Publications by authors named "Mohamad Abdalkader"

39 Publications

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Isolated Occlusion of the Proximal Posterior Cerebral Artery.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:697348. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Neurology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Endovascular therapy (EVT) is established as first-line treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation. For basilar artery occlusion, recent randomized clinical trials demonstrated not only equipoise but also advantages for EVT under particular circumstances. It remains unclear whether EVT offers an advantage over best medical management (BMM) including thrombolysis (IVT) in isolated occlusion of the proximal posterior cerebral artery (PCAO). Patients with AIS due to PCAO proven by CT or MR angiography were retrospectively identified from local databases at four comprehensive stroke centers in Germany, USA, and Taiwan between 2012 and 2020. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and imaging characteristics including pretherapeutic, interventional, and follow-up imaging were reviewed locally at each center. Patients were grouped according to therapy, i.e., BMM including IVT alone vs. BMM and EVT. Efficacy endpoints were early neurological improvement (ENI) after 24 h or at discharge, good outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-2) after 3 months, as well as hemorrhagic complications and in-house deaths as safety endpoints. We included 130 patients of whom 23 (17.7%) received EVT. EVT patients had more proximal occlusions (69.9 vs. 43%, = 0.023) and had a better premorbid function [premorbid mRS, 0 (0-4) vs. 1 (0-3), < 0.01] when compared to BMM patients. IVT showed a trend toward being less performed in the EVT group (21.7 vs. 41.1%, = 0.1), while other baseline parameters were balanced. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 52% of EVT patients. ENI was more frequent in the EVT group (61 vs. 35.5%, = 0.034). Good outcome at 90 days and safety endpoints did not differ. In a bivariate analysis, ENI was independently predicted by the use of EVT (OR, 2.76; CI, 1.055-7.04) and the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR, 1.082; CI, 1.027-1.141 per point increase). EVT in isolated PCAO appears safe and feasible. Positive effects on clinical outcome are primarily on ENI but also depend on the initial stroke severity. Further prospective or randomized studies are needed to better describe the potential long-term clinical benefits of EVT for PCAO as compared with best medical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.697348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358070PMC
July 2021

Delays in thrombolysis during COVID-19 are associated with worse neurological outcomes: the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Multicenter Collaboration.

J Neurol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, 3 Cooper Plaza, Suite 320, Camden, NJ, 08103, USA.

Introduction: We have demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) among stroke patients. Whether this delay contributes to meaningful short-term outcome differences in these patients warranted further exploration.

Methods: We conducted a nested observational cohort study of adult acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IVT from 9 comprehensive stroke centers across 7 U.S states. Patients admitted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1/1/2019-02/29/2020) were compared to patients admitted during the early pandemic (3/1/2020-7/31/2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of IVT delay on discharge to hospice or death, with treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 included as an interaction term.

Results: Of the 676 thrombolysed patients, the median age was 70 (IQR 58-81) years, 313 were female (46.3%), and the median NIHSS was 8 (IQR 4-16). Longer treatment delays were observed during COVID-19 (median 46 vs 38 min, p = 0.01) and were associated with higher in-hospital death/hospice discharge irrespective of admission period (OR per hour 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.03). This effect was strengthened after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p < 0.001). There was no interaction of treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 (p = 0.65). Every one-hour delay in IVT was also associated with 7% lower odds of being discharged to home or acute inpatient rehabilitation facility (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Treatment delays observed during the COVID-19 pandemic led to greater early mortality and hospice care, with a lower probability of discharge to home/rehabilitation facility. There was no effect modification of treatment delay on admission during the pandemic, indicating that treatment delay at any time contributes similarly to these short-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10734-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325534PMC
July 2021

Cerebral Vein Thrombosis With Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia.

Stroke 2021 08 26;52(9):3045-3053. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, MA (P.K., M.A., T.N.N.).

