Publications by authors named "Miyako Satouchi"

89 Publications

Effect of Second-generation vs Third-generation Chemotherapy Regimens With Thoracic Radiotherapy on Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: 10-Year Follow-up of a WJTOG0105 Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Importance: Insufficient data are available regarding the long-term outcomes and cumulative incidences of toxic effects that are associated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

Objective: To evaluate survival and late toxic effects 10 years after patients were treated with curative CRT.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter, phase 3 West Japan Thoracic Oncology Group (WJTOG) 0105 randomized clinical trial was conducted between September 2001 and September 2005 in Japan. Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed non-small-cell lung cancer with unresectable stage III disease were assessed for eligibility. Additional data were analyzed from January 2018 to December 2019.

Interventions: A total of 440 eligible patients were randomly assigned to groups as follows: A (control), 4 cycles of mitomycin/vindesine/cisplatin plus thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) of 60 Gy; B, weekly irinotecan/carboplatin for 6 weeks plus TRT of 60 Gy followed by 2 courses of irinotecan/carboplatin consolidation; or C, weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin for 6 weeks plus TRT of 60 Gy followed by 2 courses of paclitaxel/carboplatin consolidation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was 10-year survival probability after CRT. The secondary outcome was late toxic effects that occurred more than 90 days after initiating CRT.

Results: From September 2001 to September 2005, 440 patients (group A, n = 146 [33.2%; median (range) age, 63 (31-74) years; 18 women (12.3%)]; group B, n = 147 [33.4%; median (range) age, 63 (30-75) years; 22 women (15.0%)]; group C, n = 147 [33.4%; median (range) age, 63 (38-74) years; 19 women (12.9%)]) were enrolled. The median (range) follow-up was 11.9 (7.6-13.3) years. In groups A, B, and C, median (range) overall survival times were 20.5 (17.5-26.0), 19.8 (16.7-23.5), and 22.0 (18.7-26.2) months, respectively, and 10-year survival probabilities were 13.6%, 7.5%, and 15.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall survival among treatment groups. The 10-year progression-free survival probabilities were 8.5%, 6.5%, and 11.1% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 late toxic effect rates were 3.4% (heart, 0.7%; lung, 2.7%) in group A, and those only affecting the lung represented 3.4% and 4.1% in groups B and C, respectively. No other cases of late toxic effects (grades 3/4) were observed since the initial report.

Conclusion And Relevance: In this 10-year follow-up of a phase 3 randomized clinical trial, group C achieved similar efficacy and toxic effect profiles as group A 10 years after initiating treatment. These results serve as a historical control for the long-term comparisons of outcomes of future clinical trials of CRT.

Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000030811.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7974833PMC
March 2021

Final survival results for the LURET phase II study of vandetanib in previously treated patients with RET-rearranged advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2021 May 10;155:40-45. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577, Japan.

Objectives: The LURET phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the multikinase inhibitor vandetanib in patients with previously treatedRET-rearranged advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among the eligible patients included in the primary analysis, the objective response rate met the primary endpoint (53 %, 90 % confidence interval [CI]: 31-74). Here, we report final survival outcomes of the LURET study.

Materials And Methods: Nineteen patients with previously treated RET-rearranged advanced NSCLC continuously received 300 mg of oral vandetanib daily. This final analysis provides updated data on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. This study was registered with UMIN-CTR (number UMIN 000010095).

Results: Among the 19 patients in the intention-to-treat population, 42 % had been heavily treated with 3 or more prior chemotherapy regimens. The median PFS was 6.5 months (95 % CI, 3.9-9.3) as determined by an independent radiology review committee. The median OS was 13.5 months (95 % CI, 9.8-28.1) and the overall survival rate at 12 months was 52.6 % (95 % CI 28.7-71.9). The most common adverse events were hypertension (84.2 %), diarrhea (78.9 %), and rash acneiform (63.2 %). Overall, 11 patients (57.9 %) had adverse events leading to a dose reduction, although the safety profile was consistent with that reported in previous studies.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that vandetanib enabled a prolonged and clinically meaningful PFS and OS in patients with previously treatedRET-rearranged advanced NSCLC at the updated final analysis. The safety profile was consistent with that reported in previous studies, although most of the patients experienced off-target adverse events besides RET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.03.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Phase 2 Study of Nimotuzumab in Combination With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 26;22(2):134-141. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: We evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of nimotuzumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody, with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Patients And Methods: In this multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial conducted in Japan (JapicCTI-090825), patients received thoracic radiotherapy (60 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction, 6 weeks) and four 4-week cycles of chemotherapy (day 1, cisplatin 80 mg/m; days 1 and 8, vinorelbine 20 mg/m). Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administrated weekly for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was treatment completion rate, defined as the percentage of patients completing 60 Gy of radiotherapy within 8 weeks, 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and at least 75% of the required nimotuzumab dose during the initial 2-cycle concurrent chemoradiotherapy period.

Results: Of 40 patients enrolled, 39 received the study treatment, which was well tolerated, with a completion rate of 87.2%. Thirty-eight patients completed 60 Gy of radiotherapy within 8 weeks. Infusion reaction, grade 3 or higher rash, grade 3 or higher radiation pneumonitis, or grade 4 or higher nonhematologic toxicity were not observed. The objective response rate was 69.2%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and 5-year PFS rate were 508 days and 29.0%, respectively. The 5-year PFS rate in patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23) was 13.7% and in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 16) was 50.0%. The 5-year overall survival rate was 58.4%.

Conclusion: Addition of nimotuzumab to the concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was well tolerated and showed potential for treating patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.12.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Five-year follow-up results from phase II studies of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer: pooled analysis of the ONO-4538-05 and ONO-4538-06 studies.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jan;51(1):106-113

Thoracic Center, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Two phase II studies in Japan examined the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, a programmed cell death 1 receptor inhibitor, in patients with advanced squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (ONO-4538-05 and ONO-4538-06). We examined the long-term efficacy and safety of nivolumab in these patients treated for up to 5 years.

Methods: Patients with squamous (N = 35) or non-squamous (N = 76) non-small cell lung cancer received nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) until disease progression/death. Overall survival and progression-free survival were assessed at 5 years after starting treatment in separate and pooled analyses. Safety was evaluated in terms of treatment-related adverse events.

