using standardized instruments including Body Mass Index (BMI), Fat Mass Index (FMI), Body Fat Percentage BFP), Mass of Body Fat (MBF), Visceral Fat Area (VFA), Waist Circumference (WC), and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). Moreover, CMD risk indicators were calculated by Conicity index (C index), WC, and WHR. The findings showed that the majority was overweight and obese (16.8% and 21.6%, respectively). While evaluating obesity indicators, males were found to have higher adiposity (obese students 34.6%) compared to female students (12.6%;  < 0.001). Additionally, FMI showed that the mean was significantly higher among males (8.65 ± 6.06) compared to females (7.26 ± 3.30;  < 0.019). Analysis of the predictors' indices for cardiometabolic risk score highlighted a significantly higher percentage of WC, WHR, and C index among male students (50, 38.5, 59) compared to females (16.9, 14.2, 34;  < 0.001). Significant positive correlations were observed between C index quartiles and BMI with the other cardiometabolic indices ( < 0.001). This study highlighted a high prevalence of adiposity and CMD risk among university students. The prediction of CMD in early age is quite helpful in preventing adiposity related health issues. Decision makers need to spread awareness about healthy consumption as well as the relationship between physical inactivity and chronic diseases.
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March 2021

Patterns of infections and antimicrobial drugs' prescribing among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

J Pharm Policy Pract 2021 Jan 14;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Background: Antimicrobial agents are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in pregnancy due to the increased susceptibility to infections during pregnancy. Antimicrobials can contribute to different maternal complications. Therefore, it is important to study their patterns in prescription and utilization. The data regarding this issue is scarce in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to generate data on the antimicrobial agents that are most commonly prescribed during pregnancy as well as their indications and safety.

Methods: This is a retrospective study focusing on pregnant women with a known antimicrobial use at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare (JHAH). The sample included 344 pregnant women with a total of 688 antimicrobial agents prescribed. Data was collected on the proportion of pregnant women who received antimicrobial agents and on the drug safety during pregnancy using the risk categorization system of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Results: The results showed that urinary tract infections (UTIs) were the most reported (59%) infectious diseases. Around 48% of pregnant women received antimicrobial medications at some point during pregnancy. The top two antimicrobial agents based on prescription frequency were B-lactams (44.6%) and azole anti-fungals (30%). The prescribed drugs in the study were found to be from classes B, C and D under the FDA risk classification system.

Conclusion: The study revealed a high proportion of antimicrobials prescribed during pregnancy that might pose risks to mothers and their fetuses. Future multicenter studies are warranted to evaluate the rational prescription of antimicrobial medications during pregnancy.
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January 2021

Renal Outcomes Associated with the Use of Non-Insulin Antidiabetic Pharmacotherapy: A Review of Current Evidence and Recommendations.

Int J Gen Med 2020 7;13:1395-1409. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Pharmacy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Background: This study aims to discuss, summarize and compare the renal outcomes associated with non-insulin antidiabetic (AD) pharmacotherapy prescribed for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A systematic search using predefined search terms in three scholarly databases, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed, was conducted. Original research articles published in the English language between 2012 and 2020 that reported renal outcomes associated with the use of non-insulin AD pharmacotherapy were eligible for inclusion. Review articles, meta-analysis studies, and conference proceedings were excluded. A study-specific data extraction form was designed to extract the author's name, country, publication year, study design, study population, objectives, key findings, and conclusions. A narrative review of the key findings that focused on renal outcomes and renal safety issues was conducted.