In the spring of 2021, reports of rare and unusual venous thrombosis in association with the ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S adenovirus-based coronavirus vaccines led to a brief suspension of their use by several countries. Thromboses in the cerebral and splanchnic veins among patients vaccinated in the preceding 4 weeks were described in 17 patients out of 7.98 million recipients of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (with 3 fatalities related to cerebral vein thrombosis) and 169 cases of cerebral vein thrombosis among 35 million ChAdOx1 recipients. Events were associated with thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 (antibodies directed against platelet factor 4), leading to the designation vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Unlike the related heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, with an estimated incidence of <1:1000 patients treated with heparin, and a mortality rate of 25%, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia has been reported in 1:150 000 ChAdOx1 recipients and 1:470 000 Ad26.COV.2 recipients, with a reported mortality rate of 20% to 30%. Early recognition of this complication should prompt testing for anti-PF4 antibodies and acute treatment targeting the autoimmune and prothrombotic processes. Intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g/kg for 2 days), consideration of plasma exchange, and nonheparin anticoagulation (argatroban, fondaparinux) are recommended. In cases of cerebral vein thrombosis, one should monitor for and treat the known complications of venous congestion as they would in patients without vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Now that the Ad26.COV2.S has been reapproved for use in several countries, it remains a critical component of our pharmacological armamentarium in stopping the spread of the human coronavirus and should be strongly recommended to patients. At this time, the patient and community-level benefits of these two adenoviral vaccines vastly outweigh the rare but serious risks of vaccination. Due to the relatively low risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in young women (<50 years), it is reasonable to recommend an alternative vaccine if one is available. Ongoing postmarketing observational studies are important for tracking new vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia cases and other rare side effects of these emergent interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378439PMC
August 2021

Mechanical thrombectomy beyond the circle of Willis: efficacy and safety of different techniques for M2 occlusions.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: M2 segment occlusions represent approximately one-third of non-lacunar ischemic stroke and can lead to permanent neurological deficits. Various techniques are available for mechanical thrombectomy beyond the circle of Willis, but data evaluating their effectiveness and safety are lacking.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with ischemic stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for M2 occlusions from 13 centers in North American and Europe was performed. Tandem or multiple-territory occlusions were excluded. The primary outcome was 90-day modified Rankin Scale and reperfusion rates across stent-retriever, direct aspiration and combined techniques.

Results: There were 465 patients (mean age 71.48±14.03 years, 53.1% female) with M2 occlusions who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Stent-retriever alone was used in 133 (28.6%), direct aspiration alone in 93 (20.0%) and the combined technique in 239 (51.4%) patients. Successful reperfusion was achieved with the combined technique in 198 (82.2%; OR 2.6 (1.1-6.9)), with stent-retriever alone in 112 (84.2%; OR 9.2 (1.9-44.6)) and with direct aspiration alone in 62 (66.7%; referencecategory). Intraprocedural subarachnoid hemorrhages (iSAH) were 36 (7.7%) and were more likely to occur in patients treated with the stent-retrievers (OR 5.0 (1.1-24.3)) and combined technique (OR 4.6 (1.1-20.9)). Good clinical outcome was achieved in 260 (61.8%) patients, while 59 (14.0%) patients died. Older age, higher baseline NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), parenchymal hemorrhage and iSAH were associated with poor outcome while successful recanalization and higher baseline ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) were associated with good outcome. No differences were found among the three techniques in terms of clinical outcome.

Conclusion: Stent-retrievers and a combined approach for M2 occlusions seem more effective than direct aspiration, but with higher rates of iSAH. This leads to no detectable difference in clinical outcome at 3 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017425DOI Listing
July 2021

Acute occlusion of the fetal posterior cerebral artery: diagnosis and management paradigms.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Jun 6:19714009211019383. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, USA.

Background And Purpose: The diagnosis and management of acute fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion are challenging. While endovascular treatment is established for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke, little is known about the course of acute fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusions. We report the clinical course, radiological findings and management considerations of acute fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion stroke.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients presenting with acute large vessel occlusion who underwent cerebral angiogram and/or mechanical thrombectomy between January 2015 and January 2021. Patients diagnosed with fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, imaging findings and management strategies were reviewed.