Results: A total of 17 patients were alive at the database lock (26 July 2019). The median overall survival (95% confidence interval) and 5-year survival rate were 16.3 (12.4-25.2) months and 14.3% in squamous patients, 17.1 (13.3-23.0) months and 19.4% in non-squamous patients and 17.1 (14.2-20.6) months and 17.8% in the pooled analysis, respectively. Programmed death ligand-1 expression tended to be greater among 5-year survivors than in non-survivors (P = 0.0703). Overall survival prolonged with increasing programmed death ligand-1 expression, with 5-year survival rates of 11.8, 21.8 and 41.7% in patients with programmed death ligand-1 expression of <1, ≥1-<50 and ≥50%, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events in ≥10% of patients (pooled analysis) included rash (15.3%), malaise (14.4%), decreased appetite (14.4%), pyrexia (14.4%) and nausea (10.8%).

Conclusions: Long-term survival with nivolumab was observed in patients with squamous or non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. No new safety signals were reported after ≥5 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767981PMC
January 2021

Multiplex gene-panel testing for lung cancer patients.

Pathol Int 2020 Dec 21;70(12):921-931. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan.

The year 2019 was considered to be the first year of cancer genome medicine in Japan, with three gene-panel tests using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques being introduced into clinical practice. Among the three tests, the Oncomine CDx Target test was approved under the category of regular molecular testing for lung cancer, which meant that this test could be used to select patients for molecularly targeted drugs. Conversely, the other two tests, NCC OncoPanel and FoundationOne CDx, were assigned to be used under the National Cancer Genome Medicine Network, and implementation was restricted to patients for whom standard treatment was completed or expected to be completed. These NGS tests can detect a series of genetic alterations in individual tumors, which further promotes the development of therapeutic agents and elucidates molecular pathways. The NGS tests require appropriate tissue size and tumor cell content, which can be accessed only by pathologists. In this report, we review the current reimbursement schema in our national healthcare policy and the requirements of the specimens for NGS testing based on the recently published 'Guidance of Gene-panel Testing Using Next-Generation Sequencers for Lung Cancer', by the Japanese Society of Lung Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.13023DOI Listing
December 2020

First-line pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: KEYNOTE-024 Japan subset.

Cancer Sci 2020 Dec 16;111(12):4480-4489. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

This prespecified subanalysis of the global, randomized controlled phase III KEYNOTE-024 study of pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy in previously untreated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without EGFR/ALK alterations and a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score of 50% or higher evaluated clinical outcomes among patients enrolled in Japan. Treatment consisted of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks (35 cycles) or platinum-based chemotherapy (four to six cycles). The primary end-point was progression-free survival; secondary end-points included overall survival and safety. Of 305 patients randomized in KEYNOTE-024 overall, 40 patients were enrolled in Japan (all received treatment: pembrolizumab, n = 21; chemotherapy, n = 19). Median progression-free survival was 41.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2-42.5) months with pembrolizumab and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.8-8.3) months with chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.27 [95% CI, 0.11-0.65]; one-sided, nominal P = .001). Median overall survival was not reached (NR) (95% CI, 22.9-NR) and 21.5 (95% CI, 5.2-35.0) months, respectively (HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.17-0.91]; one-sided, nominal P = .012). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 21/21 (100%) pembrolizumab-treated and 18/19 (95%) chemotherapy-treated patients; eight patients (38%) and nine patients (47%), respectively, had grade 3-5 events. Immune-mediated adverse events and infusion reactions occurred in 11 pembrolizumab-treated patients (52%) and four chemotherapy-treated patients (21%), respectively; four patients (19%) and one patient (5%), respectively, had grade 3-5 events. Consistent with results from KEYNOTE-024 overall, first-line pembrolizumab improved progression-free survival and overall survival vs chemotherapy with manageable safety among Japanese patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without EGFR/ALK alterations and a PD-L1 tumor proportion score of 50% or higher. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02142738.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734005PMC
December 2020

Efficacy of Selpercatinib in Fusion-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 08;383(9):813-824

From Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College (A.D., E.R.) and New York University Langone Medical Center (V.V.), New York, and Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (G.K.D.) - all in New York; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (G.R.O.) and Massachusetts General Hospital (J.G.), Boston; National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore (D.S.W.T.); the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (H.H.F.L.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville (M.J.); University of California, San Francisco-Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (C.E.M.), University of California, San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla (L.B.), and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte (K.L.R.) - all in California; University of Bern, Bern, and Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne, Lucerne - both in Switzerland (O.G.); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (B.B.), Hospital La Timone, Marseille (F.B.), and Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (P.A.C.) - all in France; Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System (B.C.C.), and Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (K.P.), Seoul, and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Y.J.K.) - all in South Korea; Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel (N.P.); University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (J. Weiss); National Cancer Center Hospital (Y.O.) and Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (M. Nishio), Tokyo, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka (T. Seto), Tottori University Hospital, Tottori (T. Sakamoto), Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (M.S.), Okayama University Hospital, Okayama (K.O.), and National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (K.G.) - all in Japan; University of Chicago, Chicago (J.P.); the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (M.H.S.), and Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (N.A.P.); Istituto Nazionale Tumori-National Cancer Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan (F.D.B.); Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona (E.G.); Center for Integrated Oncology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany (J. Wolf); Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (B.S.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute at HealthONE, Denver (G.F.); Loxo Oncology, Stamford, CT (K.E., M. Nguyen, B.N., E.Y.Z., L.Y., X.H., E.O., S.M.R.); and the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (V.S.).

Background: fusions are oncogenic drivers in 1 to 2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In patients with fusion-positive NSCLC, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown.

Methods: We enrolled patients with advanced fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated separately in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response) as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: In the first 105 consecutively enrolled patients with fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received at least platinum-based chemotherapy, the percentage with an objective response was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 73). The median duration of response was 17.5 months (95% CI, 12.0 to could not be evaluated), and 63% of the responses were ongoing at a median follow-up of 12.1 months. Among 39 previously untreated patients, the percentage with an objective response was 85% (95% CI, 70 to 94), and 90% of the responses were ongoing at 6 months. Among 11 patients with measurable central nervous system metastasis at enrollment, the percentage with an objective intracranial response was 91% (95% CI, 59 to 100). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 14% of the patients), an increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 12%), an increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 10%), hyponatremia (in 6%), and lymphopenia (in 6%). A total of 12 of 531 patients (2%) discontinued selpercatinib because of a drug-related adverse event.

