Publications by authors named "Mjoun K"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

J Dairy Sci 2016 Apr 4;99(4):2775-2787. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Alltech Inc., Brookings, SD 57006.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10014DOI Listing
April 2016

Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2014 Dec 26;97(12):7716-28. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan 84322.

Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8033DOI Listing
December 2014

Extruded aquafeeds containing distillers dried grains with solubles: effects on extrudate properties and processing behaviour.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 Dec 1;91(15):2865-74. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

USDA-ARS, North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, 2923 Medary Avenue, Brookings, SD 57006, USA.

Background: The tremendous supply and low cost of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) make it an attractive feedstuff for aquaculture diets. Also, several studies have shown that DDGS can be successfully fed to various finfish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of DDGS (0, 250, 500 g kg(-1) ), feed moisture content (350, 450 g kg(-1) ) and die opening area (die A = 18.85 mm(2) , die B = 3988.45 mm(2) ) on the properties of the extrudates and on processing behaviour using a single-screw extruder.

Results: Increasing the inclusion rate of DDGS resulted in extrudates with lower unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, water solubility index and brightness (Hunter L) but higher redness (Hunter a) and yellowness (Hunter b). The increase in moisture content affected the extrudate properties in different ways: it increased bulk density, Hunter L, Hunter b and mass flow rate, whereas specific mechanical energy decreased at high moisture content. Increasing the die opening area primarily decreased expansion ratio of extrudates, power consumption and barrel temperatures but increased mass flow rate.

Conclusion: Extrudates from all treatments exhibited high durability and floatability, and less energy was required to produce extrudates when DDGS was used compared with soybean meal-based diets. The aquaculture industry can use this information to develop high-quality feeds at low cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4536DOI Listing
December 2011

Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of wet corn distillers grains with solubles ensiled in combination with whole plant corn.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 May 18;91(7):1336-40. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Background: Wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) are prone to aerobic spoilage when stored for an extended period of time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiling WDG with whole plant corn (WPC) using the following combinations: (1) 100% WPC; (2) 75% WPC + 25% WDG; (3) 50% WPC + 50% WDG; and (4) 100% WDG.

Results: The initial pH was greatest for 100% WPC and lowest for 100% WDG (5.7, 4.6, 4.0, and 3.1, respectively). Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (12.0, 26.8, 40.7, and 50.8 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and Crude protein (CP) (98.7, 155.8, 206.8, and 307.9 g kg(-1) of DM) increased with increasing concentrations of WDG. Lactic acid concentration prior to ensiling was greatest for 100% WDG (9.0 g kg(-1) DM) and decreased with WPC in the silage. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were not present prior to ensiling. The pH of the ensiled feeds dropped below 4.0 by day 3, with no further decrease over time. Acetic acid increased from undetected amounts at day 0 to 38.8, 43.9, 43.2, and 2.2 g kg(-1) of DM at day 129 as concentration of WDG increased. Aerobic stability was enhanced with increasing WDG concentration in the silage.

Conclusion: Fermentation, nutrient profile, and aerobic stability can be improved when ensiling wet distillers grains with whole plant corn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4323DOI Listing
May 2011

Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Sep;93(9):4144-54

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal digestibility of most AA in DG products exceeded 92% and was slightly lower than for soybean products, except for Lys, where the digestibility was 84.6% for DG compared with 97.3% for soybean products. Absorbable Lys was lower for DG (7.0 g/kg of CP) compared with ESBM and ES (average of 23.8 g/kg of CP). Dried DG, ESBM, and ES provided more absorbable AA compared with SBM and MWDGS. These results suggest that the AA availability from DG products is comparable with that from soybean products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2883DOI Listing
September 2010

Performance and amino acid utilization of early lactation dairy cows fed regular or reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Jul;93(7):3176-91

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation response and AA utilization of early lactation cows fed 2 types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DG): regular (DDGS) or reduced-fat (RFDGS). Thirty-six Holstein cows 19.7+/-2.6 d in milk at the start of the experiment were used in a randomized complete block design for 14 wk including a 2-wk covariate period. Treatments consisted of the following diets: 1) control (CON) diet containing 0% DG; 2) diet containing 22% DDGS; and 3) diet containing 20% RFDGS. Distillers grains replaced soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and soyhulls from the CON diet. Diets were formulated to be similar in crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and net energy for lactation concentrations. Dry matter intake (24.7 kg/d) and milk yield (39.3 kg/d) were similar for all diets. Milk fat and lactose percentages were unaffected by diets; however, protein percentage was greater for cows fed the DG diets compared with the CON diet. Consequently, milk protein yield was also greater for the DG diets compared with CON. Milk urea nitrogen decreased for cows fed DG diets and averaged 11.8, 10.9, and 10.1 mg/dL, respectively, for CON, DDGS, and RFDGS. Feed efficiency tended to be greater and N efficiency was greater for cows fed DG compared with CON. Body weight (711 kg), body weight change (+0.49 kg/d), and body condition score (3.36) were similar for all diets, but cows fed CON tended to gain more body condition (+0.14) than cows fed DG diets. Amino acid utilization was evaluated at the peak of milk production corresponding to wk 9 of lactation. Arterial Lys concentration was lower with DG diets (70.4, 58.6, and 55.8 microM/L). Cows fed DG had greater arterial Met concentration (21.3 microM) compared with CON (14.9 microM). Arterio-venous difference of Lys was similar across diets, whereas that of Met was greater for the DG diets compared with the CON diet (10.3 vs. 13.0 microM/L). Extraction efficiency of Lys by the mammary gland was greater for DG diets than for CON (76.1 vs. 65.4%). Mammary uptake of Lys (2.56 g/kg of milk) was similar for all diets, and the uptake of Met tended to increase in cows fed DG diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol were unaffected by treatment; however, cows fed DG diets had lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and tended to have lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows fed the CON diet. Despite the apparent deficiency of Lys, milk protein percentage was increased in cows fed DG diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2974DOI Listing
July 2010