Results: Between January 2015 and January 2021, three patients with fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion were identified from 400 patients who underwent angiogram and/or mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke (0.75%). The first patient presented with concomitant fetal posterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery occlusions. Thrombectomy was performed with recanalisation of the fetal posterior cerebral artery but the patient died from malignant oedema. The second patient presented with isolated fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion. No endovascular intervention was performed and the patient was disabled from malignant posterior cerebral artery infarct. The third patient presented with carotid occlusion and was found to have fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion after internal carotid artery recanalisation. No further intervention was performed. The patient was left with residual contralateral homonymous hemianopia and mild left sided weakness.

Conclusion: Fetal posterior cerebral artery occlusion is a rare, but potentially disabling, cause of ischaemic stroke. Endovascular treatment is feasible. Further investigation is needed to compare the efficacy of medical versus endovascular management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19714009211019383DOI Listing
June 2021

In Response (letter 2).

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 25:105880. Epub 2021 May 25.

Boston Medical Center, Radiology, MA 02118, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144899PMC
May 2021

In Response (letter 1).

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 25:105879. Epub 2021 May 25.

Boston Medical Center, Radiology, MA 02118, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144900PMC
May 2021

State of the Art: Venous Causes of Pulsatile Tinnitus and Diagnostic Considerations Guiding Endovascular Therapy.

Radiology 2021 07 25;300(1):2-16. Epub 2021 May 25.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.A., T.N.N., O.S.), Neurology (T.N.N.), Neurosurgery (T.N.N.), Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (P.W., O.S.), and Radiation Oncology (O.S.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Ave, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118; Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, Calif (A.M.N.); Departments of Radiology (E.R., M.S.) and Neurology (M.S.), NYU Langone Health, New York, NY; Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Sorbonne University, Paris, France (S.L.); and Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minn (W.B.).

Venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are the most common causes of pulsatile tinnitus. These conditions include causes of turbulence within normally located veins and sinuses, and abnormally enlarged or abnormally located veins in close transmissive proximity to the conductive auditory pathway. Such disorders include pathologic abnormalities of the lateral sinus (transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus wall anomalies), abnormalities and variants of the emissary veins, and anomalies of the jugular bulb and jugular vein. Despite being the most common causes for pulsatile tinnitus, venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are often overlooked in the workup of pulsatile tinnitus. Such oversights can result in delayed patient care and prolonged patient discomfort. Advances in both cerebrovascular imaging and endovascular techniques allow for improved diagnostic accuracy and an increasing range of endovascular therapeutic options to address pulsatile tinnitus. This review illustrates the venous causes of pulsatile tinnitus and demonstrates the associated endovascular treatment. © RSNA, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021202584DOI Listing
July 2021

Repeated Mechanical Endovascular Thrombectomy for Recurrent Large Vessel Occlusion: A Multicenter Experience.

Stroke 2021 Jun 29;52(6):1967-1973. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (G.A.M., H.A.N., L.S., D.M., A.B.C.).

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is now the standard of care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. However, little is known about the frequency and outcomes of repeat MT (rMT) for patients with recurrent LVO.

Methods: This is a retrospective multicenter cohort of patients who underwent rMT at 6 tertiary institutions in the United States between March 2016 and March 2020. Procedural, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Outcome at discharge was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale.

Results: Of 3059 patients treated with MT during the study period, 56 (1.8%) underwent at least 1 rMT. Fifty-four (96%) patients were analyzed; median age was 64 years. The median time interval between index MT and rMT was 2 days; 35 of 54 patients (65%) experienced recurrent LVO during the index hospitalization. The mechanism of stroke was cardioembolism in 30 patients (56%), intracranial atherosclerosis in 4 patients (7%), extracranial atherosclerosis in 2 patients (4%), and other causes in 18 patients (33%). A final TICI recanalization score of 2b or 3 was achieved in all 54 patients during index MT (100%) and in 51 of 54 patients (94%) during rMT. Thirty-two of 54 patients (59%) experienced recurrent LVO of a previously treated artery, mostly the pretreated left MCA (23 patients, 73%). Fifty of the 54 patients (93%) had a documented discharge modified Rankin Scale after rMT: 15 (30%) had minimal or no disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2), 25 (50%) had moderate to severe disability (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5), and 10 (20%) died.