Conclusions: Selpercatinib had durable efficacy, including intracranial activity, with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506467PMC
August 2020

Lorlatinib in previously treated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer: Japanese subgroup analysis of a global study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Oct 11;111(10):3726-3738. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

The Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Lorlatinib is a potent, brain-penetrant, third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is active against most known resistance mutations. This is an ongoing phase 1/2, multinational study (NCT01970865) investigating the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of lorlatinib in ALK-rearranged/ROS1-rearranged advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with or without intracranial (IC) metastases. Because patterns of ALK TKI use in Japan differ from other regions, we present a subgroup analysis of Japanese patients. Patients were enrolled into six expansion (EXP) cohorts based on ALK/ROS1 mutation status and treatment history. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR) and the IC-ORR based on independent central review. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic evaluations. At data cutoff, 39 ALK-rearranged/ROS1-rearranged Japanese patients were enrolled across the six expansion cohorts; all received lorlatinib 100 mg once daily. Thirty-one ALK-rearranged patients previously treated with ≥1 ALK TKI (EXP2 to EXP5) were evaluable for ORR and 15 were evaluable for IC-ORR. The ORR and the IC-ORR for Japanese patients in EXP2-5 were 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.0-72.7) and 46.7% (95% CI: 21.3-73.4), respectively. Among patients who had received prior alectinib only (EXP3B), the ORR was 42.9%; 95% CI: 9.9-81.6). The most common treatment-related adverse event (TRAE) was hypercholesterolemia (79.5%). Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common grade 3/4 TRAE (25.6%). Single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles among Japanese patients were similar to those in non-Japanese patients. Lorlatinib showed clinically meaningful responses and IC responses among ALK-rearranged Japanese patients with NSCLC who received ≥1 prior ALK TKI, including meaningful responses among those receiving prior alectinib only. Lorlatinib was generally well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540988PMC
October 2020

Open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II study on docetaxel plus bevacizumab or pemetrexed plus bevacizumab for treatment of elderly (aged ≥75 years) patients with previously untreated advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: TORG1323.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Jun;9(3):459-470

Department of Thoracic Oncology and Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan.

Background: The effectiveness of bevacizumab monotherapy in elderly patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. The efficacy of the combinations for elderly patients was explored.

Methods: Untreated patients (≥75 years; performance status 0-1) with stage IIIB, IV, or recurrent non-squamous NSCLC were included. Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor () mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase () gene rearrangements were eligible even if they received tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive docetaxel (50 mg/m) (DB) or pemetrexed (500 mg/m) (PB) with bevacizumab (15 m/kg). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment was administered every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Results: Overall, 103 patients (DB: n=51; PB: n=52) were enrolled. In the DB and PB arms, median ages [range] were 78 [75-88] and 79 [75-94] years, respectively; median PFS were 6.1 and 4.6 months, respectively [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-1.61]; and response rates were 43%, and 40%, respectively (P=0.840). Grade ≥3 leukopenia, neutropenia, and fatigue incidences were significantly higher in the DB arm. Febrile neutropenia incidence did not differ significantly (16% . 12%, P=0.578). One patient in the PB arm died from a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Quality of life (QoL) analysis revealed less deterioration in the PB arm.

Conclusions: In previously untreated elderly patients with non-squamous NSCLC, PB shows feasibility, better QoL, and promising efficacy in terms of PFS, and an objective response rate for further analysis (UMIN000012786).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2020.03.29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354128PMC
June 2020

Lenvatinib in patients with advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma (REMORA): a multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 06;21(6):843-850

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Thymic carcinoma is a rare malignant disease and standard treatment for advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy has not been established. Lenvatinib is a novel multi-targeted inhibitor of VEGFR, FGFR, RET, c-Kit, and other kinases. The aim of this trial was to assess the activity and safety of lenvatinib as a second-line treatment in thymic carcinoma.

Methods: This single-arm, phase 2 trial done in eight institutions in Japan (five cancer centres, two medical university hospitals, and one public hospital) enrolled patients with pathologically confirmed unresectable advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma that progressed following at least one platinum-based chemotherapy. Key inclusion criteria were age 20 years or older, at least one measurable lesion as defined by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 24 mg of lenvatinib orally once daily in 4-week cycles until disease progression or occurrence of unacceptable adverse events. The primary endpoint was objective response rate evaluated at the data cutoff date (Feb 22, 2019), by independent central review in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered on JMACCT, JMA-IIA00285, and on UMIN-CTR, UMIN000026777.

Findings: Between April 21, 2017, and Feb 22, 2018, 42 patients were enrolled and all patients were included in the activity and safety analysis. The median follow-up period was 15·5 months (IQR 13·1-17·5). The objective response rate was 38% (90% CI 25·6-52·0, p<0·0001). 16 (38%) of 42 patients had a partial response and 24 (57%) had stable disease. The most frequent grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (27 [64%]) and palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia syndrome (three [7%]). No patient died from adverse events.

Interpretation: The activity and safety of lenvatinib in patients with advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma was confirmed. These results suggest that lenvatinib could become a standard treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma.

Funding: Center for Clinical Trials, Japan Medical Association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30162-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of crizotinib in Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring a MET gene alteration: Co-MET study.

Trials 2020 Mar 30;21(1):298. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan.

Background: MET-deregulated non-small cell lung cancer represents an urgent clinical need because of the lack of specific therapies. Although recent studies have suggested a potential role for crizotinib in patients harboring MET gene alterations, no conclusive data are currently available. Therefore, we designed the Co-MET study, a single-arm phase II study to assess the efficacy and safety of crizotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers harboring MET gene alterations.

Methods: Co-MET is an open-label, multi-center, single-arm, phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of oral crizotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring MET exon 14 skipping mutation (cohort 1) or a high MET gene copy number of ≥ 7 (cohort 2). We will identify MET gene alterations using RT-PCR and/or next-generation sequencing. Oral crizotinib 250 mg BID will be administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. A radiology committee will review tumor scans according to the RECIST criteria. The primary endpoint is the objective response rate. Assuming a null hypothesis of 20% objective response rate and an alternative hypothesis of 50% objective response rate for cohort 1, and a one-sided alpha error of 0.05 and 80% power based on the exact binomial distribution, the required number of evaluable patients is 19. We set the exploratory sample size for cohort 2 at 10 patients.

