Publications by authors named "Mitra Rezaei"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays against nucleocapsid and spike antigens.

Hum Antibodies 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There are few studies to compare antibody response against anti-spike (S) and anti- nucleoprotein (N) SARS-CoV-2.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the IgG antibody production against S and N antigens of the virus and their correlation with the time and severity of the disease.

Methods: The IgG antibodies against S and N antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in serum specimens 72 symptomatic patients who tested real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction positive for SARS-CoV-2 were detected using the ELISA technique. Different antibody response was compared and the correlation with the time from disease onset and the severity was evaluated.

Results: Forty-eight of 72 (67%) patients tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, while 24 (33%) did not have detectable antibodies. Comparison of antibody levels for N and S antibodies showed that they correlate with each other well (r= 0.81; P< 0.001). However, sensitivity of anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG and anti-N SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 30% and 60%, during the first 7 days after symptom onset (r= 0.53; P= 0.111), but increased to 73% and 68% at more than 1-week post symptom onset (r= 0.89, P= 0.111), respectively. Cases with positive IgG response showed a decreased CD8 cell percentage compared to the negative IgG groups (26 ± 14 vs. 58 ± 32, p= 0.066 in anti-N IgG group and 28 ± 15 vs. 60 ± 45, p= 0.004 in anti-S IgG group, respectively).

Conclusion: Nearly one-third of the confirmed COVID-19 patients had negative serology results. Lower percent positivity at early time points after symptom onset (less than 1 week) was seen using anti-S SARS-COV-2 IgG kit compare to the anti-N SARS-CoV-2 IgG; therefore, clinicians should interpret negative serology results of especially anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-210440DOI Listing
February 2021

Serum cytokine levels of COVID-19 patients after 7 days of treatment with Favipiravir or Kaletra.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 22;93:107407. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London and the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK; Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ.

Objective: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied.

Results: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1β (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit.

Conclusion: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826095PMC
April 2021

Dynamic Changes of Lymphocyte Subsets in the Course of COVID-19.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 26;182(3):254-262. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Although the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not clearly defined, among the proposed mechanisms, immune system dysfunction is more likely than others. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets in the course of COVID-19.

Methods: In this prospective study, the levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets including CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+, CD38+, CD3+HLA-DR+, CD19+, CD20+, and CD16+CD56+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in 52 confirmed hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at the day of admission and after 7 days of care. Clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms (fever, dyspnea, and cough as well as blood oxygen saturation), and patients who met these criteria after 1 week of admission were classified as early responders; others who survived and finally discharged from the hospital were classified as late responders and patients who died were categorized as nonresponders. Immunophenotyping of studied cell changes on the first day of admission and 7 days after treatment were compared. Besides, the correlation between cellular subset variation and clinical response and outcome were analyzed.

Results: Total counts of white blood cell, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD38+ lymphocytes, and CD3+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in both early and late responders. No statistically significant difference was observed in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, B cells, FOXP3+Treg lymphocytes, and FOXP3 median fluorescence intensity among studied groups. According to the multivariate analysis, an increase in CD4+ T cells (p = 0.019), CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001), and administration of interferon (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of clinical response.

Conclusion: We found an increasing trend in total T cells, T helpers, cytotoxic T cells, activated lymphocytes, and natural killer cells among responders. This trend was not statistically significant among nonresponders. The findings of this study may enhance our knowledge about the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900469PMC
March 2021

The Frequency of Human Papillomavirus Positivity in Iranian Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Iran J Pathol 2021 10;16(1):20-26. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Pathology, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with prognosis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Similar to the global studies, different prevalence rates of this viral infection have been reported in Iran. Therefore, we aimed to report the prevalence of this virus and its significance in HNSCC patients.

Methods: Patients who were referred to the five hospitals of Tehran city from May 2018 to May 2019 were enrolled in this study. All patients were diagnosed with HNSCC based on pathologic study. The pathologic disease staging was defined, and DNAs were extracted from the fresh tissue samples via kits. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HPV positive samples were evaluated for determining genotypes and data analysis.