Conclusions: Almost 2% of patients treated with MT experience recurrent LVO, usually of a previously treated artery during the same hospitalization. Repeat MT seems to be safe and effective for attaining vessel recanalization, and good outcome can be expected in 30% of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033393DOI Listing
June 2021

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Neurol Clin 2021 05 31;39(2):419-442. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurologic emergency that requires immediate patient stabilization and prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early measures should focus on principles of advanced cardiovascular life support. The aneurysm should be evaluated and treated in a comprehensive stroke center by a multidisciplinary team capable of endovascular and, operative approaches. Once the aneurysm is secured, the patient is best managed by a dedicated neurocritical care service to prevent and manage complications, including a syndrome of delayed neurologic decline. The goal of such specialized care is to prevent secondary injury, reduce length of stay, and improve outcomes for survivors of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2021.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147706PMC
May 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Infective Endocarditis-Related Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 8;30(6):105775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis.

Materials And Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals.

Results: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105775DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Hydrophilic polymer embolization following flow diversion of cerebral aneurysms.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Aug 26;34(4):363-369. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Boston University-School of Medicine, USA.

Foreign body embolization is a rare and potentially under-recognized complication of neuroendovascular procedures. This complication should be considered in the differential diagnosis for clinical or radiological deterioration following neurovascular interventions. We report a case of foreign body hydrophilic coating embolization that occurred following an attempted flow diversion of an intracranial aneurysm with dramatic flare-up after repeat exposure. We also provide a literature review of all reported cases of hydrophilic polymer embolization following flow diversion procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19714009211004185DOI Listing
August 2021

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in COVID-19 Patients: A Multicenter Study and Review of Literature.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 4;30(6):105733. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: COVID-19 infection has been known to predispose patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A few reports from the literature suggest that Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVSTs) may be a direct complication of COVID-19.

Objective: To review the clinical and radiological presentation of COVID-19 positive patients diagnosed with CVST.

Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 reviewed from March 1, 2020 to November 8, 2020. We evaluated their clinical presentations, risk factors, clinical management, and outcome. We reviewed all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to November 13, 2020.

Results: There were 8 patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 during the study period at 7 out of 31 participating centers. Patients in our case series were mostly female (7/8, 87.5%). Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms such as headache (50%), fever (50%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (75%). Several patients presented with focal neurologic deficits (2/8, 25%) or decreased consciousness (2/8, 25%). D-dimer and inflammatory biomarkers were significantly elevated relative to reference ranges in patients with available laboratory data. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were the most common sites for acute CVST formation (6/8, 75%). Median time to onset of focal neurologic deficit from initial COVID-19 diagnosis was 3 days (interquartile range 0.75-3 days). Median time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVST radiologic diagnosis was 11 days (interquartile range 6-16.75 days). Mortality was low in this cohort (1/8 or 12.5%).

Conclusions: Clinicians should consider the risk of acute CVST in patients positive for COVID-19, especially if neurological symptoms develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931726PMC
June 2021

Endovascular thrombectomy time metrics in the era of COVID-19: observations from the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Multicenter Collaboration.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Health Care, Camden, New Jersey, USA

Background: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment.

Results: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (β=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (β=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (β=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (β=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05).

Conclusions: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871225PMC
February 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 07 29;16(5):573-584. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
July 2021

Twig-like middle cerebral arteries: Clinical and radiological findings.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 3;73:31-37. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Background And Purpose: Aplastic or twig-like middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a rare vascular anomaly characterized by replacement of the M1 segment by a plexiform network of small vessels. Though rare, familiarity with this entity and ability to differentiate it from radiological mimics such as moyamoya changes and steno-occlusive diseases are important. We review the clinical and radiological manifestations of patients diagnosed with twig-like MCA on cerebral angiograms over a five-year period.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with twig-like MCA on cerebral angiograms was performed from January 2015 to January 2020. This was the inclusion criterion for this retrospective study. For each patient, demographic data, clinical presentation, imaging findings and management strategies were reviewed.