Discussion: The results of this study are expected to provide evidence regarding the usefulness of oral crizotinib for advanced MET exon 14 skipping mutation-positive or MET high gene copy number-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

Trial Registration: This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000031623 on 3 March 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4221-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104510PMC
March 2020

The efficacy of carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel after cisplatin plus pemetrexed in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

Respir Investig 2020 Jul 26;58(4):269-274. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, 13-70 Kitaoji-cho, Akashi, Hyogo, 673-8558, Japan.

Background: Carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) is one of the available first-line treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the efficacy of carboplatin plus nab-PTX as second-line, remains unknown. We examined the efficacy of carboplatin plus nab-PTX after cisplatin plus pemetrexed in non-squamous NSCLC patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients who received carboplatin plus nab-PTX as a second-line chemotherapy regimen after cisplatin plus pemetrexed in our hospital between March 2013 and December 2017. We assessed clinical characteristics, efficacy, and toxicities.

Results: Forty-four patients were recruited. The overall response rate (ORR) was 29% and the disease control rate (DCR), 69%. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 3.7 months (95% CI: 2.4-5.5 months) and the median overall survival, 16.6 months (95% CI:8.8-19.5 months). We assessed the ORR and mPFS using the best overall response in the prior regimen. The ORR and mPFS were better in the PD group (ORR; 44% and mPFS: 5.6 months).

Conclusions: Carboplatin plus nab-PTX after cisplatin plus pemetrexed in non-squamous NSCLC patients is a treatment option. There were several cases where cisplatin plus pemetrexed was not effective, but Carboplatin plus nab-PTX was.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resinv.2019.12.008DOI Listing
July 2020

A phase I/II study of weekly nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

BMC Cancer 2020 Feb 11;20(1):115. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, 13-70 Kitaoji-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo, 673-8558, Japan.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC were eligible. In the phase I dose-escalation cohort (3 + 3 design), patients received nab-paclitaxel (80 or 100 mg/m given intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15) plus cisplatin (60 or 75 mg/m given intravenously on day 1) every 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m given intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m given intravenously on day 1) every 4 weeks was selected for the phase II cohort. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR).

Results: Twenty-three patients (phase I, n = 6; phase II, n = 17) were enrolled, and 22 patients were eligible. The median age was 67.5 years (range 37-75), 90.9% were males, 45.5% had adenocarcinoma and 81.8% had stage IV disease. The ORR was 59.1% (90% confidence interval (CI); 41.8-74.4), and the disease control rate was 86.4% (95% CI; 66.7-95.3). The median progression-free survival was 5.1 months (95% CI; 4.0-6.7), and the median overall survival was 24.2 months (95% CI; 8.4 months to not estimable). The common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were neutropenia (31.8%), leukopenia (27.3%), lung infection (18.2%) and hyponatremia (18.2%). There was one instance of grade 2 interstitial pneumonia and no treatment-related death.

Conclusions: Nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin was well tolerated and associated with encouraging response outcomes in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC. Further investigation is warranted.

Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000011776; Date of registration: 17 September 2013; Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 23 January 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6588-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014598PMC
February 2020

Osimertinib Overcomes Alectinib Resistance Caused by Amphiregulin in a Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Model of ALK-Rearranged Lung Cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 05 21;15(5):752-765. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Division of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa University Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa, Japan; Nano Life Science Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) occurs frequently in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged NSCLC and develops acquired resistance to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK TKIs). This study aimed to clarify the resistance mechanism to alectinib, a second-generation ALK TKI, in LMC and test a novel therapeutic strategy.

Methods: We induced alectinib resistance in an LMC mouse model with ALK-rearranged NSCLC cell line, A925LPE3, by continuous oral alectinib treatment, established A925L/AR cells. Resistance mechanisms were analyzed using several assays, including Western blot and receptor tyrosine kinase array. We also measured amphiregulin (AREG) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC with alectinib-refractory LMC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: A925L/AR cells were moderately resistant to various ALK TKIs, such as alectinib, crizotinib, ceritinib, and lorlatinib, compared with parental cells in vitro. A925L/AR cells acquired the resistance by EGFR activation resulting from AREG overexpression caused by decreased expression of microRNA-449a. EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR antibody resensitized A925L/AR cells to alectinib in vitro. In the LMC model with A925L/AR cells, combined treatment with alectinib and EGFR TKIs, such as erlotinib and osimertinib, successfully controlled progression of LMC. Mass spectrometry imaging showed accumulation of the EGFR TKIs in the tumor lesions. Moreover, notably higher AREG levels were detected in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with alectinib-resistant ALK-rearranged NSCLC with LMC (n = 4), compared with patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC with EGFR TKI-resistant LMC (n = 30), or patients without LMC (n = 24).

Conclusions: These findings indicate the potential of novel therapies targeting both ALK and EGFR for the treatment of ALK TKI-resistant LMC in ALK-rearranged NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.01.001DOI Listing
May 2020

Randomized phase II study of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin + S-1 versus cisplatin + pemetrexed for locally advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: SPECTRA study.

Lung Cancer 2020 03 10;141:64-71. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: SPECTRA is a multicenter, randomized phase II study of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) plus S-1 versus CDDP plus pemetrexed (PEM) in combination with thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for locally advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, in order to determine which of these two regimens might be preferable for comparison with standard therapies in a future phase III study.

Materials And Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive CDDP + S-1 (CDDP 60 mg/m on day 1 and S-1 80 mg/m2 on days 1-14, every 4 weeks, up to 4 cycles) or CDDP + PEM (CDDP 75 mg/m + PEM 500 mg/m on day 1, every 3 weeks, up to 4 cycles) combined with TRT (60 Gy in 30 fractions). The primary endpoint was the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The sample size had been set at 100 patients.

