Publications by authors named "Mitchell Horwitz"

89 Publications

Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma-Type Richter Syndrome.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

CIBMTR, Medical College of WI, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Richter syndrome (RS) represents a transformation from chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) to an aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), associated with a dismal prognosis. Patients with DLBCL-RS have poor outcomes with DLBCL-directed therapy, thus consolidation with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used with durable remissions observed. Studies reporting HCT outcomes in patients with DLBCL-RS have been small, have not evaluated the prognostic impact of cytogenetic risk factors, and were conducted prior to the era of novel, targeted therapy of CLL/SLL. We performed a CIBMTR registry study evaluating outcomes after autologous (auto, n=53) and allogeneic (allo, n=118) HCT in patients with DLBCL-RS treated in the modern era. More auto-HCT recipients were in complete response at HCT relative to allo-HCT recipients (66% versus 34%), while a higher proportion of allo-HCT recipients had 17p deletion (33% versus 7%) and had previously received novel agents (39% versus 10%). In the auto-HCT cohort, the 3-year relapse incidence, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 37%, 48%, and 57%, respectively. Among allo-HCT recipients, the 3-year relapse incidence, PFS, and OS were 30%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the allo-HCT cohort, deeper response at HCT was associated with outcomes (3y PFS/OS: 66%/77% CR versus 43%/57% PR versus 5%/15% resistant, p<.0001 for both), while cytogenetic abnormalities and prior novel therapy did not impact outcomes. In our study, HCT resulted in durable remissions in therapy-sensitive patients with DLBCL-RS treated in the era of targeted CLL/SLL therapy, including patients with high-risk features.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004865DOI Listing
September 2021

Lymphoid and myeloid immune cell reconstitution after nicotinamide-expanded cord blood transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Omidubicel (nicotinamide-expanded cord blood) is a potential alternative source for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) when an HLA-identical donor is lacking. A phase I/II trial with standalone omidubicel HCT showed rapid and robust neutrophil and platelet engraftment. In this study, we evaluated the immune reconstitution (IR) of patients receiving omidubicel grafts during the first 6 months post-transplant, as IR is critical for favorable outcomes of the procedure. Data was collected from the omidubicel phase I-II international, multicenter trial. The primary endpoint was the probability of achieving adequate CD4+ T-cell IR (CD4IR: > 50 × 10/L within 100 days). Secondary endpoints were the recovery of T-cells, natural killer (NK)-cells, B-cells, dendritic cells (DC), and monocytes as determined with multicolor flow cytometry. LOESS-regression curves and cumulative incidence plots were used for data description. Thirty-six omidubicel recipients (median 44; 13-63 years) were included, and IR data was available from 28 recipients. Of these patients, 90% achieved adequate CD4IR. Overall, IR was complete and consisted of T-cell, monocyte, DC, and notably fast NK- and B-cell reconstitution, compared to conventional grafts. Our data show that transplantation of adolescent and adult patients with omidubicel results in full and broad IR, which is comparable with IR after HCT with conventional graft sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01417-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Graft-versus-Host Disease after Cord Blood Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07;27(7):540-544

Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapies, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

The incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after cord blood (CB) transplantation (CBT) is lower than expected given the marked degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch of CB grafts. While the exact mechanism that underlies this biology remains unclear, it is hypothesized to be due to the low number of mostly immature T-cells infused as part of the graft1,2, and increased tolerance of CB-derived lymphocytes induced by the state of pregnancy. Nevertheless, acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a significant complication of CBT. In contrast, the incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) following CBT is lower than what is observed following matched related or unrelated donor HSC transplantation (HSCT)3-6. This review outlines the guidelines for the prevention and management of acute and chronic GVHD following CBT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.012DOI Listing
July 2021

A phase 2 trial of the somatostatin analog pasireotide to prevent GI toxicity and acute GVHD in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(6):e0252995. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States of America.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is an often curative intent treatment, however it is associated with significant gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and treatment related mortality. Graft-versus-host disease is a significant contributor to transplant-related mortality. We performed a phase 2 trial of the somatostatin analog pasireotide to prevent gastrointestinal toxicity and GVHD after myeloablative allogeneic HCT.

Methods: Patients received 0.9mg pasireotide every 12 hours from the day prior to conditioning through day +4 after HCT (or a maximum of 14 days). The primary outcomes were grade 3-4 gastrointestinal toxicity through day 30 and acute GVHD. Secondary outcomes were chronic GVHD, overall survival and relapse free survival at one year. Stool and blood samples were collected from before and after HCT for analyses of stool microbiome, local inflammatory markers, and systemic inflammatory and metabolic markers. Results were compared with matched controls.