Results And Conclusions: Between January 2015 and January 2020, three patients with twig-like MCA were identified from 657 patients who underwent four-vessel diagnostic cerebral angiograms (0.45%). In all three cases, the involvement was unilateral (two left-sided and one right- sided). Two patients were male, and one was female. Patients ages were 25, 26 and 46 years. Two of the three patients presented with headache and the third patient with pulsatile tinnitus. There were otherwise no ischemic or hemorrhagic changes. No other vascular anomaly was identified. Twig-like MCA is a rare anatomical variant in which a plexiform network of small vessels replaces the M1 segment of the MCA. Accurate diagnosis and distinguishing this entity from radiological mimics such as moyamoya and steno-occlusive diseases are important for appropriate management and to prevent unnecessary investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.11.049DOI Listing
May 2021

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thromboses in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Three Cases and a Review of the Literature.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Dec 19;29(12):105412. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Early studies suggest that acute cerebrovascular events may be common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with a high mortality rate. Most cerebrovascular events described have been ischemic strokes, but both intracerebral hemorrhage and rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have also been reported. The diagnosis of CVST can be elusive, with wide-ranging and nonspecific presenting symptoms that can include headache or altered sensorium alone.

Objective: To describe the presentation, barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of CVST in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We abstracted data on all patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 from March 1 to August 9, 2020 at Boston Medical Center. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature and extracted all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 through August 9, 2020 and included all studies with case descriptions.

Results: We describe the clinical features and management of CVST in 3 women with COVID-19 who developed CVST days to months after initial COVID-19 symptoms. Two patients presented with encephalopathy and without focal neurologic deficits, while one presented with visual symptoms. All patients were treated with intravenous hydration and anticoagulation. None suffered hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged home. We identified 12 other patients with CVST in the setting of COVID-19 via literature search. There was a female predominance (54.5%), most patients presented with altered sensorium (54.5%), and there was a high mortality rate (36.4%).

Conclusions: During this pandemic, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for CVST in patients with a recent history of COVID-19 presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms such as headache to provide expedient management and prevent complications. The limited data suggests that CVST in COVID-19 is more prevalent in females and may be associated with high mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571902PMC
December 2020

Ruptured Spinal Aneurysms: Diagnosis and Management Paradigms.

World Neurosurg 2021 02 23;146:e368-e377. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Neurology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Spinal aneurysms (SA) are rare neurovascular pathologies with an unclear natural history and management strategy. We review the clinical and radiologic manifestations, management, and outcome of patients who presented with spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured spinal aneurysms over a 10-year period. We provide a literature review about this condition and its management.

Methods: All patients diagnosed with nontraumatic spinal SAH were collected from a single-center prospectively maintained database of patients with SAH between January 2010 and January 2020. Patients diagnosed with spinal aneurysms were reviewed. For each patient, demographic data, clinical presentation, imaging findings, management strategies, and outcomes are reviewed and discussed.

Results: Between January 2010 and January 2020, ten patients were diagnosed with nontraumatic spinal SAH (3 patients presented with isolated spinal SAH and 7 patients with concomitant spinal and posterior fossa SAH). Among those, 4 patients were found to have a spinal aneurysm as the cause of SAH. The aneurysms were located in the cervical regions in 3 patients (75%) and at the thoracic level in 1 patient. Two aneurysms (50%) involved the anterior spinal artery, and 2 aneurysms (50%) involved a radiculomedullary artery. One aneurysm was a flow-related aneurysm of the anterior spinal artery in the setting of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion and was treated by surgical clipping with good outcome. Three aneurysms were idiopathic pseudoaneurysms with a negative diagnostic evaluation for secondary causes. These pseudoaneurysms were treated conservatively; 2 patients did well and 1 patient passed away from severe intracranial vasospasm. Two aneurysms resolved on diagnostic angiogram, and 1 aneurysm was absent on initial angiogram and appeared on follow-up diagnostic imaging 3 months later.

