Publications by authors named "Miwa Kondo"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Club Cells Are the Primary Target for Permethrin-Induced Mouse Lung Tumor Formation.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Oct;184(1):15-32

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

Permethrin has been shown to increase lung adenomas in female CD-1 mice, but not in male mice or Wistar rats. The proposed mode of action (MOA) for permethrin-induced female mouse lung tumor formation involves morphological changes in Club cells; increased Club cell proliferation; increased Club cell hyperplasia, and lung tumor formation. In this study, the treatment of female CD-1 mice with tumorigenic doses (2500 and 5000 ppm) of permethrin, but not with a nontumorigenic dose (20 ppm), for 14 and/or 28 days increased Club cell replicative DNA synthesis. Global gene expression analysis of female mouse lung samples demonstrated that permethrin treatment up-regulated 3 genes associated with cell proliferation, namely aldehyde dehydrogenase 3a1 (Aldh3a1), oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1, and thioredoxin reductase 1. Treatment with 2500 and 5000 ppm, but not 20 ppm, permethrin for 7 days produced significant increases in mRNA levels of these 3 genes. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that Club cell secretory protein, CYP2F2, and ALDH3A1 colocalized in Club cells; confirmed by flow cytometry analysis of lung cells employing KI67 as a cell proliferation marker. Overall, the present data extend the proposed MOA by demonstrating that Club cells are the primary initial target of permethrin administration in female mouse lungs. As humans are quantitatively much less sensitive to agents that increase Club cell proliferation and lung tumor formation in mice, it is most likely that permethrin could not produce lung tumors in humans. This conclusion is supported by available negative epidemiological data from several studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfab103DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of the Hepatic Effects of Phenobarbital in Chimeric Mice Containing Either Rat or Human Hepatocytes With Humanized Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Pregnane X Receptor Mice.

Toxicol Sci 2020 10;177(2):362-376

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.

Using a chimeric mouse humanized liver model, we provided evidence that human hepatocytes are refractory to the mitogenic effects of rodent constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activators. To evaluate the functional reliability of this model, the present study examined mitogenic responses to phenobarbital (PB) in chimeric mice transplanted with rat hepatocytes, because rats are responsive to CAR activators. Treatment with 1000 ppm PB for 7 days significantly increased replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) in rat hepatocytes of the chimeric mice, demonstrating that the transplanted hepatocyte model is functionally reliable for cell proliferation analysis. Treatment of humanized CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR) mice (hCAR/hPXR mice) with 1000 ppm PB for 7 days significantly increased hepatocyte RDS together with increases in several mitogenic genes. Global gene expression analysis was performed with liver samples from this and from previous studies focusing on PB-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling and showed that altered genes in hCAR/hPXR mice clustered most closely with liver tumor samples from a diethylnitrosamine/PB initiation/promotion study than with wild-type mice. However, different gene clusters were observed for chimeric mice with human hepatocytes for Wnt/β-catenin signaling when compared with those of hCAR/hPXR mice, wild-type mice, and liver tumor samples. The results of this study demonstrate clear differences in the effects of PB on hepatocyte RDS and global gene expression between human hepatocytes of chimeric mice and hCAR/hPXR mice, suggesting that the chimeric mouse model is relevant to humans for studies on the hepatic effects of rodent CAR activators whereas the hCAR/hPXR mouse is not.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa125DOI Listing
October 2020

An Evaluation of the Human Relevance of the Liver Tumors Observed in Female Mice Treated With Permethrin Based on Mode of Action.