Results: A total of 102 patients were randomized to receive CDDP + S-1 or CDDP + PEM (CDDP + S-1, n = 52; CDDP + PEM, n = 50) between January 2013 and October 2016. The results in the CDDP + S1 group and CDDP + PEM group were as follows: completion rates of TRT (60 Gy)/chemotherapy (4 cycles) was 92 %/73 % and 98 %/86 %, respectively; the response rates were 60 % and 64 %, respectively; median PFS after a median follow-up of 32.1 months, 12.7/13.8 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.16; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.73-1.84); 2-year PFS rate, 36.5 % (95 % CI, 23.5-49.6)/32.1 % (95 %CI, 18.9-45.4); median OS, 48.3/59.1 months (HR = 1.05; 95 %CI, 0.58-1.90); 2-year OS rate, 69.2 % (95 %CI, 56.7-81.8)/66.4 % (95 %CI, 53.0-79.9); Grade 3 toxicities: febrile neutropenia (12 %/2 %), anorexia (8 %/16 %), diarrhea (8 %/0 %), esophagitis (6 %/8 %), and neutropenia (35 %/50 %); Grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis, 15 % (8 patients)/4 % (2 patients).

Conclusion: The 2-year PFS rate in the CDDP + S-1 arm was higher than that in the CDDP + PEM arm. Both treatments were safe, with manageable toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.01.008DOI Listing
March 2020

Antitumor activity of crizotinib in lung cancers harboring a MET exon 14 alteration.

Nat Med 2020 01 13;26(1):47-51. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

MET exon 14 alterations are oncogenic drivers of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). These alterations are associated with increased MET activity and preclinical sensitivity to MET inhibition. Crizotinib is a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET. The antitumor activity and safety of crizotinib were assessed in 69 patients with advanced NSCLCs harboring MET exon 14 alterations. Objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21-45) among 65 response-evaluable patients. Objective responses were observed independent of the molecular heterogeneity that characterizes these cancers and did not vary by splice-site region and mutation type of the MET exon 14 alteration, concurrent increased MET copy number or the detection of a MET exon 14 alteration in circulating tumor DNA. The median duration of response was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.4-12.7). The median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.1). MET exon 14 alteration defines a molecular subgroup of NSCLCs for which MET inhibition with crizotinib is active. These results address an unmet need for targeted therapy in people with lung cancers with MET exon 14 alterations and adds to an expanding list of genomically driven therapies for oncogenic subsets of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0716-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Final progression-free survival results from the J-ALEX study of alectinib versus crizotinib in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2020 01 28;139:195-199. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Thoracic Center, St. Luke's International Hospital, 9-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-8560, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The J-ALEX study compared the efficacy and safety of alectinib with crizotinib in Japanese patients with advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Superiority in independent review facility (IRF)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) was demonstrated for alectinib at the second pre-planned interim PFS analysis (data cutoff: December 3, 2015; hazard ratio [HR] 0.34, 99.7 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.71, P < 0.0001). We report final PFS data and the second pre-planned interim analysis of overall survival (OS) and safety (data cutoff: June 30, 2018).

Methods: Patients aged ≥20 years who were ALK inhibitor-naïve and chemotherapy-naïve, or had received one prior chemotherapy regimen, were randomized to receive alectinib 300 mg (n = 103) or crizotinib 250 mg (n = 104) twice daily. The primary end point was IRF-assessed PFS. Secondary end points included OS and safety. All patients entered survival follow-up in July 2018.

Results: Median follow-up was 42.4 months for alectinib and 42.2 months for crizotinib. Sustained improvement in IRF-assessed PFS with alectinib was shown (HR 0.37, 95 % CI: 0.26-0.52; median PFS 34.1 months vs 10.2 months crizotinib). At the second interim OS analysis, superiority of alectinib to crizotinib could not be concluded (stratified HR 0.80, 99.8799 % CI: 0.35-1.82, stratified log-rank P = 0.3860; median OS not reached alectinib vs 43.7 months crizotinib). Fewer alectinib-treated patients experienced grade ≥3 adverse events (36.9 % vs 60.6 % crizotinib).

Conclusions: At the final PFS analysis, alectinib continued to demonstrate superiority in IRF-assessed PFS versus crizotinib in ALK-inhibitor-naïve ALK-positive NSCLC, with a favorable safety profile. OS follow-up continues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.11.025DOI Listing
January 2020

Updated Survival Data for a Phase I/II Study of Carboplatin plus Nab-Paclitaxel and Concurrent Radiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncologist 2020 06 24;25(6):475-e891. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Lessons Learned: Updated survival data for a phase I/II study of carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel and concurrent radiotherapy were collected. In the group of 58 patients who were enrolled at 14 institutions in Japan, the median overall survival was not reached and the 2-year overall survival rate was 66.1% (95% confidence interval, 52.1%-76.8%). Results reveal encouraging feasibility and activity for this regimen.

Background: We report the updated survival data for a phase I/II study of carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel (nab-P/C) and concurrent radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Individuals between 20 and 74 years of age with unresectable NSCLC of stage IIIA or IIIB and a performance status of 0 or 1 were eligible for the study. Patients received weekly nab-paclitaxel at 50 mg/m for 6 weeks together with weekly carboplatin at an area under the curve (AUC) of 2 mg/ml/min and concurrent radiotherapy with 60 Gy in 30 fractions. This concurrent phase was followed by a consolidation phase consisting of two 3-week cycles of nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m on days 1, 8, and 15) plus carboplatin (AUC of 6 on day 1). After the treatment, patients were observed off therapy. The primary endpoint of the phase II part of the study was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Between October 2014 and November 2016, 58 patients were enrolled at 14 institutions in Japan, with 56 of these individuals being evaluable for treatment efficacy and safety. At the median follow-up time of 26.0 months (range, 4.0-49.6 months), the median overall survival (OS) was not reached (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.3 months to not reached) and the 2-year OS rate was 66.1% (95% CI, 52.1%-76.8%). The median PFS was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.2-21.0 months), and the 2-year PFS rate was 35.9% (95% CI, 23.1%-48.9%). Subgroup analysis according to tumor histology or patient age revealed no differences in median PFS or OS. Long-term follow-up of toxicities did not identify new safety signals, and no treatment-related deaths occurred during the study period.

Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiation with nab-P/C was safe and provided a long-term survival benefit for patients with locally advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288639PMC
June 2020

Three-year follow-up results from phase II studies of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Pooled analysis of ONO-4538-05 and ONO-4538-06 studies.

