Publications by authors named "Mitra Mehrabani"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Formulation, Physiochemical, and Microbial Assay of Henna Oil Vaginal Suppository Formulated with Polyethylene Glycol Bases.

Iran J Med Sci 2020 May;45(3):207-213

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Persian Medicine is one of the oldest and richest complementary and alternative options in the field of medicine and has a comprehensive medical system. Henna oil is recommended in Persian Medicine for the treatment of numerous women's diseases such as cervicitis. To date, henna has been used for many medical purposes, including astringent, bleeding, cardioinhibitory, hypotension, and relaxation. Accordingly, the present study aimed to provide the formulation of a henna-oil-based vaginal suppository and examine its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties.

Methods: The present study was approved and performed in accordance with the regulations of Research Council, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, in July 2016. Different percentages of henna oil, glycerin, and gelatin, as well as henna oil and polyethylene glycol 400 and 4000, were mixed to achieve a formulation with proper appearance features and, particularly, without any oil leakage from the suppository surface. Uniformity of weight, uniformity of content, disintegration time, and dissolution test of the suppositories were evaluated. The growth-inhibiting activity of the suppositories and aqueous extract of henna was evaluated against bacteria, including the Gram-positive bacterium , , and group B .

Results: The formulations had a smooth appearance without any cracks or fractures. Disintegration times for glycero-gelatin and polyethylene glycol suppositories were 60 and 10 min, respectively. 40% of the drug was released from polyethylene glycol suppositories after 60 min, but glycero-gelatin suppositories had no release after three hours. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of suppositories and aqueous extract were 0.4 mg/mL and 0.01 mg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: Polyethylene glycol suppositories had acceptable physicochemical properties, and the henna extract and suppositories inhibited the three studied pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/IJMS.2019.44965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253496PMC
May 2020

Efficacy of a topical formulation of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) in contact dermatitis in patients using prosthesis: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Mar 15;49:102316. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Contact dermatitis is a common complication in prosthetic limb users. There are no effective, available and cheap treatments for skin problems of these patients. In traditional Iranian medicine, henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) is a plant that has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin-enhancing properties, all of which are beneficial for people with artificial limbs. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a topical henna preparation in management of contact dermatitis in patients using lower limb prosthetics.

Methods: The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on ninety-five participants with lower extremity amputation using limb prosthetics, aged 12-70 years who complained of contact dermatitis. They were randomly assigned to receive either two weeks of topical henna preparation every night as the intervention group, or topical placebo as the control group. Participants were instructed to spread henna preparation on the surfaces of the amputated limb that were in contact with the prosthesis. Severity of contact dermatitis symptoms was set as the primary outcome measure. Edema, papules and erythema were evaluated by a physician using standard color atlas. Secondary outcomes included symptoms such as burning, itching, pain, thickness and skin sweating evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: A significant improvement was observed in the symptoms of contact dermatitis including skin edema, itching, sweating, skin thinning and pain (p-value<0.05) in the henna group compared to the placebo group. Skin burning decreased more in the henna group compared to the placebo group, but this was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.052). Moreover, skin redness significantly increased in the henna group (p-value = 0.001).

Conclusion: Topical formulation of henna might be a complementary choice for improving contact dermatitis in patients using lower limb prosthetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102316DOI Listing
March 2020

The efficacy of a traditional medicine preparation on second-degree burn wounds in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Apr 14;252:112570. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Lime Salve (L.S) has been well documented from the 9th to the 19th century AD by traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) as an effective remedy for burn healing.

Aim Of The Study: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect and related underlying mechanisms of Lime Salve in a model of deep second-degree thermal burn in male Wistar rats.

Materials And Method: L.S was made up of a combination of refined calcium hydroxide powder, beeswax and sesame oil and its quality control was assessed. A deep second-degree burn was created by a hot plate in 48 male Wistar rats. Afterwards, they were randomly divided into four groups including normal saline (C group), L.S (T group), basement of formulation composed of beeswax and sesame oil (B group) and silver sulfadiazine (S group). On days 5, 10, 17 and 24, the wounds were digitally photographed by a camera and after sacrifice of the rats, skin samples were obtained for performing qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining and histological examination.

Results: L.S prominently augmented the wound closure rate, neovascularization on day 10 and collagen formation on days 17 and 24 in comparison with the C group. Furthermore, the Salve-exposed specimens showed a significant higher epithelialization during the experiment with a peak on day 24. qRT-PCR also showed that on day 10, VEGF and TGF-β1 genes were significantly higher in the T group as compared with the C group. Also, MMP-9 and MMP-2 genes had a significant peak of expression on day 17 and rapid reduction of expression on day 24. Expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α genes peaked on day 10 in the T group, followed by a progressive reduction until the end of the examination.

