Publications by authors named "Mohamad El Zoghbi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Lung of Diabetic Patients.

Front Physiol 2020 10;11:587013. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil.

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its impact on patients with comorbidities is clearly related to fatality cases, and diabetes has been linked to one of the most important causes of severity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Substantial research progress has been made on COVID-19 therapeutics; however, effective treatments remain unsatisfactory. This unmet clinical need is robustly associated with the complexity of pathophysiological mechanisms described for COVID-19. Several key lung pathophysiological mechanisms promoted by SARS-CoV-2 have driven the response in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic subjects. There is sufficient evidence that glucose metabolism pathways in the lung are closely tied to bacterial proliferation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and pro-thrombotic responses, which lead to severe clinical outcomes. It is also likely that SARS-CoV-2 proliferation is affected by glucose metabolism of type I and type II cells. This review summarizes the current understanding of pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 in the lung of diabetic patients and highlights the changes in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.587013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758507PMC
December 2020

Tobacco use among adolescents in Qatar: Findings from Global Youth Tobacco Surveys 2004-2013.

Tob Prev Cessat 2019 13;5:10. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Tobacco use has become a global health concern. Almost a third of the adolescents of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have reported tobacco use and the percentage is expected to rise in the future, making tobacco consumption a main public health issue among students, 13-15 years old, in the region's countries. We aimed to conduct an analysis of the previous Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS) in Qatar to detect any significant changes that might inform decision makers on planning policies and interventions accordingly.

Methods: This study presents a retrospective data analysis, based on three GYTS conducted in Qatar during 2004, 2007, and 2013. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and for differential non-response at school, class and student levels, with the exception of the analysis of sociodemographic characteristics. The differences between the proportions were tested by Pearson's chi-squared test. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), version 21.0 (Chicago, IL). A p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results: There was an overall increase in the prevalence of smoking, the accessibility, and the availability of cigarettes. Additionally, the percentage of participants who desired to stop smoking decreased between 2004 and 2013, while that of students who reported was highest in 2013.

Conclusions: Despite the effort made by the local authorities in Qatar to reverse the spread or limit the growing tobacco epidemic, there is a need for multidisciplinary interventions through tobacco prevention and control programs targeting youths.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tpc/105110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205052PMC
March 2019

Examining the impact of accreditation on a primary healthcare organization in Qatar.

BMC Med Educ 2018 Sep 20;18(1):216. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Quality Management Department, Primary Health Care Corporation, PO Box 26555, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Although a modest body of literature exists on accreditation, little research was conducted on the impact of accreditation on primary healthcare organizations in the Middle East. This study assessed the changes resulting from the integration of Accreditation Canada International's accreditation program in a primary healthcare organization in the State of Qatar.

Methods: The study investigated how accreditation helped introduce organizational changes through promoting organizational learning as well as quality improvement initiatives. Applying a quantitative design, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 500 staff. The study used Spearman's correlation coefficient to analyze the collected survey data.

Results: Overall employees agreed on the positive impact of accreditation. The results showed a significantly positive correlation between staff perception of accreditation and of quality of care. The two dominant cultures at Primary Health Care Corporation were "group" (with a score of 28.61) and "hierarchical" (with a score of 26.59). The results showed a positive correlation between staff perception of accreditation and their perception of culture type whenever the culture was identified as "group".

Conclusions: This study provided much-needed insight on the possible changes that organizations might go through in relation to quality improvement and organizational learning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1321-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146520PMC
September 2018

Improvement of the Patient Safety Culture in the Primary Health Care Corporation - Qatar.

J Patient Saf 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

From the Quality Management Department, Primary Health Care Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Objectives: Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC) is the public primary health care provider in Qatar. Having a patient safety culture (PSC) is the keystone to enabling a continuous process to improve the quality of services and to reduce errors. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of accreditation, quality improvement trainings, and patient safety (PS) trainings on the improvement of the PSC at the PHCC in Qatar.

Methods: The Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was used in 2012 and 2015 to assess the culture of PS and health care quality in the 21 health centers. The results of the two surveys were compared using the χ test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Out of 2689 staff working in the 21 health centers, 1810 (67.3%) completed the survey in 2012, and 2616 (70.0%) of 3735 completed the survey in 2015. The comparison between 2012 and 2015 survey's results showed a statistically significant improvement for all the 10 dimensions (P < 0.05). Although a statistically significant difference was observed between 2012 and 2015 results for work pressure and pace, three of the four questions of the work pressure and pace dimension presented nonsignificant differences.