Toxicol Sci 2020 05;175(1):50-63

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

In 2-year studies, the nongenotoxic pyrethroid insecticide permethrin produced hepatocellular tumors in CD-1 mice but not in Wistar rats. Recently, we demonstrated that the mode of action (MOA) for mouse liver tumor formation by permethrin involves activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), resulting in a mitogenic effect. In the present study, the effects of permethrin and 2 major permethrin metabolites, namely 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and trans-dichlorochrysanthemic acid, on cytochrome P450 mRNA levels and cell proliferation (determined as replicative DNA synthesis) were evaluated in cultured CD-1 mouse, Wistar rat, and human hepatocytes. Permethrin and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid induced CYP4A mRNA levels in both mouse and human hepatocytes, with trans-dichlorochrysanthemic acid also increasing CYP4A mRNA levels in mouse hepatocytes. 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid induced CYP4A mRNA levels in rat hepatocytes, with trans-dichlorochrysanthemic acid increasing both CYP4A mRNA levels and replicative DNA synthesis. Permethrin, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and trans-dichlorochrysanthemic acid stimulated replicative DNA synthesis in mouse hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes, demonstrating that human hepatocytes are refractory to the mitogenic effects of permethrin and these 2 metabolites. Thus, although some of the key (eg, PPARα activation) and associative (eg, CYP4A induction) events in the established MOA for permethrin-induced mouse liver tumor formation could occur in human hepatocytes at high doses of permethrin, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and/or trans-dichlorochrysanthemic acid, increased cell proliferation (an essential step in carcinogenesis by nongenotoxic PPARα activators) was not observed. These results provide additional evidence that the established MOA for permethrin-induced mouse liver tumor formation is not plausible for humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa017DOI Listing
May 2020

Involvement of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Alpha in Liver Tumor Production by Permethrin in the Female Mouse.

Toxicol Sci 2019 04;168(2):572-596

Environmental Health Science Laboratory.

The nongenotoxic pyrethroid insecticide permethrin produced hepatocellular tumors in CD-1 mice but not in Wistar rats. Recently, based on findings of a Pathology Working Group involving an expert panel of pathologists, it was concluded that permethrin increased liver tumors at 2500 and 5000 ppm in female mice, but no treatment-related tumorigenic response occurred in male mice at dose levels examined in the 2-year bioassay. To evaluate a possible mode of action (MOA) for the permethrin female CD-1 mouse hepatocellular tumors, a number of investigative studies were conducted. In time-course studies in female CD-1 mice, permethrin increased relative liver weight and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation within 1 week. Treatment with permethrin resulted in marked increases in CYP4A enzyme activities and mRNA levels, but only slightly increased CYP2B markers, suggesting that permethrin primarily activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and to a much lesser extent the constitutive androstane receptor. The effects of permethrin on relative liver weight, hepatocyte proliferation and CYP4A enzyme activities and mRNA levels were dose-dependent and were reversible within 5 weeks after cessation of treatment. The hepatic effects of permethrin observed in wild-type female mice were markedly reduced in PPARα knockout female mice. These results demonstrate that the MOA for hepatocellular tumor formation by permethrin in female mice involves activation of PPARα resulting in a mitogenic effect. The MOA for permethrin-induced mouse liver tumor formation due to PPARα activation is considered to be not plausible for humans. This conclusion is strongly supported by available epidemiological data for permethrin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfz012DOI Listing
April 2019

Candidate genes responsible for early key events of phenobarbital-promoted mouse hepatocellular tumorigenesis based on differentiation of regulating genes between wild type mice and humanized chimeric mice.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2017 Nov 24;6(6):795-813. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory , Sumitomo Chemical Co. , Ltd. , 1-98 , 3-Chome , Kasugade-Naka , Konohana-ku , Osaka 554-8558 , Japan . Email: ; ; Tel: +81-66466-5322.

Phenobarbital (PB) is a nongenotoxic hepatocellular carcinogen in rodents. PB induces hepatocellular tumors by activating the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Some previous research has suggested the possible involvement of epigenetic regulation in PB-promoted hepatocellular tumorigenesis, but the details of its molecular mechanism are not fully understood. In the present study, comprehensive analyses of DNA methylation, hydroxymethylation and gene expression using microarrays were performed in mouse hepatocellular adenomas induced by a single 90 mg kg intraperitoneal injection dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) followed by 500 ppm PB in the diet for 27 weeks. DNA modification and expression of hundreds of genes are coordinately altered in PB-induced mouse hepatocellular adenomas. Of these, gene network analysis showed alterations of CAR signaling and tumor development-related genes. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially methylated or hydroxymethylated genes belong mainly to pathways involved in development, immune response and cancer cells in contrast to differentially expressed genes belonging primarily to the cell cycle. Furthermore, overlap was evaluated between the genes with altered expression levels with 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) alterations in mouse hepatocellular adenoma induced by DEN/PB and the genes with altered expression levels in the liver of CD-1 mice or humanized chimeric mice treated with PB for 7 days. With the integration of transcriptomic and epigenetic approaches, we detected candidate genes responsible for early key events of PB-promoted mouse hepatocellular tumorigenesis. Interestingly, these genes did not overlap with genes altered by the PB treatment of humanized chimeric mice, thus suggesting a species difference between the effects of PB in mouse and human hepatocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7tx00163kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062386PMC
November 2017

An Evaluation of the Human Relevance of the Lung Tumors Observed in Female Mice Treated With Permethrin Based on Mode of Action.