Conclusion: L.S could effectively accelerate the healing process of deep second-degree burn wounds and therefore, it may be recommended as a promising topical medication for treating burn wounds in the future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112570DOI Listing
April 2020

In vitro evaluation on the scolicidal effect of Myrtus communis L. and Tripleurospermum disciforme L. methanolic extracts.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Apr 9;199:111-115. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Hydatid disease, a zoonotic disease, is still endemic in many developing countries that is caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus (E.) granulosus. Surgical management is one of the best choices for the treatment of the hydatidosis and using effective scolicidal agents during hydatid surgery is essential to prevent the secondary infection. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the scolicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Myrtus communis and Tripleurospermum disciforme against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Protoscoleces of E. granulosus were aspirated aseptically from infected livers. Various concentrations of M. communis and T. disciforme extracts at different exposure times were examined for their scolicidal activity. Normal saline and silver nitrate were used as negative and positive groups, correspondingly. The viability of protoscoleces was evaluated by 0.1% eosin. The result of the current study indicated that the highest scolicidal effect (100%) of M. communis was obtained at 100 and 50 mg/ml concentrations and LC50 in 10, 20 and 30 min were 11.64 mg/ml, 7.62 mg/ml, and 6.47 mg/ml respectively. The scolicidal activity of T. disciforme was negligible even at high concentration. The findings have shown that the scolicidal activity of M. communis against echinococcosis protoscoleces was strong, while the T. disciforme extract showed fewer effects. However, further studies are required for identification of the active ingredients in the extract and its safety on cells in effective concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Green tea as an adjunctive therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women: A randomized clinical trial.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019 Feb 30;34:13-16. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: and purpose: Different in vitro studies have reported the antimicrobial effects of green tea catechins and also their synergistic effects with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against E. coli. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of green tea as an adjunctive therapy to standard antimicrobial treatment in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

Materials And Methods: In this blinded randomized trial, 70 patients were assigned to receive four 500 mg capsules of green tea or starch as placebo daily for three days along with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The presence of acute uncomplicated cystitis symptoms was recorded and urinalysis was performed.

Results: Women in the green tea group showed a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of cystitis symptoms and a statistically significant improvement in the urinalysis results except for hematuria after 3 days of treatment.

Conclusion: Green tea was an effective adjunct to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to treat acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.10.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Proliferation and In Vitro Wound Healing Effects of the Microniosomes Containing Narcissus tazetta L. Bulb Extract on Primary Human Fibroblasts (HDFs).

Daru 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Physiology Research Center; Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Ibne cina street, Kerman, Iran.

Purpose: In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), different natural treatments have been suggested for skin damages such as Narcissus tazetta L. bulb application. New drug delivery systems such as niosomes have shown considerable increase transdermal drug delivery through stratum corneum, the main barrier against substances transport into skin. The aim of this study is preparation of niosomal formulations from N. tazetta bulb extract and evaluation of its in vitro wound healing effect.

Materials And Methods: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs or niosomes) were prepared by film hydration method from percolated extract of N. tazetta bulb. A number of 12 niosomal formulations (F1-F12) were prepared using different proportions of Span 60/Tween 60/cholesterol and 80% methanol-dissolved/aqueous PEN (percolation extract of N. tazetta) (30 and 50 mg/ml). Their morphology, particle size, physical and chemical stability and encapsulation efficiency was studied. In vitro wound healing effect of various concentrations of the best PEN niosomal formulation (F9) was evaluated in comparison to PEN on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).

Results: Increasing the aqueous/methanolic PEN concentration from 3 to 5% resulted size reduction of NSVs with statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). F9 showed the most physicochemical stability and was chosen for in vitro wound healing effect. This formulation exhibited significantly effects (p < 0.05) on cell proliferation in HDF cells at 1.562 and 3.125 μg/ml compared with the untreated cells using neutral red assay.

Conclusion: Formulation of PEN in niosome carrier significantly decreased the gap width on human dermal fibroblasts. Graphical abstract Schematic processes of proliferation effect of narcisus tazetta bulb on fibroblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-018-0211-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154482PMC
September 2018

Phytoniosome: a Novel Drug Delivery for Myrtle Extract.