Results: Twenty-six patients received pasireotide and were compared to 52 matched contemporaneous controls using a 1-2 match. Grade 3-4 GI toxicity occurred in 21 (81%) patients who received pasireotide and 35 (67%) controls (p = 0.33). Acute GVHD occurred in 15 (58%) patients in the pasireotide group and 28 (54%) controls (p = 0.94). Chronic GVHD occurred in 16 patients in the pasireotide group (64%) versus 22 patients in the control group (42%) (p = 0.12). Overall survival at 1 year in the pasireotide group was 63% (95% CI: 47%,86%) versus 82% (95% CI: 72%, 93%) in controls (log-rank p = 0.006). Relapse-free survival rate at one year was 40% (95% CI: 25%, 65%) in the pasireotide group versus 78% (95% CI: 68%, 91%) in controls (log-rank p = 0.002). After controlling for the effect of relevant covariates, patients in the pasireotide group had attenuated post-HCT loss of microbial diversity. Analysis of systemic inflammatory markers and metabolomics demonstrated feasibility of such analyses in patients undergoing allogeneic HCT. Baseline level and pre-to-post transplant changes in several inflammatory markers (including MIP1a, MIP1b, TNFa, IL8Pro, and IL6) correlated with likelihood of survival.

Conclusions: Pasireotide did not prevent gastrointestinal toxicity or acute GVHD compared to contemporaneous controls. Pasireotide was associated with numerically higher chronic GVHD and significantly decreased OS and RFS compared to contemporaneous controls. Pasireotide may provide a locally protective effect in the stool microbiome and in local inflammation as measured by stool calprotectin, stool beta-defensin, and stool diversity index.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252995PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232534PMC
June 2021

Omidubicel Versus Standard Myeloablative Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation: Results of a Phase III Randomized Study.

Blood 2021 06 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain and CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, Valencia, Spain.

Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded hematopoietic progenitor cell, and non-expanded myeloid and lymphoid cell product derived from a single umbilical cord blood unit. We report results of a phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of omidubicel compared to standard umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Between January 2017 and January 2020, 125 patients aged 13-65 with hematologic malignancies were randomized to omidubicel versus standard UCBT. Patients received myeloablative conditioning and graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. The primary endpoint was time to neutrophil engraftment. The treatment arms were well balanced and racially diverse. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (95% CI 10-14 days) and 22 days (95% CI 19-25 days) (p<0.001) for the omidubicel and control arms, respectively. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 96% and 89% for patients receiving omidubicel and control transplants, respectively. The omidubicel arm had faster platelet recovery (55% vs. 35% recovery by 42 days, p=0.028), a lower incidence of first grade 2/3 bacterial or invasive fungal infections (37% vs. 57%, p=0.027), and spent more time out of hospital during the first 100 days following transplant (median 61 vs. 48 days, p=0.005) than controls. Differences in GvHD and survival between the two arms were not statistically significant. Transplantation with omidubicel results in faster hematopoietic recovery and reduced early transplant-related complications as compared to standard UCBT. The results suggest that omidubicel may be considered as a new standard of care for adult patients eligible for UCBT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011719DOI Listing
June 2021

Female Sex Is Associated with Improved Long-Term Survival Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 17;27(9):784.e1-784.e7. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Life expectancy for long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), defined as those living ≥5 years post-transplantation, is significantly lower compared with that of the age-matched general population despite a relatively low primary disease relapse rate at >2 years post-transplantation. Among several factors, patient sex is increasingly recognized as a prognostic indicator of long-term survival. We examined the influence of patient sex and donor-recipient sex matching on overall survival (OS) in a landmark analysis of long-term survivors. Using our institutional database supplemented with individual patient record review, we retrospectively investigated the relative influence of recipient sex and donor-recipient sex matching on outcomes of long-term survivors of alloHSCT between 1994 and 2014. Over this 20-year period, 247 met inclusion criteria for analysis; males and females had similar demographic and treatment characteristics. However, significantly more deaths after the 5-year landmark occurred in male recipients. Interestingly, donor sex did not have a significant impact on OS in multivariate analysis, and differences in OS of donor-recipient sex pairs was driven by recipient sex. In addition to recipient sex, only chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) retained significance as a covariate with an impact on OS in multivariate analysis. Men experienced slightly higher, but statistically nonsignificant, rates and increased severity of cGVHD, and had higher cGVHD-related mortality compared with females. In this long-term survival analysis of adult alloHSCT recipients, one of the only to include follow-up to 15 years, our results show that women survive significantly longer than men irrespective of their age at transplantation. This outcome is independent of other common pretransplantation prognostic indicators, such as donor sex or performance status at transplantation. The inferior survival in males is consistent with survival outcomes described in the transplantation literature. Increasing evidence suggests a biological basis for long-term sex-determined outcomes, possibly owing to differing rates or severity of cGVHD or sustained alloimmune tolerance in females. Larger studies are warranted to validate these retrospective clinical results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403653PMC
September 2021