Toxicol Sci 2017 06;157(2):465-486

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Permethrin increased the incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in female mice but not male mice or female or male rats. Studies were conducted to determine whether permethrin has mitogenic activity in Club cells in mouse lung as the basis for the mode of action (MOA) for the lung adenoma induction. Several short-term experiments focusing on time-course, dose-response, reversibility, sex difference, strain difference, and species difference were evaluated for Club cell proliferation and morphology. The findings demonstrated that permethrin slightly and continuously enhanced Club cell proliferation at tumor-associated dose levels in female mice, but did not increase proliferation in male mice or in female rats. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated that permethrin produced morphological alterations in Club cells prior to increasing the Club cell proliferation. There was no evidence of increased cell death. These alterations in Club cells were also observed with a close structural analog cypermethrin. Taken together, the present studies provide evidence that the MOA for induction of mouse lung adenomas by permethrin involves slight morphological effects on Club cells, sustained Club cell proliferation, and eventually hyperplasia and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma in susceptible mice. The potential human carcinogenic hazard of permethrin based on the tumorigenic MOA for lung tumors in mice was evaluated using the International Programme on Chemical Safety Human Relevance Framework. As humans are quantitatively much less sensitive to agents that increase Club cell proliferation and tumor formation in mice, it is not likely permethrin will lead to an increase in susceptibility to lung tumor development in humans. Epidemiological data for permethrin strongly supports this conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx066DOI Listing
June 2017

Pharmacological Profile of GPD-1116, an Inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase 4.

Biol Pharm Bull 2016 ;39(5):689-98

Pharmacological Research Department, ASKA Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

We have previously reported that GPD-1116, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in a model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in senescence-accelerated P1 mice. In the present study, we further characterized the pharmacological profile of GPD-1116 in several experiments in vitro and in vivo. GPD-1116 and its metabolite GPD-1133 predominantly inhibited not only human PDE4, but also human PDE1 in vitro. Moreover, GPD-1116 was effective in several disease models in animals, including acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and pulmonary hypertension; the effective doses of GPD-1116 were estimated to be 0.3-2 mg/kg in these models. With regard to undesirable effects known as class effects of PDE4 inhibitors, GPD-1116 showed suppression of gastric emptying in rats and induction of emesis in dogs, but showed no such suppression of rectal temperature in rats, and these side effects of GPD-1116 seemed to be less potent than those of roflumilast. These results suggested that GPD-1116 could be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of GPD-1116 for PDE1 might be associated with its excellent pharmacological profile. However, the mechanisms through which PDE1 inhibition contributes to these effects should be determined in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b15-00652DOI Listing
January 2017