Iran J Pharm Res 2018 ;17(3):804-817

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Traditionally, (myrtle) has been used for treatment of several kinds of disorders. However, there are some factors, namely, low solubility and permeability, which restrict use of myrtle extract (ME) in medical applications. Regarding these limitations, the aim of the present study was to develop a new niosomal formulation to enhance ME stability and permeability. Briefly, several niosomal formulations were prepared by non-ionic surfactants and cholesterol with different molar ratios. Afterward, size, entrapment efficiency (EE%), release and stability of niosomal myrtle extract (nME) were investigated. The effect of ME and nME on viability of 3T3 cells was evaluated using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity of ME and nME was also assessed against , , . Sizes of niosomes were 5.3 ± 0.3 to 15.9 ± 2.2 µm with 4.1 ± 0.3 to 26.9 ± 1.7 mV zeta potential. The EE% of niosomes was varied from 45.4% to 93.4%. An release study on F5 formulation (Span60: Tween60: cholesterol (3:3:4 molar ratio)) revealed that about 36.9%, 38.5% and 26.7% of phytoconstituents were released within 12 h from acetate cellulose membrane, 0.45 µm, regenerated cellulose membrane, 0.45 µm, and cellophane dialysis sack, 12000 Da, respectively. F5 formulation significantly showed lower toxicity on cells. It had higher antibacterial activity that has been shown by lower MICs and higher zone of inhibition compared to ME. Overall, F5 formulation in the presence of 4% ME produced stable multi lamellar vesicles with optimal release and EE%. This formulation also exhibited better antibacterial activity than ME.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094422PMC
January 2018

Development, physicochemical characterization, and antimicrobial evaluation of niosomal myrtle essential oil.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Jun;13(3):250-261

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, I.R. Iran.

(myrtle) is well known for its therapeutic effects pertaining to the major secondary metabolites including essential oils (EOs). EOs are composed of volatile compounds and simply evaporate or decompose leading to their instability. Preparation of EOs niosomal formulation may be a promising approach to deal with these obstacles. Niosomal formulations of myrtle essential oil (nMEO) were provided using non-ionic surfactants and cholesterol (Chol). In the next steps, vesicle size, zeta potential, percentage of entrapment efficiency (EE%) and physical stability of nMEO were investigated. Finally, the effect of myrtle essential oil (MEO) and nMEO on microbial growth inhibition were assessed. Values for nMEO size and zeta potential ranged from 6.17 ± 0.32 to 7.24 ± 0.61 (μm) and -20.41 ± 0.17 to -31.75 ± 0.45 (mV), respectively. Higher degrees of EE% were obtained by F6 formulation (Span/Tween 60:Chol (50:50 molar ratio)). Moreover, niosomes have been reported to be stable at 4 °C during a three-month time period. It was revealed that nMEO F6 formulation inhibited growth of , , and at concentrations lower than that of MEO. Overall, it was found that stable multilamellar vesicles were formed in the presence of 0.5% MEO and F6 formulation. This formulation also exhibited better antibacterial activity than MEO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.228955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5921405PMC
June 2018

Efficacy of combination of Viola odorata, Rosa damascena and Coriandrum sativum in prevention of migraine attacks: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Electron Physician 2018 Mar 25;10(3):6430-6438. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Migraine is the second most common type of headache after tension headaches. In Iranian traditional medicine several herbal drugs are used for the treatment of headache. Including, a product of Iranian traditional medicine, a combination of Viola odorata L. flowers, Rosa damascena L. flowers and Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a combination of Viola odorata flowers, Rosa damascene flowers and Coriandrum sativum fruits on severity, duration and frequency of migraine headaches.

Methods: This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 88 patients who had migraine and visited Besat Neurology Clinic No. 4 at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, from September 2016 to march 2017. Patients were randomly divided into the intervention (n=44) or placebo group (n=44). The intervention group received a product of Iranian traditional medicine, a combination of Viola odorata L. flowers, Rosa damascena L. flowers and Coriandrum sativum L. fruits in 500 mg capsules three times a day and propranolol 20mg tablet twice a day, and the control group received placebo capsules (500mg) three times a day and propranolol 20mg tablet twice a day for four weeks. Patients were asked to report the frequency, duration and severity of their headaches in designed forms at home. Then at the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment, patients were followed for clinical efficacy.

Results: In terms of duration, frequency and severity of headaches between the two groups of herbal medicine and placebo, the behavior of the two protocols was changed over time (p<0.001). During the 4 weeks, the time and drug interactions, were significant (p <0.001). In other words, the pattern of changes to the two protocols over time, was different. Also, at the end of the 4th week, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the Iranian traditional product combination of Viola odorata flowers, Rosa damascena flowers and Coriandrum sativum fruits may be effective in improving headaches in patients with migraine.