Impact of Conditioning Intensity and Genomics on Relapse After Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 25;5. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Myeloid Malignancies, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are at risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The utility of ultra-deep genomic testing to predict and the impact of conditioning intensity to prevent MDS relapse are unknown.

Methods: Targeted error-corrected DNA sequencing was performed on preconditioning blood samples from patients with MDS (n = 48) from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network 0901 phase III randomized clinical trial, which compared outcomes by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation conditioning intensity in adult patients with < 5% marrow myeloblasts and no leukemic myeloblasts in blood on morphological analysis at the time of pretransplant assessment. Clinical end points (53-month median follow-up) included transplant-related mortality (TRM), relapse, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Of the 48 patients examined, 14 experienced TRM, 23 are relapse-free, and 11 relapsed, of which 7 died.

Results: Using a previously described set of 10 gene regions, 42% of patients (n = 20) had mutations detectable before random assignment to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) or myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Testing positive was associated with increased rates of relapse (3-year relapse, 40% 11%; = .022) and decreased OS (3-year OS, 55% 79%, = .045). In those testing positive, relapse rates were higher (3-year relapse, 75% 17%; = .003) and RFS was lower (3-year RFS, 13% 49%; = .003) in RIC versus MAC arms. Testing additional genes, including those associated with MDS, did not improve prognostication.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that targeted DNA sequencing in patients with MDS before transplant can identify those with highest post-transplant relapse rates. In those testing positive, random assignment to MAC lowered but did not eliminate relapse risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140814PMC
January 2021

Decreased Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant vs. Matched Related or Matched Unrelated Donor Transplant in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 12;27(8):669.e1-669.e8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has the potential to cure hematologic malignancies but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although deaths during the first year after transplantation are often attributable to treatment toxicities and complications, death after the first year may be due to sequelae of accelerated aging caused by cellular senescence. Cytotoxic therapies and radiation used in cancer treatments and conditioning regimens for HCT can induce aging at the molecular level; HCT patients experience time-dependent effects, such as frailty and aging-associated diseases, more rapidly than people who have not been exposed to these treatments. Consistent with this, recipients of younger cells tend to have decreased markers of aging and improved survival, decreased graft-versus-host disease, and lower relapse rates. Given that umbilical cord blood (UCB) is the youngest donor source available, we studied the outcomes after the first year of UCB transplantation versus matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies over a 20-year period. In this single-center, retrospective study, we examined the outcomes of all adult patients who underwent their first allogeneic HCT through the Duke Adult Bone Marrow Transplant program from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015, to allow for at least 3 years of follow-up. Patients were excluded if they died or were lost to follow-up before day 365 after HCT, received an allogeneic HCT for a disease other than a hematologic malignancy, or received cells from a haploidentical or mismatched adult donor. UCB recipients experienced a better unadjusted overall survival than MRD/MUD recipients (log rank P = .03, median overall survival: UCB not reached, MRD/MUD 7.4 years). After adjusting for selected covariates, UCB recipients who survived at least 1 year after HCT had a hazard of death that was 31% lower than that of MRD/MUD recipients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99; P = .049). This trend held true in a subset analysis of subjects with acute leukemia. UCB recipients also experienced lower rates of moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality, and slower time to relapse. UCB and MRD/MUD recipients experienced similar rates of grade 2-4 acute GVHD, chronic GHVD, secondary malignancy, and subsequent allogeneic HCT. UCB is already widely used as a donor source in pediatric HCT; however, adult outcomes and adoption have historically lagged behind in comparison. Recent advancements in UCB transplantation such as the implementation of lower-intensity conditioning regimens, double unit transplants, and ex vivo expansion have improved early mortality, making UCB an increasingly attractive donor source for adults; furthermore, our findings suggest that UCB may actually be a preferred donor source for mitigating late effects of HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessing the Feasibility of a Novel mHealth App in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 13;27(2):181.e1-181.e9. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative treatment option for patients with hematologic conditions but presents many complications that must be managed as a complex, chronic condition. Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) may permit tracking of symptoms in HCT. In seeking strategies to manage the complexities of HCT, our team collaborated with Sicklesoft, Inc., to develop an mHealth app specifically for HCT patients to allow for daily evaluation of patient health, Technology Recordings to better Understand Bone Marrow Transplantation (TRU-BMT). The primary value of this application is that of potentially enhancing the monitoring of symptoms and general health of patients undergoing HCT, with the ultimate goal of allowing earlier detection of adverse events, earlier intervention, and improving outcomes. To first evaluate patient interest in mHealth apps, we designed and administered an interest survey to patients at the 2017 BMT-InfoNet reunion. As a follow-up to the positive feedback received, we began testing the TRU-BMT app in a Phase 1 pilot study. Thirty patients were enrolled in this single-arm study and were given the TRU-BMT mHealth app on a smartphone device in addition to a wearable activity tracker. Patients were followed for up to 180 days, all the while receiving daily app monitoring. Adherence to TRU-BMT was approximately 30% daily and 44% weekly, and greater adherence was associated with increased meal completion, decreased heart rate, and shorter hospital stay. TRU-BMT assessments of symptom severity were significantly associated with duration of hospital stay and development of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Our findings suggest that using TRU-BMT throughout HCT is feasible for patients and established a proof-of-concept for a future randomized control trial of the TRU-BMT application in HCT. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.017DOI Listing
February 2021

Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing Reduces the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Adults Undergoing Inpatient Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03 7;27(3):262.e1-262.e11. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) occur in 20% to 45% of inpatient autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients. Daily bathing with the antiseptic chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been shown to reduce the incidence of BSIs in critically ill patients, although very few studies include HCT patients or have evaluated the impact of compliance on effectiveness. We conducted a prospective cohort study with historical controls to assess the impact of CHG bathing on the rate of BSIs and gut microbiota composition among adults undergoing inpatient HCT at the Duke University Medical Center. We present 1 year of data without CHG bathing (2016) and 2 years of data when CHG was used on the HCT unit (2017 and 2018). Because not all patients adhered to CHG, patients were grouped into four categories by rate of daily CHG usage: high (>75%), medium (50% to 75%), low (1% to 49%), and none (0%). Among 192 patients, univariate trend analysis demonstrated that increased CHG usage was associated with decreased incidence of clinically significant BSI, defined as any BSI requiring treatment by the medical team (high, 8% BSI; medium, 15.2%; low, 15.6%; no CHG, 30.3%; P = .003), laboratory-confirmed BSI (LCBI; P = .03), central line-associated BSI (P = .04), and mucosal barrier injury LCBI (MBI-LCBI; P = .002). Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant effect of CHG bathing on clinically significant BSI (P = .023) and MBI-LCBI (P = .007), without consistently impacting gut microbial diversity. Benefits of CHG bathing were most pronounced with >75% daily usage, and there were no adverse effects attributable to CHG. Adherence to daily CHG bathing significantly decreases the rate of bloodstream infection following HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010223PMC
March 2021

Myeloablative versus Reduced-Intensity Conditioning for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes-Long-Term Follow-Up of the BMT CTN 0901 Clinical Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 26;27(6):483.e1-483.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Several prospective randomized trials comparing conditioning intensity before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been performed, with conflicting results. Although reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) leads to lower treatment-related mortality (TRM), this is offset by higher rates of relapse. Long-term follow-up of randomized comparative trials are limited. Here we present long-term follow-up of a randomized comparison of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) compared with RIC before HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (MDS). Long-term comparative analyses of overall survival, relapse, and relapse-free survival were performed. Patients age 18 to 65 years with <5% marrow myeloblasts were randomized to receive MAC (n = 135) or RIC (n = 137), followed by HCT from an HLA-matched donor. The primary endpoint of the trial was an 18-month pointwise comparison of overall survival. The analyses were performed using a proportional hazards model. The median follow-up of the entire cohort was 51 months. At 4 years, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 25.1% for MAC, compared with 9.9% for RIC (P < .001). Patients who received RIC had a significantly higher risk of relapse compared to those who received MAC (hazard ratio [HR], 4.06; 95% CI, 2.59 to 6.35; P < 0.001). Among the patients who relapsed after HCT, postrelapse survival was similar at 3 years (24% for MAC and 26% for RIC). Overall survival was superior for patients who received MAC compared to those who received RIC (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.2; P = .03). Our data show that patients who received MAC were at higher risk of late TRM compared with those who received RIC; however, because of the exceedingly high rates of relapse in the RIC arm, overall survival remained significantly better for patients who received MAC. Among patients with MDS or AML eligible for either MAC or RIC regimens, long-term follow up demonstrates a survival advantage for patients who received MAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217373PMC
June 2021

Double unrelated umbilical cord blood vs HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation: the BMT CTN 1101 trial.

