Introduction:Neonatal period is one of the most sensitive period of human life. Many factors may influence on newborn health such as maternal factors, before, during and after delivery such as invasive procedures. Anxiety is one of the most common psychological disorders in pregnancy periods which has known to have very negative effects on newborn health. The aim of this study was to determine correlation between the third trimester maternal anxiety and neonatal pain during invasive procedures.
Materials and methods:In this longitudinal study, Anxiety was measured using self-administered Spielberger's state-trait anxiety questionnaire for pregnant mothers who referred to Bandar-Abbas hospitals for routine prenatal care during the third trimester of pregnancy. Then after delivery, behavioral responses of their newborn to pain during invasive procedures have evaluated by Neonatal Infant Pain Scale(NIPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS version20.
Results:Data was analyzed for 75 mother and newborn pairs remained from 110 eligible pregnant mothers until the end of study. The correlation test results showed an inverse correlation between two average scores. No significant correlation between state anxiety score average scores and average scores of newborn pain(P>0.05). But there was a significant relationship between score average of mother trait anxiety weeks and newborn pain average scores(P<0.05).
Conclusion:According to findings, it can concluded that the anxiety of pregnant women during pregnancy period may cause to weaken newborn response to pain. This decreased sensitivity to pain in newborns can be resulted from rising of maternal stress hormones in response to chronic stressors, which may have negative effects on development of newborn nervous system. Therefore more investigation of correlation between maternal anxiety and neonatal pain scores and its mechanism are suggested.
Roudsari3, MehrdadSalehi4, Alireza Yousefy5 Abstract Aim and Background:Unconsummated marriage (UCM) is a problematic worldwide sexual disorder. It becomes complicated in the societies with conservative sexual norms. Yet there is clear consensus in scientific societies that UCM should be defined as a phenomenon beyond a specific individual, organic and psychological problem. Drawing upon Sexual scripts theory by Gagnon and Simon (1973) this review article aimed to answer a question: "Which socio-sexual scripts out of them the UCM in couples emerged and is maintained? Methods and Materials:This review was conducted focusing on 33 medical and clinical papers published between 1956 and 2011 which have been retrieved using Medline, Proquest, Google Scholar, SID, IranMEDEX and Magiran databases with key words including unconsummated marriage, consummation, intercourse, vaginismus, wedding night, feminity& masculinity scripts and virginity. - Findings: Most of the new published studies were conducted in conservative communities and reported varied etiological factors for UCM, based on the specialty of researchers and referred clinics. The studies focused on marriage scripts, have also emphasized on feminine and masculine roles as well as necessity of intercourse in the wedding night scenario or alternatively at a time just after the wedding ceremonies. Conclusions:: It seems that during UCM, mutual transaction between the individual and social norms in her/his community about vaginal intercourse, is impaired and caused to guilt feeling so may lead to nondisclosure of the problem and make it prolonged. Sexual education for new couples by health care givers may decrease UCM prevalence and its challenges.
Keywords:Intercourse, Unconsummated Marriage, Vaginismus, Mating, Marriage. Citation:
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