Clinical Trial Registration: The trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT: www.irct.ir) with registered NO. IRCT 2016110830776N1.

Funding: The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/6430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5942562PMC
March 2018

Efficacy of mummy on healing of pressure ulcers: A randomized controlled clinical trial on hospitalized patients in intensive care unit.

Electron Physician 2018 Jan 25;10(1):6140-6147. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

Background: Mummy is a mineral substance which according to Persian medicine texts, may be useful in treatment of chronic ulcers.

Objective: The present study was performed with the aim of determining the effect of mummy on healing of pressure in male patients who had been hospitalized due to cerebrospinal injury in the Intensive Care Unit.

Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 75 patients who had pressure ulcer at Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from September 2016 to March 2017. The control group received normal saline and routine wound dressing, while the intervention group received mummy water solution 20% in addition to normal saline and routine wound dressing on a daily basis. Data was recorded based on the PUSH method. In both groups, ulcers were evaluated on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for the variables of ulcer surface area, the amount of exudate and type of tissue. Data analysis was done through SPSS 21 and using t-test, Repeated Measure Analysis, Cox Regression and Chi-square.

Results: Both groups showed reduction in the average ulcer surface area (3.26 to 0.53 in the intervention group and 5.1 to 3.46 in the control group), the average exudate amount (1.26 to 0.26 in the intervention group and 1.83 to 1.06 in the control group) and the average tissue score (1.36 to 0.23 in the intervention group and 2.13 to 1.26 in the control group). Over the entire study period, the intervention group showed more acceptable signs of healing compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The healing process was more prominent in the intervention group than the control group.

Clinical Trial Registration: The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registered NO. (IRCT2014042917494N1) (29/04/2014).

Funding: No financial support for the research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/6140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853986PMC
January 2018

Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018 Feb 13;30:24-28. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral rosemary on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students.

Methods: In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, the 68 participating students randomly received 500 mg rosemary and placebo twice daily for one month. Prospective and retrospective memory performance, depression, anxiety and sleep quality of the students were measured using Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory at baseline and after one month.

Results: The scores of all the scales and subscales except the sleep latency and sleep duration components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory were significantly decreased in the rosemary group in comparison with the control group after one month.

Conclusions: Rosemary as a traditional herb could be used to boost prospective and retrospective memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve sleep quality in university students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.11.004DOI Listing
February 2018

Effect of and on clinical symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Nov-Dec;7(6):554-564

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the effect of Iranian traditional remedy prepared from and (AT) on the severity and frequency of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).

Material And Methods: In total, 150 FD patients were included in this randomized double-blind trial, based on the ROME III diagnostic criteria, and they were divided into three intervention groups namely, AT, Placebo and omeprazole. Then, severity and frequency of symptoms during this eight-week trial were measured. Obtained information was analyzed using Chi-square test and repeated measures test.

Result: In general, the severity and frequency of symptoms after the 4th week significantly decreased in the AT group as compared to the omeprazole and placebo groups, and continued to reduce by the end of the eighth week. General reduction of symptom severity and frequency in the omeprazole group was significantly different from the placebo group by the end of the 4th and 8th weeks. With respect to each individual symptom, AT markedly improved symptoms, such as burning, pain, early satiation, fullness, bloating, belching and nausea, as compared to placebo-treated group. Moreover, AT significantly improved symptoms, like vomiting, and nausea, except for pain, as compared to omeprazole-treated subjects.

Conclusion: According to the results, AT, as Iranian traditional remedy, was more effective than omeprazole and placebo in reducing the symptoms in FD patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5745539PMC
January 2018

Prevalence of Aflatoxin Contamination in Herbs and Spices in Different Regions of Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Nov;46(11):1540-1545

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Mycotoxins are natural toxins, produced by several fungal species and are associated with morbidity or even mortality in animals, plants, and humans. In this study, 120 samples of herbs and spices in both bulk and packaged forms were prepared in order to measure aflatoxin level in different regions of Iran.

Methods: The aflatoxin was extracted during Mar to May 2015, using 80% methanol and then purified via immunoaffinity column. Measurements were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography, equipped with a fluorescence detection system at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 435 nm, respectively.

Results: The highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in food products was attributed to aflatoxin B1 (30.8%). In addition, the highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination was reported in red pepper (100%). Examination of effective factors indicated the substantial impact of moisture on aflatoxin level (=0.046).