Cancer Med 2019 Sep 29;8(11):5183-5193. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Thoracic Center, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Nivolumab is a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor inhibitor antibody that enhances immune system antitumor activity. It is associated with longer overall survival (OS) than the standard treatment of docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced squamous (SQ) and non-squamous (non-SQ) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We previously conducted two phase II studies of nivolumab in Japanese patients with SQ (ONO-4538-05) and non-SQ (ONO-4538-06) NSCLC, showing overall response rates (ORRs) (95% CI) of 25.7% (14.2-42.1) and 22.4% (14.5-32.9), respectively, with acceptable toxicity. In this analysis, we more precisely estimated the long-term safety and efficacy in patients with SQ and non-SQ NSCLC by pooling data from these two trials.

Methods: SQ (N = 35) and non-SQ (N = 76) NSCLC patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg, every 2 weeks) until progression or discontinuation. OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A pooled analysis of SQ and non-SQ patients was also performed.

Results: In SQ NSCLC patients, the median OS (95% CI) was 16.3 months (12.4-25.2), and the estimated 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 71.4% (53.4-83.5), 37.1% (21.6-52.7), and 20.0% (8.8-34.4), respectively. In non-SQ NSCLC patients, median OS was 17.1 months (13.3-23.0), and the estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 68.0% (56.2-77.3), 37.4% (26.5-48.1), and 31.9% (21.7-42.5), respectively. When SQ NSCLC and non-SQ NSCLC data were pooled, the median OS was 17.1 months (14.2-20.6), and the estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 69.1% (59.6-76.8), 37.3% (28.3-46.2), and 28.1% (20.0-36.7), respectively. Twenty (76.9%) of 26 responders lived for 3 or more years. Nivolumab was well tolerated and no new safety signals were found.

Conclusion: Treatment with nivolumab improved long-term survival and was well tolerated in patients with SQ and non-SQ NSCLC.

Trial Registration: JapicCTI-132072; JapicCTI-132073.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718542PMC
September 2019

Osimertinib for Japanese patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A pooled subgroup analysis.

Cancer Sci 2019 Sep 1;110(9):2884-2893. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. However, almost all patients develop resistance after approximately 1 y of treatment, with >50% of cases due to the T790M secondary mutation of the EGFR gene. A large global Phase III study (AURA3) demonstrated that osimertinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) over platinum-doublet chemotherapy in patients with T790M-positive NSCLC who had progressed on previous EGFR-TKI therapy. However, it is not clear whether efficacy or safety of osimertinib in Japanese patients is similar to the overall population. We report a pre-planned subgroup analysis of pooled Phase II data from the AURA Extension and AURA2 trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in Japanese patients. This study included 81 Japanese patients. Patients were administered 80 mg osimertinib orally once daily until disease progression. The main endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), PFS, and safety. The ORR was 63.6% and median PFS was 13.8 mo. Overall survival rate at 36 mo was 54.0%. The most common all-cause adverse events (AEs) were rash (grouped term; 65.4%), diarrhea (51.9%), paronychia (grouped term; 49.4%), and dry skin (grouped term; 39.5%). Most AEs were grade 1-2. Five patients (6.2%) developed interstitial lung disease, resulting in two deaths (2.5%). Osimertinib demonstrated favorable ORR and PFS in Japanese patients, similar to the overall population. Additionally, osimertinib has good efficacy and a manageable safety profile in Japanese patients with NSCLC who had acquired resistance due to the T790M mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726692PMC
September 2019

Phase II trial of S-1 plus cisplatin combined with bevacizumab for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (TCOG LC-1202).

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2019 Aug;49(8):749-754

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo.

Background: S-1 plus cisplatin is a standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The addition of bevacizumab has been shown to significantly improve overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced non-squamous (NSq) NSCLC who received carboplatin plus paclitaxel, however, failed to show an OS advantage in patients who received cisplatin plus gemcitabine.

Methods: Chemotherapy-naive patients with Stage IIIB, IV or recurrent non-SQ NSCLC were treated with a 3-week cycle of S-1 80 mg/m2 on days 1-14, cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 8 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 8 for 4-6 cycles. Patients without progressive disease (PD) received maintenance bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1 with a 3-week cycle and S-1 80 mg/m2 every other day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), OS, toxicity profile and Quality of life (QOL).

Results: From June 2013 to January 2015, 39 eligible patients were enrolled from eight institutions. Thirty-one patients (79%) completed four cycles of induction chemotherapy, and maintenance chemotherapy was initiated in 23 patients (59%). Median PFS, OS and ORR were 7.3 months (95% CI: 5.9-8.7), 21.4 months (95% CI: 14.7-not reached) and 64%, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were leukopenia (12.8%), neutropenia (23.0%) and hypertension (28.2%). QOL analyses showed detrimental effects after initiation of the regimen.

Conclusions: S-1 plus cisplatin in combination with bevacizumab met the primary endpoint in patients with advanced NSq-NSCLC. RR was anticipated to be high with acceptable toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyz064DOI Listing
August 2019

Single-arm, multicentre, phase II trial of nivolumab for unresectable or recurrent thymic carcinoma: PRIMER study.

Eur J Cancer 2019 05 13;113:78-86. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Introduction: Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, especially after relapse.

Methods: In this open-label, two-stage, multicentre, single-arm and phase II trial, the main eligibility criteria were unresectable or recurrent TC, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status of 0 or 1, progression after at least one chemo(radio)therapy and no history of autoimmune disease. Nivolumab was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The primary end-point was response rate (RR) as evaluated by central review using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST), version 1.1. The planned sample size was 15 for each stage, with a threshold RR of 5%, an expected RR of 20%, one-sided alpha of 5% and power of 80%.

Results: Between July 1 and August 16 2016, 15 patients were accrued in the first stage. Response was assessable in all patients, and 13 had squamous histology. Median follow-up time was 14.1 months (range: 2.4-17.5). The median number of nivolumab received was eight (range: 3-33). RR was 0% (95% confidential interval [CI]: 0-21.8). Eleven patients had stable disease (SD) including five patients with SD for 24 or more weeks. Median progression-free survival was 3.8 months (95% CI: 1.9-7.0). Two patients experienced immune-related serious adverse events (grade III aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increase and grade II adrenal insufficiency). Because the early termination criteria (less than one responder) were fulfilled during the first stage, the patient accrual was terminated.