Results: Of the 18,872 results identified through the initial search, a total of 32 articles were included in this review. Of these, 18 of the included articles reported the renal outcomes of newer antidiabetic medications, eg, SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists. Eight studies focussed on the well-established antidiabetic medications, eg, metformin and sulphonylureas. The review reported three main types of the clinical impact of the prescribed AD on the renal outcomes: "renoprotective effects", "no additional risk" and "associated with a decline in renal parameters". Seventeen studies reported the renoprotective effects of AD, including SGLT2i studies (n=8), GLP1 studies (n=6), and DPP4i studies (n=3). The reported renoprotective effects included slowing down the GFR decline, improving albuminuria, and reducing renal adverse events. The "no additional risk" impact was reported in eight studies, including DPP4i studies (n=3), two SGLT2i studies (n=2), metformin studies (n=2), and one study involving pioglitazone. Furthermore, seven studies highlighted the "associated with a decline in renal parameters" effect. Of these, three involved SGLT2i, two with metformin, and one for each DPP4i and sulphonylurea.

Conclusion: More than half of the studies included in this review supported the renoprotective effects associated with the use of AD medications, particularly GLP-1A, SGLT2i, and some of the DPP4i. Further studies involving patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are required to compare AD medications' renal effects, particularly the newer agents.
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December 2020

Health care providers' perceptions regarding antimicrobial stewardship programs (AMS) implementation-facilitators and challenges: a cross-sectional study in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2019 Sep 24;18(1):26. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Pharmacy Services Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (University of Dammam), Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Infections result from invasions of an organism into body tissues leading to diseases and complications that might eventually lead to death. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials has led to development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which has been associated with increased mortality, morbidity and health costs. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are designed to ensure appropriate selections of an effective antimicrobial drugs and optimizing antibiotic use to minimize antibiotic resistance by implementing certain policies, strategies and guidelines. The aim of this study was to investigate practitioners' perceptions regarding AMS implementation and to identify challenges and facilitators of these programs execution.

Methods: Cross-sectional study among health care providers in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia Hospitals. The data was collected using a survey including questions about demographic data and information about clinicians' (physicians, pharmacists and nurses) previous experience with AMS and prescribing of antibiotics, the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding AMS programs' implementation.

Results: More than 50% of clinicians (N = 184) reported lack of awareness of AMS programs and their components, whereas 71.2% do not have previous AMS experience. The majority of clinicians (72.3%) noticed increasing number of AMR infections over the past 5 years and (69.6%) were involved in care of patients with an antibiotic-resistant infection. Around 77.2% of respondents reported that formulary management can be helpful for AMS practice and majority of respondents (79.9%) reported that the availability of pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing can be helpful for AMS. Major barriers to AMS implementation identified were lack of internal policy/guidelines and specialized AMS information resources. Lack of administrative awareness about AMS programs; lack of personnel, time limitation, limited training opportunities, lack of confidence, financial issue or limited funding and lack of specialized AMS information resources were also reported 65.8%, 62.5%, 60.9%, 73.9%, 50%, 54.3 and 74.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study identified comprehensive education and training needs for health care providers about AMS programs. Furthermore, it appears that internal policy and guidelines need revision to ensure that the health care providers work consistently with AMS. Future research must focus on the benefit of implementing AMS as many hospitals are not implementing AMS as revealed by the clinicians. We recommend policy makers and concerned health authorities to consider the study findings into account to optimize AMS implementation.
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September 2019

Real Life Egyptian Experience of Daclatasvir Plus Sofosbuvir with Ribavirin in Naïve Difficult to Treat HCV Patients.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(1):43-48

Department of Biochemistry, Egyptian Ministry of Interior, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a major cause for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A new era in HCV treatment is ongoing using Direct Acting Antiviral activity (DAA). The first approved DAA drug was Sofosbuvir which has a high tolerability and preferable pharmacokinetic profile. Another recently developed drug is Daclatasvir a first-in-class HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor. Both drugs are administered orally once daily and have potent antiviral activity with wide genotypic coverage.