Lactation performance and amino acid utilization of cows fed increasing amounts of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Jan;93(1):288-303

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

The use of a solvent-extraction process that removes corn oil from distillers grains produces a reduced-fat co-product (RFDG). To determine the optimal concentration of RFDG in mid-lactation diets, 22 multiparous and 19 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design for 8 wk, including a 2-wk covariate period. The RFDG was included at 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the diet on a dry matter basis, replacing soybean feedstuffs. Increasing RFDG in diets had no effect on dry matter intake (23.1 kg/d) or milk production (35.0 kg/d). Milk fat percentage increased linearly from 3.18 to 3.72% as RFDG increased from 0 to 30% of the diet. Similarly, milk fat yield tended to increase linearly from 1.08 to 1.32 kg/d. Milk protein percentage (2.99, 3.06, 3.13, and 2.99% for diets with RFDG from 0 to 30%) responded quadratically, whereas protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk urea N decreased linearly from 15.8 to 13.1mg/dL. The efficiency of N utilization for milk production was not affected by including RFDG (26.1%), whereas the efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) tended to increase linearly with increasing RFDG in the diet. Similarly, concentrations of plasma glucose increased linearly. Arterial Lys decreased linearly from 66.0 to 44.8 microM/L, whereas arterial Met increased linearly from 16.5 to 29.3 microM/L. Arteriovenous difference of Lys decreased linearly from 42.6 to 32.5 microM/L, whereas that of Met was unaffected. The extraction of Lys by the mammary gland increased linearly from 64.3 to 72.2%, whereas that of Met decreased linearly from 71.6 to 42.7%. Feeding up to 30% of RFDG in a mid-lactation diet supported lactation performance similarly to cows fed the soybean protein-based diet (0% RFDG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2377DOI Listing
January 2010

Ruminal phosphorus disappearance from corn and soybean feedstuffs.

J Dairy Sci 2008 Oct;91(10):3938-46

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Byproducts of corn and soybeans have high phosphorus (P) content, but little is known about their P disappearance in the rumen of lactating dairy cows. In situ disappearance of P from corn and soybean feed-stuffs was determined in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 3 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used to estimate in situ P disappearance of 9 feed ingredients that included 3 sources of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG; DGa, DGb, DGc), corn, corn germ, solvent-extracted soybean meal, (44% CP; SBM), expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus; SP), extruded soybeans (ES), and soyhulls (SH). Nylon bags were incubated in the rumen of each cow for 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h. The water-soluble fraction of P (A(P)) was greatest in DDG (mean 82.1%) followed by corn germ (77%), with SH having the least A(P) among all feedstuffs (45%). The remaining feedstuffs (SBM, SP, ES, and corn) were similar in A(P) (64.2%). The slowly available fraction of P (B(P)) was greatest in SH (45.6%), lowest in DDG (13.5%), and intermediate, averaging 31.4%, in SBM, ES, SP, and corn. The effective disappearance of P (ED(P)) was greatest for DDG (93.5%), whereas corn germ, ES, SBM, and SP followed with an ED(P) of 93.3, 88.0, 87.5, and 87.0%, respectively. The ED(P) was less for corn and SH than for the other feedstuffs at 83.3 and 69.1%, respectively. Rate of P disappearance was similar for all feedstuffs (16.2%/h). In the second experiment, 3 new sources of DDG (DG1, DG2, and DG3), and one wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) source were incubated for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h on replicate days in the rumen of 2 cannulated lactating dairy cows. Fraction A(P) varied from 82.7 to 90.3%, with that in WDG being the least soluble. The WDG source had a greater B(P) fraction (15.8%) compared with the DDG sources (9.5%). The WDG had the lowest ED(P) (88.1%), whereas the DDG varied from 89.7 to 92.7%. Corn and soybean byproducts tested, with the exception of SH, have high ruminal P disappearance as measured with the Dacron bag technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0688DOI Listing
October 2008
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