Conclusions: Despite the small number of patients, nivolumab was unable to produce tumour shrinkage by RECIST in previously treated unresectable or recurrent TC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.03.012DOI Listing
May 2019

Resistance Mutations and Efficacy of Lorlatinib in Advanced Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2019 06 20;37(16):1370-1379. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

10 Pfizer Oncology, La Jolla, CA.

Purpose: Lorlatinib is a potent, brain-penetrant, third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with robust clinical activity in advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, including in patients who have failed prior ALK TKIs. Molecular determinants of response to lorlatinib have not been established, but preclinical data suggest that resistance mutations may represent a biomarker of response in previously treated patients.

Patients And Methods: Baseline plasma and tumor tissue samples were collected from 198 patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer from the registrational phase II study of lorlatinib. We analyzed plasma DNA for mutations using Guardant360. Tumor tissue DNA was analyzed using an mutation-focused next-generation sequencing assay. Objective response rate, duration of response, and progression-free survival were evaluated according to mutation status.

Results: Approximately one quarter of patients had mutations detected by plasma or tissue genotyping. In patients with crizotinib-resistant disease, the efficacy of lorlatinib was comparable among patients with and without mutations using plasma or tissue genotyping. In contrast, in patients who had failed 1 or more second-generation ALK TKIs, objective response rate was higher among patients with mutations (62% 32% [plasma]; 69% 27% [tissue]). Progression-free survival was similar in patients with and without mutations on the basis of plasma genotyping (median, 7.3 months 5.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.81) but significantly longer in patients with mutations identified by tissue genotyping (median, 11.0 months 5.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.47).

Conclusion: In patients who have failed 1 or more second-generation ALK TKIs, lorlatinib shows greater efficacy in patients with mutations compared with patients without mutations. Tumor genotyping for mutations after failure of a second-generation TKI may identify patients who are more likely to derive clinical benefit from lorlatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544460PMC
June 2019

KEYNOTE-025: Phase 1b study of pembrolizumab in Japanese patients with previously treated programmed death ligand 1-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Sci 2019 Mar 16;110(3):1012-1020. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama, Japan.

Pembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1), has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥1%. We report safety and efficacy results from the phase 1b KEYNOTE-025 study, which evaluated pembrolizumab in Japanese patients with previously treated NSCLC. Eligible patients had histologically/cytologically confirmed advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 TPS ≥1% and had received ≥1 platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Patients received pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg once every 3 weeks for 2 years or until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. Primary objectives were to evaluate the safety of pembrolizumab in patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥1% and the objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST version 1.1 in patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50%. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled and received ≥1 pembrolizumab dose. The median (range) age was 66.0 (41-78) years, and 61% had received ≥2 prior systemic therapies. Eleven patients (29%) experienced grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events (AE); 9 patients (24%) experienced immune-mediated AE and infusion reactions, with pneumonitis (11%; any grade) being most common. Among evaluable patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50% (n = 11), ORR was 27% (95% CI, 6-61). Among evaluable patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥1% (n = 37), ORR was 22% (95% CI, 10-38). Median (95% CI) progression-free survival and OS were 3.9 (2.0-6.2) months and 19.2 (8.0-26.7) months, respectively. In summary, pembrolizumab was generally well tolerated and showed promising antitumor activity in Japanese patients with previously treated PD-L1-expressing NSCLC. Outcomes were consistent with those from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-010 study. (Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02007070.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398876PMC
March 2019

First-line onartuzumab plus erlotinib treatment for patients with MET-positive and EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2019 31;18:100113. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, 377-2, Ohnohigasi, Osaka-sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.

Introduction: The phase II JO28638 study evaluated first-line onartuzumab plus erlotinib in patients with MET-positive advanced, metastatic, or post-operative recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The study was stopped following termination of the global METLung study (OAM4971g), which showed lack of efficacy in the onartuzumab/erlotinib arm. We present immature efficacy and safety data from JO28638.

Materials And Methods: Chemotherapy-naïve patients aged ≥ 20 years were enrolled. Patients received onartuzumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) plus erlotinib (150 mg once daily) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The co-primary endpoints were investigator (INV)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Secondary endpoints: overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), duration of response (DOR), and pharmacokinetics. Exploratory biomarker analyses were also conducted.

Results: 61 patients received treatment. Median age was 67 years and most patients had stage IV NSCLC (71%), MET-IHC score 2 (87%), and exon 19 deletion EGFR mutation (53%). Median PFS (INV) was 8.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8-12.4); median OS was 15.6 months (95% CI 15.6-not evaluable); ORR was 68.9% (95% CI 55.7-80.1); median DOR was not reached; DCR was 88.5% (95% CI 77.8-95.3). Pharmacokinetics were similar to previous studies. All patients experienced an adverse event (AE); 26 patients discontinued treatment due to AEs; no grade 5 AEs were reported. No significant correlation was found between biomarkers and efficacy outcomes.

Conclusion: The results presented are inconclusive due to the early termination of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2018.10.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Phase I/II study of carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel and concurrent radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2018 11 18;125:136-141. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Chemoradiation regimens of greater efficacy are needed for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: In a phase I study, escalating doses of weekly nab-paclitaxel (40 or 50 mg/m) were administered along with weekly carboplatin at an area under the curve (AUC) of 2 mg mL min and concurrent radiotherapy with 60 Gy in 30 fractions to patients with locally advanced NSCLC. This concurrent phase was followed by a consolidation phase consisting of two 3-week cycles of nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin. In a phase II study, nab-paclitaxel was administered at the recommended dose (RD) together with carboplatin and radiation.

Results: In the phase I study, one of six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (leukopenia of grade 3 requiring a second consecutive skip in the administration of weekly chemotherapy) with nab-paclitaxel at 50 mg/m, which was therefore determined to be the RD. Fifty-six patients treated at the RD were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Common toxicities of grade 3 or 4 in the concurrent phase included leukopenia (60.7%) and neutropenia (28.6%). No treatment-related deaths occurred during the study period. The objective response rate was 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.2-85.9%), median progression-free survival was 11.8 months (60% CI, 10.6-16.2 months; 95% CI, 8.2-20.8 months), and median overall survival was not reached.

Conclusion: Our results reveal encouraging feasibility and activity for concurrent chemoradiation with nab-paclitaxel at 50 mg/m and carboplatin at an AUC of 2 in patients with locally advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.09.014DOI Listing
November 2018

Phase II trial of gefitinib plus pemetrexed after relapse using first-line gefitinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR gene mutations.