Conclusion: Even at low levels of aflatoxin, contamination could be a serious threat, given the prevalent use of spices (either raw or not) as ingredients in food preparation. Therefore, regular monitoring of spices, especially chili pepper, is highly recommended.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696694PMC
November 2017

Accelerated Burn Wound Closure in Mice with a New Formula Based on Traditional Medicine.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Nov 17;18(11):e26613. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran.

Background: A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans.

Objectives: This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice. The formula was a combination of the oils of four plants: sesame ( L.), wild pistachio ( Desf.), hemp ( L.), and walnut ( L.).

Methods: Twenty-four mice were selected based on simple random sampling. Twenty-five percent of the total body surface area was burned by exposure to boiling water, according to the Walker-Mason method. NF and silver sulfadiazine (the positive control) were applied topically twice a day for 21 days. The burned area in the negative control group was left untreated. Epithelialization time and the percent of wound contraction were measured during the treatment period. The process of wound repairing was evaluated using histological (H and E and trichrome staining) and immunohistological (anti-pancytokeratin) methods.

Results: When compared to the controls, NF significantly improved wound contraction after day 10. Epithelialization time in the NF group was significantly faster than in the other groups (20 vs. 25.5 days) (P < 0.001). Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the efficacy of the NF.

Conclusions: A new therapeutic remedy was introduced for the treatment of burn wounds. Further clinical and molecular studies are suggested to determine the exact mechanism(s) involved in the burn wound healing effect of NF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.26613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5292211PMC
November 2016

Evaluation of Honey as a Topical Therapy for Intraoral Wound Healing in Rats.

Wounds 2017 Mar 29;29(3):80-86. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Dental Research Center and Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Oral Medicine, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.

Objective: Honey is one of the oldest known medicines. Its medical and therapeutic importance has been recently rediscovered. Honey is an effective treatment for infected wounds and ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey as a topical therapy for intraoral wound healing in rats.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-two male rats were divided into experimental and control groups (consisting of 16 rats, 4 animals in each group). A 2-mm mucosal defect was made to the depth of the periosteum using punch biopsy. Honey was applied to the wound every day, and the ulcer size was measured daily. On days 2, 4, 6, and 8, four rats were euthanized from each group (experimental and control groups), and tissues were histopathologically evaluated. Healing processes were studied as follows: the size of ulcer, inflammatory response, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue formation.

Results: The mean rank of wound size was significantly reduced in the honey group (2.50), as compared to the control group (6.50). Reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation mean rank were significantly higher in the honey group (6.50) than in the control group (2.50). Inflammation mean rank was statistically lower in the honey group (2.63) compared with the control group (6.38).

Conclusion: Honey was shown to have a beneficial effect on the healing of oral ulcers in rats in this model. Further research may shed light on the effects of honey on different types of ulcers in humans.
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March 2017

Microwave-assisted biosynthesis of zinc nanoparticles and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jan 3;39:116-123. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed for microwave assisted synthesis of zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) using Lavandula vera leaf extract in the presence of ZnSO (1mM). The biogenic Zn NPs were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Thereafter, the cytotoxic effect of ZnSO and Zn NPs on different cell lines was investigated by MTT-based cytotoxicity assay and their antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The SEM micrograph showed that the Zn NPs had spherical shape with the size range of 30-80nm. For A549, MCF-7, HT-29, and Caco-2 cell lines treated with Zn NPs, the concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC) was found to be 22.3±1.1μgmL, 86±3.7μgmL, 10.9±0.5μgmL, and 56.2±2.8μgmL, respectively. In the case of ZnSO, the same results (IC) were observed at concentration of 81.6±1.3μgmL (A549), 121.0±2.4μgmL (MCF-7), 43.0±1.4μgmL (HT-29), and 85.7±2.3μgmL (Caco-2). The obtained results of antioxidant activity showed that the IC values of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Zn NPs were 44μgmLand 65.3μgmL, respectively, while ZnSO at concentration of 200μgmL exhibited only 10.9% DPPH radical scavenging effect. Moreover, the reducing power of Zn NPs and BHA were significantly higher than ZnSO (p<0.05). To sum up, application of L. vera leaf extract combined with microwave heating energy led to simple and fast formation of Zn nanostructures exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activity compared to soluble Zn ions. However, identification of the related mechanisms merit further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.001DOI Listing
January 2017

Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Mar 1;18(3):e22054. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran.

Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world's aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.

Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili's (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed.

Results: Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine.