Results: Of the 46 patients, three patients (6.5%) showed positive HPV results with the following subtypes: 18 (in two patients), 52 (in three patients), 61 (in two patients), 67, and 73.Comparison of variables between the groups with and without HPV showed a significant difference based on the tumor's lymphatic invasion (=0.041), peripheral lymph node involvement (=0.008), and histologic grade (=0.011), but no statistically significant difference in terms of other variables such as age, primary tumor site, size, pathologic stage, vascular or perineural invasion, metastasis, smoking, and alcohol consumption was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/ijp.2020.119344.2300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691708PMC
October 2020

A Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): a Review of Host Cell Signaling Pathways.

Tanaffos 2020 Nov;19(2):108-111

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are the largest group of positive-sense RNA viruses. By increasing our understanding of the interactions between CoVs and the host innate immune system, we can evaluate the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and reduce the risk of CoV-induced lung inflammation with a new group of genetic variants. Here, we aim to discuss some recent changes in host cell factors that may be used by CoV to promote the proliferation cycle. We also discuss different host cell signaling pathways that can be considered in the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has created new challenges for the cultural, economic, and health infrastructures. Therefore, it is important that healthcare systems and physicians recognize a global integrated framework for monitoring the progression of COVID-19 to develop targeted therapies that can potentially save human lives.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680516PMC
November 2020

Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase: A Promising Target for the Treatment of COVID-19.

Tanaffos 2020 Nov;19(2):85-88

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680521PMC
November 2020

Primary Gastrointestinal Involvement in a Case of Extranodal-Extranasal Natural Killer T Cell Lymphoma.

Tanaffos 2020 Jan;19(1):74-78

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Extra-nasal types of Extra-nodal natural killer cell lymphoma (ENKL) have been known with poorer prognoses than nasal type with the worst responses to treatment. The current work introduces a case of ENKL with GI involvement with no nasal manifestations. We report a 56-year male farmer with fever, productive cough, dyspnea, anorexia, vomiting and chill in addition to malaise and cachexia of three months duration referred to a hospital with acute abdominal pain, and was diagnosed as peritonitis due to perforated terminal ileum ulcer before experiencing surgery as a case of acute abdomen. The pathologic study of the relevant biopsy showed "ulceration and necrosis with dense fibrinoleukocytic exudation and granulation tissue formation. CT scan determined a bilateral mass like haziness which was more likely to be metastatic. The review of the previous pathologic specimens raised Natural Killer/T cell Lymphoma (NKTL), the reason for which we focused on the patient's sinuses and nasal area as well as nasopharynx. There was no finding in examination and endoscopy of sinuses. Pathology also found malignant high grade non-Hodgkin T cell lymphoma in specimens obtained from debridement of ulcer at terminal ileum. It also showed that most of the tumor cells were positive for CD3, CD56, CD8, and LCA but negative for CD19, CD20 and AE1/AE3. Positive reactions for CD30 were shown by some cells. CD56, CD3, and CD8 were expressed by neoplastic cells and CD30 were positive in few cells. Proliferative activity (Ki67 index) was high (60-70%). This was the main base to diagnose an extra-nodal extra-nasal NK/T cell lymphoma. In conclusion, Intestinal changes at middle age, especially in men with nonspecific clinical manifestations is highly advised to be studied pathologically and genetically for T cell types like CD30 positive T cells which are usually engaged in ENKTL.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569497PMC
January 2020

Diffuse alveolar damage and thrombotic microangiopathy are the main histopathological findings in lung tissue biopsy samples of COVID-19 patients.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Oct 19;216(10):153228. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, limited studies have investigated the histopathologic findings of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Material And Methods: This study was conducted on 31 deceased patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in Tehran, Iran. A total of 52 postmortem tissue biopsy samples were obtained from the lungs and liver of decedents. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and microscopic features were evaluated. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed on specimens obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs and tissue biopsies.