Lung Cancer 2018 10 23;124:65-70. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Division of Thoracic Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, 13-70, Kitaohji-cho, Akashi, Hyogo 673-8558, Japan.

Objectives: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (i.e., EGFR-TKIs) improve the survival of lung cancer patients harboring EGFR mutations. Despite the initial efficacy of EGFR-TKIs, the disease progression caused by acquired resistance to these inhibitors is inevitable. T790M mutations represent a major resistance mechanism to EGFR-TKIs but can be overcome using osimertinib. The IMPRESS trial revealed that the continuation of EGFR-TKI beyond progressive disease (PD) concurrent with platinum-doublet chemotherapy was not beneficial. However, various clinical trials have suggested that EGFR-TKI beyond PD plus single-agent chemotherapy may be a possible treatment strategy.

Materials And Methods: This study was a single-arm phase II trial. Patients with EGFR-activating mutations (del19 and L858R) that progressed using first-line gefitinib treatment were enrolled and treated with gefitinib beyond PD plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m q3w. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Mutation-biased polymerase chain reaction quenching probe, which is the original method for detecting T790M mutations in cell-free plasma DNA, was used prior to treatment.

Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled between May 1, 2013, and March 31, 2016. One patient was excluded before starting the treatment. Among the 35 patients, 15 patients had del19 mutations, and 20 patients had L858R mutations; 33 patients were evaluable for response by using radiographic findings. The median PFS was 6.7 months (95% confidence interval: 4.4-7.7 months). Nineteen patients were T790M positive. No significant difference in PFS was found in a subgroup analysis of EGFR mutation status and T790M positivity. All toxicities were tolerable.

Conclusion: Gefitinib plus pemetrexed treatment following relapse using gefitinib in patients with Non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations demonstrated preferable PFS with mild toxicity. This combination therapy may be considered for platinum-unfit patients without T790M with disease progression using first-line gefitinib. (This clinical trial was registered in UMIN-CTGR as UMIN000010709).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.07.031DOI Listing
October 2018

Chemoradiotherapy in Elderly Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Trial (JCOG0301).

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 09 5;19(5):e619-e627. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: In the phase III JCOG0301 trial, chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with daily low-dose carboplatin showed significant benefits in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone. However, the long-term patterns and cumulative incidences of toxicity associated with CRT and RT in elderly patients are not well elucidated. We report long-term survival data and late toxicities after a minimum follow-up of 6.4 years.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients were older than 70 years and had unresectable stage III NSCLC. They were randomly assigned to RT or CRT. Prognosis and adverse events data were collected beyond those in the initial report. Late toxicities were defined as occurring more than 90 days after RT initiation.

Results: From September 2003 to May 2010, 200 patients (RT arm, n = 100; CRT arm, n = 100) were enrolled. Consistent with the initial report, the CRT arm had better overall survival than the RT arm (hazard ratio, 0.743; 95% confidence interval, 0.552-0.998; 1-sided P = .0239). The proportion of Grade 3/4 late toxicities were 7.4% (heart 2.1%, lung 5.3%) in the RT arm (n = 94) and 7.5% (esophagus 1.1%, lung 6.5%) in the CRT arm (n = 93). No additional cases of late toxicity (Grade 3/4) and treatment-related death have been seen since the initial report that was published.

Conclusion: Long-term follow-up confirmed the survival benefits of CRT for elderly patients with locally advanced NSCLC. There was no observed increase in late toxicity with CRT compared with RT alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2018.04.018DOI Listing
September 2018

ASP8273 tolerability and antitumor activity in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-naïve Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Sci 2018 Aug 29;109(8):2532-2538. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations occur in approximately 50% of East Asian patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confer sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). ASP8273 is an irreversible EGFR-TKI, given orally, that inhibits EGFR activating mutations and has shown clinical activity in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor receptor-TKI-naïve Japanese adult patients (≥20 years) with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations were enrolled in this open-label, single-arm, phase II study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02500927). Patients received ASP8273 300 mg once daily until discontinuation criteria were met. The primary end-point was to determine the safety of ASP8273 300 mg; the secondary end-point was antitumor activity defined by RECIST version 1.1. Thirty-one patients (12 men and 19 women; median age, 64 years [range, 31-82 years]) with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC were enrolled; as of 23 February 2016, 25 patients (81%) were still on study. Of the 31 patients, 27 (87%) had an exon 19 deletion (n = 13, 42%) or an L858R (n = 14, 45%) EGFR activating mutation, and two (7%) had an L861Q mutation. Five patients (16%) had other EGFR activating mutations, two had an activating mutation and the T790M resistance mutation. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse event was diarrhea (n = 24, 77%). All patients had at least one post-baseline scan; one patient (3%) achieved a confirmed complete response, 13 (42%) had a confirmed partial response, and 15 (48%) had confirmed stable disease (disease control rate, 94% [n = 29/31]) per investigator assessment. Once-daily ASP8273 at 300 mg was generally well tolerated and showed antitumor activity in TKI-naïve Japanese patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113441PMC
August 2018

Atezolizumab in Japanese Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis of the Phase 3 OAK Study.

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 07 1;19(4):e405-e415. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

Introduction: Atezolizumab, an anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) agent, is effective and well tolerated in patients with pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients through subgroup analyses of the phase 3 OAK study (NCT02008227).

Patients And Methods: Key eligibility criteria of this randomized, controlled, open-label, international study include locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC, ≥ 1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy, age ≥ 18 years, measurable disease (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1. Atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m was provided intravenously every 3 weeks. Co-primary end points were overall survival (OS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and those with ≥ 1% PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC; TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3).

Results: Sixty-four ITT patients were Japanese; 19 had TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 status. In Japanese ITT patients, median OS in the atezolizumab arm (n = 36) was longer than the docetaxel arm (n = 28; 21.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.0-not estimable (NE)] versus 17.0 months [95% CI, 12.5-NE], respectively; hazard ratio 0.80 [95% CI, 0.41-1.57]). In the TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 population, median OS was 21.3 months (95% CI, 15.0-NE) and NE in the atezolizumab (n = 11) and docetaxel (n = 8) groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.22-3.05]). Atezolizumab was generally well tolerated, with no treatment-related deaths.

Conclusion: Atezolizumab was effective and well tolerated in pretreated Japanese patients with NSCLC. Results are consistent with the primary analysis of OAK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2018.01.004DOI Listing
July 2018