Conclusions: According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.22054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884442PMC
March 2016

Herbal medicine Davaie Loban in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2015 Dec 29;23(6):767-72. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objective: In traditional texts on herbal medicines, various medicinal plants have been noted to have beneficial effects on dementia and Alzheimer's disease. According to the traditional books Herbal medicine Davaie Loban (DL) has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. The study aim was to determine the clinical efficacy of DL in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

Design: Double blind randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

Interventions: This included patients older than 50 years with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to ADAS-cog (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; ADAS≥12) and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB; CDR≤2). Twenty-four patients completed the study in DL group and 20 in placebo group.

Main Outcome Measures: ADAS-cog and CDR-SOB were filled out for patients to define the improvement in memory over the study period.

Results: At 4 weeks and 12 weeks there was significant difference in mean (SEM) ADAS-cog scores between DL and placebo groups and it was lower in DL group (p<0.001). At baseline, no significant difference was seen regarding mean (SEM) scores of CDR-SOB between DL and placebo groups (p=0.096). However, at 4 and 12 weeks there was significant difference in mean (SE) CDR-SOB scores between DL and placebo groups and it was lower in DL group (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that DL may be effective in improvement of memory in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.06.009DOI Listing
December 2015

Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis From the Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine: Presentation of a Novel Therapeutic Approach.

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017 Jan 9;22(1):5-11. Epub 2015 Aug 9.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

There is a strong current trend for using complementary and alternative medications to treat atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, pruritic, and inflammatory skin disease. It can have a profound, negative effect on patients' quality of life. Mild cases of atopic dermatitis can be controlled by the application of moisturizers and topical corticosteroids. However, in severe cases, application of immunosuppressive medication is unavoidable but it can have adverse effects. In traditional Persian medicine, diseases similar to resistant atopic dermatitis are treated with whey in combination with decoction of field dodder. Both whey and field dodder have anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of whey can also aid skin repair, mitigate pruritus, and help combat the high level of stress experienced by patients. Therefore, it is hypothesized that consumption of traditional medicinal treatment of whey with decoction of field dodder can be applied as a complementary treatment for atopic dermatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587215598610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871194PMC
January 2017

The efficacy of whey associated with dodder seed extract on moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

J Ethnopharmacol 2015 Aug 4;172:325-32. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Atopic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that is on the rise and adversely affects quality of life of the affected individual. Dry skin and pruritus, major characteristics of this disease, are associated with the dysfunction of the skin barrier. Though mild cases of the disease can be controlled with antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, moderate-to-severe cases often require treatment with immunomodulatory drugs, which have many side effects. It is now more common to use complementary and alternative medicines in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In traditional Iranian medicine, the use of whey with the aqueous extract of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) seeds in severe and refractory cases of atopic dermatitis is common and has no side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of whey associated with dodder seed extract in the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adults.

Materials And Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo control trial that was conducted on 52 patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis for 30 days. In this study patients received freeze dried whey powder with spray dried water extract of field dodder or the placebo for 15 days. At baseline (week zero), after the end of the 15 day treatment period (week three) and 15 days after stopping the drug or placebo (follow-up/week five), patients were evaluated in terms of skin moisture, elasticity, pigmentation, surface pH and sebum content on the forearm with Multi Skin Test Center® MC1000 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany) and the degree of pruritus and sleep disturbance in patients were also recorded.

Results: 42 patients completed 30 days of treatment with the medicine and the follow-up period. At the end of the follow-up period a significant increase in skin moisture and elasticity in the group receiving whey with dodder was observed compared with the placebo group (p<0.001). There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the pruritus after 15 days of receiving treatment or the placebo (p<0.05), and at the end of the 30-day study period the difference was clearly significant (p<0.001). Sleep disturbance showed significant changes at the end of follow-up period (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning changes in skin pigmentation, however, a significant decrease was observed in the group receiving whey associated with dodder seed extract over time (p<0.001). There were no significant alterations in skin surface pH and the amount of sebum between the two groups. Temporary side effects were reported including anorexia and mild gastrointestinal problems in drug use. It is noteworthy that in this study despite the fact that patients received whey with dodder for just 15 days, moisture and elasticity of the skin continued to increase in the second half of the study (follow-up period). This shows that the effect of whey with dodder is not transient and this drug really helped skin barrier reconstruction and accelerated the healing process of skin. This positively influenced the skin parameters and consequently the improvement of pruritus and sleep disturbance.

Conclusions: The results indicate that whey associated with dodder seed extract can serve as a promising alternative for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2013121415790N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.003DOI Listing
August 2015

The frequency of using herbal medicines among patients with hypertension in Kerman, Iran, 2012-2013.

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2015 Jul 12;20(3):199-202. Epub 2015 Apr 12.

Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The use of medicinal plants has dramatically increased in recent years. Given the increasing rate of hypertension and medical plants usage by these patients and considering drug interactions due to concomitant use with drugs, the present study aims to evaluate the rate of medicinal plants usage in hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) in which 650 hypertensive patients referring to the subspecialty clinic of Kerman were questioned about medicinal plants usage by a medicinal plants questionnaire. Among these patients, there were 612 who consented to participate. After the variables were described, the data were finally analyzed using Stata 12.

Results: The average age of those using these drugs in the past year was 58.8 ± 10 years. Of the total number of participants using medicinal plants, there were 58 males (23.5%) and 122 females (33.4%). There were 129 participants (72.5%) using medicinal plants through self-administration, 17 participants (9.5%) on experienced users' advice, 16 participants (9%) as administered by herbalists, and 11 participants (6%) as administered by doctors. However, the most important resources for using a drug that prevents hypertension were family and friends (74 participants; 41.5%) and doctors (13 participants; 7.3%). According to the results, there was no significant difference between the level of education and medicinal plants usage (P = .95); however, there was a significant difference between gender and medicinal plants usage (P = .009).

Discussion: According to the results indicating the relatively high prevalence of medicinal plants usage and their arbitrary use by hypertensive patients without consulting a specialist, it seems necessary to plan for more effective and secure public education and train people to provide herbal drug services for various diseases with hypertension being the most common one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587215573141DOI Listing
July 2015

Preparation and evaluation of the effect of Fe3 O4 @piroctone olamine magnetic nanoparticles on matrix metalloproteinase-2: a preliminary in vitro study.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2014 Nov-Dec;61(6):676-82

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

In the present study, Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions and used as a nanocarrier for the production of piroctone-olamine-loaded Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @PO NPs). The nanocrystalline structure of the prepared iron oxide species was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy method. Particle size distribution analysis showed that the size of Fe3 O4 @PO NPs was in the range of 5-55 nm. The magnetization curve of Fe3 O4 @PO NPs (with saturation magnetization of 28.2 emu/g) confirmed its ferromagnetic property. Loading of PO on the surface of Fe3 O4 NPs qualitatively verified by Fourier transform infrared spectrum obtained from Fe3 O4 @PO NPs. Cytotoxicity studies on the human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT-1080) revealed higher inhibitory effect of Fe3 O4 @PO NPs (50% cell death [IC50 ] of 8.1 µg/mL) as compared with Fe3 O4 NPs (IC50 of 117.1 µg/mL) and PO (IC50 of 71.2 µg/mL) alone. In the case of human normal fibroblast (Hs68), the viability percentage was found to be 75% in the presence of Fe3 O4 @PO NPs (120 µg/mL). Gelatin zymography showed 17.2% and 34.6% inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the presence of Fe3 O4 @PO and PO, respectively, at the same concentration of 40 µg/mL, whereas Fe3 O4 NPs did not inhibit MMP-2 at any concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1231DOI Listing
August 2015

Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles in comparison to selenium dioxide.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2014 Jan 1;28(1):75-9. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to evaluate antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) biosynthesized by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain Bacillus sp. MSh-1. An organic-aqueous partitioning system was applied for purification of the biogenic Se NPs and the purified Se NPs were then investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Cytotoxic effect of the biogenic Se NPs and selenium dioxide (SeO2) on MCF-7 cell line was assesed by MTT assay. Tranmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Se NPs showed individual and spherical nanostructure in size range of about 80-220nm. The obtained results showed that, at the same concentration of 200μg/mL, Se NPs and SeO2 represented scavenging activity of 23.1±3.4% and 13.2±3.1%, respectively. However, the data obtained from reducing power assay revealed higher electron-donating activity of SeO2 compared to Se NPs. Higher IC50 of the Se NPs (41.5±0.9μg/mL) compared to SeO2 (6.7±0.8μg/mL) confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the biogenic Se NPs on MCF-7 cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2013.07.005DOI Listing
January 2014

Antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidation, and insulin secretory activities of Otostegia persica shoot extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro C187 pancreatic β-cells.

Pharm Biol 2013 Feb 7;51(2):253-9. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Context: Otostegia persica Boiss (Lamiaceae) contains antioxidant agents and is used in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus complications.

Objectives: The acute antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidation, and insulin secretory activities of methanol extract of O. persica aerial parts were investigated.