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor GPD-1116 markedly attenuates the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in senescence-accelerated mice P1 strain.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2008 Feb 9;294(2):L196-204. Epub 2007 Nov 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is an intracellular enzyme specifically degrading cAMP, a second messenger exerting inhibitory effects on many inflammatory cells. To investigate whether GPD-1116 (a PDE4 inhibitor) prevents murine lungs from developing cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) P1 strain was exposed to either fresh air or cigarette smoke for 8 wk with or without oral administration of GPD-1116. We confirmed the development of smoke-induced emphysema in SAMP1 [air vs. smoke (means +/- SE); the mean linear intercepts (MLI), 52.9 +/- 0.8 vs. 68.4 +/- 4.2 microm, P < 0.05, and destructive index (DI), 4.5% +/- 1.3% vs. 16.0% +/- 0.4%, P < 0.01]. Emphysema was markedly attenuated by GPD-1116 (MLI = 57.0 +/- 1.4 microm, P < 0.05; DI = 8.2% +/- 0.6%, P < 0.01) compared with smoke-exposed SAMP1 without GPD-1116. Smoke-induced apoptosis of lung cells were also reduced by administration of GPD-1116. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was increased by smoke exposure (air vs. smoke, 4.1 +/- 1.1 vs. 40.5 +/- 16.2 area/microg protein; P < 0.05), but GPD-1116 significantly decreased MMP-12 activity in smoke-exposed mice (5.3 +/- 2.1 area/microg protein). However, VEGF content in lung tissues and BALF decreased after smoke exposure, and the decrease was not markedly restored by oral administration of GPD-1116. Our study suggests that GPD-1116 attenuates smoke-induced emphysema by inhibiting the increase of smoke-induced MMP-12 activity and protecting lung cells from apoptosis, but is not likely to alleviate cigarette smoke-induced decrease of VEGF in SAMP1 lungs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00173.2007DOI Listing
February 2008

Characterization of Salmonella isolated in Okinawa, Japan.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2006 Feb;59(1):15-9

Department of Biological Science, Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment, Okinawa 901-1201, Japan.

Salmonella enterica strains isolated in Okinawa between 1995 and 2005 were analyzed with respect to their serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to examine their digestion patterns. A total of 1,071 isolates, including 610 from humans, 358 from animal rectal swabs and 103 from meat obtained at grocery stores, were examined. The first 3 most frequent serovars in human isolates were Enteritidis, Weltevreden and Bareilly, together accounting for 65% of the isolates. In isolates from the rectal swabs of laying hens, the predominant serovars were Albany, Saintpaul and Aarhus, accounting for 82% of the isolates. In broilers, 123 of 124 isolates belonged to serovar Infantis, which reflected the high ratio of this serovar in the chicken sold at grocery stores. An antibiogram of human isolates was different from that of broilers and chicken. Chromosomal DNAs of S. Infantis isolated from humans and from the rectal swab of broilers and chickens were examined by PFGE using the restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI. The digestion patterns of human isolates were not coincident with those of the isolates from the rectal swab of broilers and chicken-meat samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2006

Rapid and simple determination of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in rabbit renal artery by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection.

Vascul Pharmacol 2005 Mar;42(4):163-9

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

A liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection coupled with a solid-phase extraction was applied to the rapid determination of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the rabbit renal artery. The EETs were extracted with an acetonitrile from renal artery homogenate and concentrated by a solid-phase extraction method. The concentrated EETs were reacted directly with a 6, 7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-2 (1H)-quinoxalinone-3-propionyl-carboxylic acid (DMEQ) hydrazide and separated by a reversed-phase HPLC with eluting a combination of a step-wise and a gradient of a mixture of methanol and water. The content of EETs in the renal arteries was significantly greater in the 0.5% cholesterol fed rabbits than in control rabbits. It is suggested that hyperchlesterolemia increases the production of EETs in the rabbit renal artery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2004.12.003DOI Listing
March 2005

Hypothyroidism changes adrenoceptor- and muscarinic receptor-mediated blood pressure responses.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Jan 23;507(1-3):311-6. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

Second Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Hatanodai 1-5-8, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

Hypothyroidism was induced by the administration of 0.03% methimazole to drinking water for 1, 2 or 6 weeks to study whether there is a change in adrenoceptor- and muscarinic receptor-mediated blood pressure responses in hypothyroid rats. After 1, 2 and 6 weeks of treatment, the pressor response to norepinephrine was progressively suppressed, and after 6 weeks a significant suppression was observed as compared to control. The depressor response induced by isoprenaline, acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside was not significantly different between control and hypothyroid rats at any time. The pressor response induced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, was significantly reduced in hypothyroid rats after 1, 2 or 6 weeks of treatment, and the magnitude of the reduction was almost the same for three groups. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes a time-dependent decrease in pressor responses mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors, but a time-independent decrease in those induced by L-NOARG, and suggest that a progressive decrease in alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses occurs in hypothyroidism; however, the decrease in basal NO production and/or release in the peripheral vasculature already occurs in hypothyroid rats at an early stage of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.11.002DOI Listing
January 2005
-->