Results: The median age of deceased patients was 66 years (range, 30-87 years) and 25 decedents (81 %) were male. The average interval from symptom onset to death was 13 days (range, 6-34 days). On histopathologic examination of the lung specimens, diffuse alveolar damage and thrombotic microangiopathy were the most common findings (80 % and 60 %, respectively). Liver specimens mainly showed macrovesicular steatosis, portal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and passive congestion. No definitive viral inclusions were observed in any of the specimens. In addition, 92 % of lung tissue samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR.

Conclusions: Further studies are needed to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cytopathic changes in various organs of the human body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2020.153228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837112PMC
October 2020

Chitosan-based nano-scaffolds as antileishmanial wound dressing in BALB/c mice treatment: Characterization and design of tissue regeneration.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Jun;23(6):788-799

Virology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Rapid healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis as one of the most important parasitic diseases leads to the decrease of scars and prevention of a great threat to the looks of the affected people. Today, the use of nano-scaffolds is rapidly increasing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine with structures similar to the target tissue. Chitosan (CS) is a bioactive polymer with antimicrobial and accelerating features of healing wounds, which is commonly used in biomedicine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CS/polyethylene oxide (PEO)/berberine (BBR) nanofibers on the experimental ulcers of in BALB/c mice.

Materials And Methods: CS/PEO/BBR nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method, and their morphology was examined by SEM, TEM, and AFM. Then, water absorption, stability, biocompatibility, porosity, and drug release from nano-scaffolds were explored. Afterward, 28 BALB/c mice infected with the parasite were randomly divided into control and experimental groups, and their wounds were dressed with the produced nano-scaffolds. Finally, the effect of nanobandage on the animals was investigated by macroscopic, histopathologic, and imaging examinations.

Results: The prepared nanofibers were completely uniform, cylindrical, bead-free, and biocompatible with an average diameter of 94±12 nm and had appropriate drug release. In addition, the reduced skin ulcer diameter (0.000), parasite burden (0.003), changes in the epidermis (0.023), and dermis (0.032) indicated significantly strong effectiveness of the produced nano-scaffolds against leishmania ulcers.

Conclusion: Studies showed that CS/PEO/BBR nanofibers have a positive effect on the rapid healing of leishmania ulcers. Future studies should focus on other chronic ulcers treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.41361.9770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351439PMC
June 2020

Immunologic Features in Coronavirus Disease 2019: Functional Exhaustion of T Cells and Cytokine Storm.

J Clin Immunol 2020 10 10;40(7):974-976. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00824-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347401PMC
October 2020

Characterization of Immunophenotypic Aberrancies in Adult and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Lessons from Regional Variation.

Iran J Pathol 2020 ;15(1):1-7

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objective: Although the antigen expression patterns of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are well known, this study attempted to evaluate commonly used immune markers for immunophenotyping of acute leukemia to set the minimum of necessary diagnostic panels by flow cytometry.

Methods: This study evaluated 89 patients referred from all over the country to the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) in Tehran from 2013 to 2015. We compared the immunophenotype patterns of childhood and adult ALLs including 69(77.5%) B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL), 2(2.2%) Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and 18(20.2%) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) cases using flowcytometry with broad antibody panel.

Results: CD19 and CD79a were the most frequent markers for B-LBL while CD7 was the most sensitive marker in T-LBL; the frequency of CD7, CD3, and CD5 antigens were 100%, 38.9%, and 88.9%, respectively. TdT+/CD34+ was significantly higher in adult B-LBLs than children, which indicates blast cells are more immature in adults. In addition, CD10 and cCD79a were significantly higher in children with B-LBL like as CD5 and CD8 in children with T-LBL. Aberrant phenotypes including CD13, CD33, CD7, and CD117 were found in 7(10.1%) cases of B-LBL. These phenotypes were CD117, HLA-DR, and CD33 in 7(38/9%) cases of T-LBL. Expression of CD117 aberrant myeloid antigen was significantly more associated with T-LBL than with B-lineage ALL.