Conclusions: Spinal aneurysms are rare neurovascular pathologies that should be considered in the setting of spinal and/or posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conservative treatment may be a potential safe alternative to interventional treatment. Before the initiation of surgical or endovascular treatment, spinal angiography should be repeated because of the potential for spontaneous resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.10.098DOI Listing
February 2021

Early major recurrence of cerebral aneurysms after satisfactory initial coiling.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 20;27(2):172-180. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Early major recurrence (EMR) of cerebral aneurysms treated by coiling has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize the frequency and risk factors of this phenomenon.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients who presented with ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms and underwent coiling from July 2009 to June 2019 at a university hospital. We defined EMR as recurrence of the aneurysm greater than its initial size within the first 6 months of an initial satisfactory coil embolization. Patient demographics, clinical information, aneurysm characteristics, angiographic and technical details were reviewed.

Results: From July 2009 to June 2019, 338 aneurysms (190 unruptured aneurysms and 148 ruptured cerebral aneurysms) underwent coiling and satisfied our study criteria. Among these patients, 23 patients (19 ruptured and 4 unruptured aneurysms) were found to have recurrent aneurysm. Of those, 4 were found to have early major aneurysm regrowth occurring within 6 months after coiling (1.2%). The detection of the EMR was as early as 4 weeks and as late as 20 weeks after the initial coil embolization. The average detection time was 10 ± 7.2 weeks (mean ± SD, range:4-20 weeks). In each case, the recurrent aneurysm cavity was more than twice the initial size of presentation. All aneurysms with major recurrence were ruptured with low aspect ratios (dome height to neck ratio) and involved a communicating segment. All patients underwent successful retreatment of the recurrent aneurysm with good outcome.

Conclusions: Early major recurrence of treated aneurysms is a rare but important complication that harbors an impending risk of re-rupture. Early control angiography after endovascular coiling may be warranted for small ruptured aneurysms, even in cases in which the initial result seems technically satisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019920968370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050524PMC
April 2021

Roadmap for Resuming Elective Neuroendovascular Procedures Following the First COVID-19 Surge.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Nov 27;29(11):105177. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Departments of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, 820 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118, USA; Neurology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Neurosurgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383144PMC
November 2020

Subarachnoid hemorrhage guidance in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic - An opinion to mitigate exposure and conserve personal protective equipment.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 5;29(9):105010. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Neurology, Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Neurology, Neurosurgery, Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Electronic address:

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients require frequent neurological examinations, neuroradiographic diagnostic testing and lengthy intensive care unit stay. Previously established SAH treatment protocols are impractical to impossible to adhere to in the current COVID-19 crisis due to the need for infection containment and shortage of critical care resources, including personal protective equipment (PPE). Centers need to adopt modified protocols to optimize SAH care and outcomes during this crisis. In this opinion piece, we assembled a multidisciplinary, multicenter team to develop and propose a modified guidance algorithm that optimizes SAH care and workflow in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance is to be adapted to the available resources of a local institution and does not replace clinical judgment when faced with an individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274572PMC
September 2020

Endovascular coiling of large mastoid emissary vein causing pulsatile tinnitus.

Interv Neuroradiol 2020 Dec 14;26(6):821-825. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University-School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

The association of large mastoid emissary veins and pulsatile tinnitus has been reported. However, therapeutic options for this condition remain limited. We report a case of endovascular coiling of a large mastoid emissary vein in a patient with disabling pulsatile tinnitus with significant improvement of symptoms. To our knowledge, endovascular coiling of large mastoid emissary vein causing pulsatile tinnitus has not been reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019920926333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724599PMC
December 2020

MRI-detected spinal disc degenerative changes in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics games.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jan 20;21(1):45. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building 3rd Floor, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Objective: To describe the frequency and the distribution of degenerative disc disease (DDD) detected in athletes who underwent spine MRI in the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

Methods: Data on spine MRI examinations from the 2016 Summer Olympics were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed the frequency of DDD of the cervical (Cs), thoracic (Ts), and lumbar (Ls) spine using Pfirrmann's classification. Grade II and III were considered as mild, grade IV as moderate, and grade V as severe disc degeneration. Data were analyzed according to the location of the degenerative disc, type of sport, age-groups, and gender of the athletes.