Methods: In the outpatient clinic, one hundred and fifty naïve difficult to treat chronic HCV patients were recruited from Tropical Medicine Department at Fayoum public hospital. A combination of Daclatasvir (60 mg) and Sofosbuvir (400 mg) (DCV/SOF) has been administered for those patients once daily with Ribavirin (1200 mg or 1000 mg based on patients' weight on two divided doses) over a period of 12 weeks. All patients have been followed up for clinical, laboratory assessment and HCV PCR to detect the efficacy and safety of the therapy.

Results: Sustained Virologic Response rate (SVR12) was achieved in the vast majority of patients (90.67%). Cirrhotic patients showed lower SVR compared to non-cirrhotic patients (88.89% vs 90.91%, respectively). Around half of the patients (49.33%) developed adverse events (AEs) during treatment. The most common AEs were headache, fatigue and abdominal pain.

Conclusion: The available evidence seems to suggest that combination therapy of (DCV/SOF with RBV) in the treatment of chronic HCV genotype IV naïve difficult to treat patients either cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic is safe and effective. Monitoring for clinical and laboratory hepatic parameters was the basis for these findings.
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October 2020

Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases.

Biomed Res Int 2017 10;2017:5316845. Epub 2017 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterine fibroids (UF) has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH) and lysyl oxidases (LOX)], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl) and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b) and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker (-SMA), growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAK; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1), and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF.
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June 2018

Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles: The UAE experiences.

Saudi Pharm J 2016 Sep 30;24(5):563-570. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Internal Medicine Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences (CMHS), UAE University, United Arab Emirates.

The pharmaceutical care and 'extended' roles are still not practiced optimally by community pharmacists. Several studies have discussed the practice of community pharmacy in the UAE and have shown that most community pharmacists only counsel patients. However, UAE, has taken initiatives to allow and prepare community pharmacists to practice 'extended' roles. The aim was to review the current roles of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective was to encourage community pharmacists toward extending their practice roles. In 2010, Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) surveyed community pharmacists, using an online questionnaire, on their preferences toward extending their counseling roles and their opinion of the greatest challenge facing the extension of their counseling roles. Following this survey, several programs have been developed to prepare community pharmacists to undertake these extended counseling roles. In addition to that, HAAD redefined the scope of pharmacist roles to include some extended/enhanced roles. Abu Dhabi Health Services (SEHA) mission is to ensure reliable excellence in healthcare. It has put clear plans to achieve this; these include increasing focus on public health matters, developing and monitoring evidence-based clinical policies, training health professionals to comply with international standards to deliver world-class quality care, among others. Prior to making further plans to extend community pharmacists' roles, and to ensure the success of these plans, it is imperative to establish the views of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi on practicing extended roles and to gain understanding and information on what pharmacists see as preferred change strategies or facilitators to change. In an attempt to adapt to the changes occurring and to the growing needs of patients and to maximize the utilization of community pharmacists' unique structured strategies are needed to be introduced to the community pharmacy profession.
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September 2016

Determinants of folic acid use in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

J Perinat Med 2011 11 29;39(6):685-92. Epub 2011 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, Belgium.

Aims: To investigate the possible differences in folic acid use and to identify the determinants of antenatal folic acid use among multi-ethnic pregnant women.

Methods: Three hundred and fifty pregnant women participated in this cross-sectional study in a university hospital in Brussels, Belgium. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics and folic acid use. χ(2)-tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS 17.

Results: In the overall cohort, 59.2% used folic acid supplements during pregnancy. This supplement use was associated with an age of 26-35 years, being of Western origin, with high education and employment status, understanding physician's instructions, and early booking for antenatal care. Education (odds ratio, OR: 2.24; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-4.63) and early booking for antenatal care OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.11-5.40) were the most important determinants. In particular for Arab/Turkish women, a lower employment status OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.73) was associated with a higher risk of not using folic acid supplements.

Conclusions: The lower use of folic acid supplements in Arab/Turkish ethnicities, which may be associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects, is related to socio-economic factors rather than to lower educational attainment. As recommended by other studies, fortification of ethnic minority food may be warranted to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.
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November 2011