Conclusion: Significant differences were observed in antigen-expression patterns between adult and childhood ALLs. Further studies are needed to correlate specific markers with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities and prognosis with therapeutic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.2019.93974.1926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995678PMC
January 2020

Necrotizing Sarcoid Granulomatosis with Pneumothorax.

Case Rep Med 2019 30;2019:4648720. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare granulomatous pneumonitis which is composed of a background of sarcoidosis-like granulomas, granulomatous vasculitis, and variable amount of necrosis. We reported a case of a 38-year-old nonsmoking woman presented with left-sided chest pain and dyspnea for three days. Chest CT scan exhibited collapse consolidation of the left lower lobe with the presence of two separated small-sized cystic lesions within the collapsed segment. Lung lesion resection was performed, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis by excluding other causes of granulomatous diseases. The prognosis of NSG is favorable, and medical treatment is usually not necessary, as well as in our case. NSG is a rare disease with nonspecific symptoms and good prognosis which is frequently confused with Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. This entity should also be considered as differential diagnosis of necrotizing granulomatous diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4648720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589305PMC
May 2019

Toothpick Aspiration Induces Massive Hemoptysis: a Case Report.

Tanaffos 2019 Apr;18(4):369-372

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Massive hemoptysis refers to bleeding from the sputum exceeding 100 ml/day. This condition is known to have a poor prognosis. Although foreign body aspiration is not as common as other risk factors, it may result in massive hemoptysis. In the current study, we presented a case of massive hemoptysis due to the aspiration of a toothpick.

Case Presentation: The patient was a 49-year-old woman who was primarily suspected of having tuberculosis. After observing blood in the sputum, interventions, including chest computed tomography (CT) scan and conservative management, were performed. The CT scan showed no malignancy, and paraclinical investigations were negative. However, hemoptysis was progressing into an acute phase; therefore, a surgical intervention was performed for the patient. After the surgery, the cause of the lesion was found to be a toothpick. The patient was under intensive care after surgery and was discharged from the hospital in a good general condition. The morphological evaluation of the lesion showed a bronchial wall with ulceration, besides granulation tissue formation, hematoma, and fibrinoid necrosis due to foreign body aspiration into the lung, resulting in inflammatory reactions.

Conclusion: In this case report, foreign body aspiration resulted in massive hemoptysis. Our primary attempts to diagnose the cause of lesion were unsuccessful, and surgery was performed due to the life-threatening condition of the patient. Overall, unexplained hemoptysis may occur following a serious accident due to foreign body aspiration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309886PMC
April 2019

Preparation, evaluation and application of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography analysis in cucumber and aqueous samples.

Food Chem 2014 Sep 6;158:421-8. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

A series of diazinon imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared and evaluated in the binding study in comparison with a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The optimised MIP was evaluated as a sorbent, for extraction and preconcentration of diazinon from aqueous media and cucumber tissue. The HPLC-UV method was calibrated, in the range of 0.025-10 mg/kg. The results indicated that the optimised MIP had an excellent affinity for diazinon. The molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure was optimised with a recovery of 77-98%, in aqueous solution, and a recovery of 82-110%, in cucumber. The intra-day variation and inter-day variation values were less than 8.26% and 9.7%, respectively. Our data showed that, the MIP enabled the extraction of trace amounts of diazinon successfully from aqueous solution and cucumber, demonstrating the potential of MISPE for rapid, sensitive and cost-effective sample analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.144DOI Listing
September 2014

Comparative analysis of biofilm development among MRSA and MSSA strains.

Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol 2012 Oct-Dec;71(4):175-82

Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

As the recalcitrance of biofilm-mediated infections to the anti-infective treatment has an adverse effect on patient's health, the main objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with different resistance patterns to form biofilms. S. aureus strains are among the most representative etiology of infections in the health-care environment of Milad hospital in Iran. The results showed that out of 80 analyzed strains, 27 methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 29 methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were positive for biofilm development ability, without any significant correlation observed between MRSA and biofilm production.
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August 2013