Results: One hundred out of 11,274 athletes underwent 108 spine MRI's (21 C, 6 T, and 81 L) (53% Females (F), 47% Males (M)). The frequency of DDD was 40% (42% F, 58% M) over the entire spine (28% mild, 9% moderate and 3% severe). There were 58% (12%F, 88%M) of the cervical spine discs that showed some degree of degeneration (44% mild, 13.5% moderate and 1% severe). Athletics, Boxing, and Swimming were the sports most affected by DDD in the Cs. There were 12.5% of the thoracic discs that showed some degree of degeneration, all were mild DDD and were exclusively seen in female athletes. There were 39% (53% F, 47% M) of the lumbar discs with DDD (26% mild, 9% moderate, and 4% severe).

Conclusion: Athletes who underwent spine MRI during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games show a high frequency of DDD of cervical and lumbar spines. Recognition of these conditions is important to develop training techniques that may minimize the development of degenerative pathology of the spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-3057-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6972034PMC
January 2020

Coil migration during or after endovascular coiling of cerebral aneurysms.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 May 29;12(5):505-511. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Neurology, Radiology and Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Coil migration is a complication of endovascular coiling of cerebral aneurysms that has not been well studied.

Objective: To report the frequency, risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes of coil migration.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiological data of patients who underwent cerebral aneurysm coiling complicated by coil migration at five neuroendovascular centers in the United States, Canada, and France between 2008 and 2018.

Results: Eighteen cases of coil migration met our study criteria with an occurrence of 0.3% (18/6071 cases) (procedural migration: 55%, delayed migration: 45%). The mean aneurysm maximal diameter, neck, and height to neck ratio in migration cases were 3.4±1.4 mm (range 2-7.6 mm), 2.4±0.9 mm (range 1.2-4.4 mm), and 1.4±0.4 (range 1-2.15), respectively. The 2 mm diameter coil was the most common (39%, range 1-2.5 mm) migrated coil. The length of the migrated coil was ≤4 cm in 95% of cases.Patients managed conservatively (5/18, 28%) did well. Thromboembolic and/or hemorrhagic complications were noted in 6/10 migration patients treated by endovascular modalities and in all migration patients who underwent surgical treatment (4/4). Three deaths occurred (3/18, 17%) related to high Hunt and Hess grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Conclusion: Coil migration is an uncommon but important complication of cerebral aneurysm coiling. Small aneurysms, aspect ratio <1.6, and small coils are significant risk factors. Endovascular treatment, such as using a stent retriever, can be considered for procedural, proximal migration, and/or in cases of vessel occlusion. Delayed or distal migration should be managed conservatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015278DOI Listing
May 2020

Imaging of Intracranial Infections.

Semin Neurol 2019 06 2;39(3):322-333. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality despite the remarkable progress in prevention and treatment of infectious disease. Because of the difficulty of direct tissue sampling, imaging plays a crucial role in detecting, diagnosing, and monitoring the therapeutic response of CNS infections. An accurate diagnosis in CNS infections is especially rewarding, given the availability of potential effective antimicrobials.Bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections may affect the brain and/or its meningeal coverings, and can be characterized by a variety of radiological patterns that help narrow the differential diagnoses and eventually tailor the optimal management.This review addresses the typical imaging findings of intracranial infectious diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1693161DOI Listing
June 2019

Middle cerebral artery fenestration: Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications.

Interv Neuroradiol 2019 Dec 17;25(6):644-647. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, Université Catholique De Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Cerebral artery fenestrations are rare anatomical variants usually detected incidentally on cross-sectional imaging or cerebral angiography. Although considered benign findings, many reports have described their association with vascular abnormalities such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations, and to a lesser extent with ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. We report a case of middle cerebral artery fenestration associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage and middle cerebral artery thrombosis. To our knowledge, there has been no prior report of middle cerebral artery fenestration with a similar presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019919857157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838846PMC
December 2019
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