Conclusions: The survey was a good tool to raise awareness on PS and quality issues at PHCC. There is evidence that the implementation of accreditation program, the quality improvement trainings, and PS trainings helped the organization improve its PS culture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000489DOI Listing
April 2018

Phenotypes of lung cancer and statistical interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica from a large case-only study: The CaProMat study.

Lung Cancer 2017 10 12;112:140-155. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

University of Bordeaux, ISPED, INSERM U1219-Bordeaux Population Heath Center INSERM U1219, EPICENE, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; INSERM, ISPED, U1219-Bordeaux Population Heath Center U1219, EPICENE, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect modification of the association between tobacco smoking and phenotypes of lung cancer (histological type, tumor location, and age at diagnosis) by occupational exposure to asbestos or to crystalline silica.

Materials And Methods: The CaProMat study is a pooled case-only study including 7256 male lung cancer cases recruited between 1996 and 2011 in France and Canada. Two job-exposure matrices (JEMs) were used to assess occupational exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica. Statistical interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos or crystalline silica were assessed using unconditional logistic regression models for histological type and tumor location and linear regression models for age at diagnosis.

Results: Tobacco smoking was associated with squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinomas as well as an earlier age at diagnosis. Additional exposure to either asbestos or crystalline silica did not modify the effect of tobacco smoking for either histological type or age at diagnosis. Neither tobacco smoking nor occupational exposure to asbestos or crystalline silica influenced tumor location.

Conclusions: Tobacco smoking was the main factor related to histological type and age at diagnosis. Those associations were not modified by occupational exposure to asbestos or crystalline silica.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2017.08.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Prevalence of occupational exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica according to phenotypes of lung cancer from the CaProMat study: A case-only study.

Am J Ind Med 2018 Jan 31;61(1):85-99. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

University of Bordeaux, ISPED, INSERM U1219-Bordeaux Population Heath Center INSERM U1219, EPICENE, Bordeaux, France.

Background: The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of occupational exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica according to histological types of lung cancer and age at diagnosis.

Methods: CaProMat study is a pooled case-only study conducted between 1996 and 2011. The current study consisted of 6521 lung cancer cases. Occupational exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica was assessed by two Job-Exposure Matrices. A weighted prevalence of exposure was derived and compared according to histological types and age at diagnosis.

Results: There was no difference of weighted prevalence of exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica according to histological types of lung cancer. There was a statistically significant difference of weighted prevalence of exposure to asbestos and crystalline silica according to age at diagnosis.

Conclusions: Due to the limited clinical importance of the difference, neither the histological type, nor the age at diagnosis can be used as an indicator for the occupational exposure to asbestos or crystalline silica.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22765DOI Listing
January 2018

Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

BMC Public Health 2017 02 2;17(1):156. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, team EPICENE, UMR 1219, Bordeaux, F-33000, France.

Background: Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

Methods: Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case-control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately.

Results: Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published.

Conclusion: There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4025-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5288859PMC
February 2017

Prevalence of malnutrition and its correlates in older adults living in long stay institutions situated in Beirut, Lebanon.

J Res Health Sci 2014 ;14(1):11-7

Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Doctoral School of Sciences & Technology, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Malnutrition represents an important issue in older adults; unfortunately, there is lack of data concerning this topic in Lebanon. This paper aims to provide a description of nutritional status and its correlates in older adults living in long stay institutions situated in Beirut.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three long stay institutions in Beirut in 2012. The study population was composed of people aged 65 years and above, having a score of Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) greater than 14 and without renal failure requiring dialysis. Subjects meeting inclusion criteria filled out a questionnaire consisting of nutritional status scale (Mini Nutritional Assessment: MNA) and several other parts (demographic, self-assessment of the state health, smoking and alcohol, physical dependence, quality of life, frailty, depression, social isolation and loneliness). Data were entered and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA).

Results: Among 111 older adults (55 men and 56 women), 14 (12.6%) were malnourished, 54 (48.7%) were at risk of malnutrition and 43 (38.7%) had an adequate nutritional status. Multivariate analysis showed that physical exercise, depression, frailty and cognitive function were independent correlates of nutritional status of older adults. This model explained 42.2% (adjusted R2 = 0.422) of the older adults nutritional status variability.

Conclusions: We found a moderate percentage of malnutrition in older adults living in long stay institutions situated in Beirut, and the correlates of malnutrition in older adults were low physical exercise, depression, frailty and low cognitive function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2015