Materials And Methods: The extract [200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] was given orally to rats and glucose (2 g/kg b.w. orally) was administered 30 min later. Glucose and insulin serum levels were measured before and 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after administration of the test samples in normal and diabetic rats. The in vitro insulin secretory activity of extract was evaluated in C187 pancreatic β-cells and its antilipid peroxidation effect was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in rat livers after 240 min. The identification of the major phytoconstituents of the extract was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: The extract (300 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased the serum glucose level in diabetic rats at 1 h (494 ± 13.4 vs. 426 ± 12.9), 2 h (472.8 ± 17.8 vs. 396 ± 22), and 4 h (438.8 ± 25 vs. 346 ± 19) after treatment. Accordingly, the serum insulin level increased at the same times. The extract significantly increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in C187 β-cells. Moreover, the extract significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH levels in the liver of diabetic rats. Phytochemical analysis revealed thymol as the major phytoconstituent in the extract.

Discussion And Conclusion: O. persica shoot extract has antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidation, and insulin secretory properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2012.718351DOI Listing
February 2013

Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(6):336-40

Department of Oral Medicine, Kerman School of Dentistry, Kerman, Iran.

There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.
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December 2011

Comparative composition of four essential oils of Oregano used in Algerian and Jordanian folk medicine.

Nat Prod Commun 2010 Jun;5(6):957-60

Laboratoire d'Obtention de Substances Thérapeutiques (L.O.S.T), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mentouri - Constantine, Campus Chaabat Ersas, 25000 Constantine, Algeria.

The essential oils obtained from Origanum glandulosum Desf., collected from two different localities of north-eastern Algeria, Constantine and Jijel, and from O. syriacum var. syriacum grown at El-Aghwar (northern Jordan) and El-Shubak (southern Jordan), were analyzed by GC-MS. p-Cymene (6.6% and 7.5%) and gamma-terpinene (13.4% and 14.5%) were found in O. glandulosum grown at Constantine and Jijel, respectively, in addition to the major components thymol (34.2%, 51.1%) and carvacrol (30.5%, 6.8%). The oil of O. syriacum L. var syriacum (Boiss.) Ietswaart from El-Shubak was mainly represented by thymol (51.8%) and carvacrol (34.4%), while the oil from El-Aghwar was a thymol-chemotype (72.4%), along with gamma-terpinene (7.8%) and p-cymene (5.4%).
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June 2010

Effects of gibberellic acid on primary terpenoids and delta-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at flowering stage.

J Integr Plant Biol 2009 Jun;51(6):553-61

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.

Plants synthesize an astonishing diversity of isoprenoids, some of which play essential roles in photosynthesis, respiration, and the regulation of growth and development. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, little is known about the effects of plant hormones on the regulation of these pathways. In the present study we investigated the effect of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) on changes in the amounts of many produced terpenoids and the activity of the key enzymes, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), in these pathways. Our results showed GA(3) caused a decrease in DXS activity in both sexes that it was accompanied by a decrease in chlorophylls, carotenoids and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents and an increase in alpha-tocopherol content. The treated plants with GA(3) showed an increase in HMGR activity. This increase in HMGR activity was followed by accumulation of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in male and female plants and campestrol in male plants. The pattern of the changes in the amounts of sterols was exactly similar to the changes in the HMGR activity. These data suggest that GA(3) can probably influence the MEP and MVA pathways oppositely, with stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the produced primary terpenoids in MVA and DXS pathways, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00833.xDOI Listing
June 2009

Evaluation of the analgesic effect of Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. extract in mice: possible mechanism involved.

J Ethnopharmacol 2006 Feb 26;103(3):345-9. Epub 2005 Sep 26.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, P.O. Box 76175-493, Iran.

Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey. has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as demulcent and analgesic in common cold from long ago. In this investigation, the analgesic effect of the methanolic extract of the petals of this plant on male albino mice was evaluated by formalin and hot-plate test. The methanolic percolated extract with different doses 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally to mice. The results showed that the dose of 10 mg/kg of extract had the highest analgesia in formalin (P<0.05) and hot-plate test (P<0.01) compared to the control group. The analgesic effect of extract was lower than morphine 2.5 mg/kg and ASA 300 mg/kg in the chronic phase of pain in formalin test (P<0.05) and in hot-plate test too (P<0.05). Pretreatment of animal with naloxone 4 mg/kg, s.c. 5 min before extract, decreased the analgesia induced by extract in hot-plate and acute phase of formalin tests; therefore, the opioid receptor may be involved at least partly in the analgesic effect of Echium amoenum extract. The results suggested that Echium amoenum extract has a suitable analgesic effect and further studies are required to evaluate these effects and the potential of the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.027DOI Listing
February 2006