Blood 2021 01;137(3):420-428

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Results of 2 parallel phase 2 trials of transplantation of unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) or bone marrow (BM) from HLA-haploidentical relatives provided equipoise for direct comparison of these donor sources. Between June 2012 and June 2018, 368 patients aged 18 to 70 years with chemotherapy-sensitive lymphoma or acute leukemia in remission were randomly assigned to undergo UCB (n = 186) or haploidentical (n = 182) transplant. Reduced-intensity conditioning comprised total-body irradiation with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for both donor types. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for UCB transplantation was cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and for haploidentical transplantation, posttransplant cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and MMF. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment groups had similar age, sex, self-reported ethnic origin, performance status, disease, and disease status at randomization. Two-year PFS was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 42%) compared with 41% (95% CI, 34% to 48%) after UCB and haploidentical transplants, respectively (P = .41). Prespecified analysis of secondary end points recorded higher 2-year nonrelapse mortality after UCB, 18% (95% CI, 13% to 24%), compared with haploidentical transplantation, 11% (95% CI, 6% to 16%), P = .04. This led to lower 2-year overall survival (OS) after UCB compared with haploidentical transplantation, 46% (95% CI, 38-53) and 57% (95% CI 49% to 64%), respectively (P = .04). The trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the primary end point, 2-year PFS, between the donor sources. Although both donor sources extend access to reduced-intensity transplantation, analyses of secondary end points, including OS, favor haploidentical BM donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01597778.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819761PMC
January 2021

Clinical and Neuroimaging Correlates of Post-Transplant Delirium.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 19;26(12):2323-2328. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Delirium is common among adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), although the clinical and neuroimaging correlates of post-HCT delirium have not been adequately delineated. We therefore examined the frequency of delirium and neuroimaging correlates of post-transplant delirium in a retrospective cohort of 115 adults undergoing neuroimaging after allogeneic HCT. Delirium was established using previously validated methods for retrospective identification of chart-assessed postprocedural delirium. Chart reviews were independently conducted by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in HCT, psychiatry, and psychology on consecutive allogeneic HCT patients who underwent neuroimaging assessments and transplantation at a single center between January 2009 and December 2016. Neuroimaging markers of white matter damage and brain volume loss were also recorded. In total, 115 patients were included, ranging in age from 20 to 74 years (mean [SD] age, 49 [13]). Fifty-three patients (46%) developed post-HCT delirium. In an adjusted model, delirium incidence was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.92 [1.28, 2.87] per decade, P = .002), greater severity of white matter hyperintensities (OR, 1.95 [1.06, 3.57], P = .031), and conditioning intensity (OR, 6.37 [2.20, 18.45], P < .001) but was unrelated to cortical atrophy (P = .777). Delirium was associated with fewer hospital-free days (P = .023) but was not associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.95 [0.56, 1.61], P = .844). Greater incidence of delirium following HCT was associated with greater age, microvascular burden, and conditioning intensity. Pre-HCT consideration of microvascular burden and other neuroimaging biomarkers of risk may be warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977594PMC
December 2020

Pre-transplant hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) is associated with chronic graft-vs-host disease but not mortality.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238824. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cell Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Allogeneic-HCT (allo-HCT), while potentially curative, can result in significant complications including graft versus host disease (GVHD). Prior studies suggest that metabolic syndrome may be one risk factor for GVHD. We hypothesized that hepatic steatosis on pre-HCT computed tomography (CT) scans may be a marker for development of GVHD and poor outcomes in allo-HCT. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the pre-HCT CT scans and transplant outcome data of patients who underwent allo-HCT at Duke University Medical Center from 2009 to 2017. The presence of steatosis was confirmed using CT attenuation measurements. We then assessed the association between pre-HCT hepatic steatosis and HCT-related outcomes including GVHD. 80 patients who had pre-HCT CT scans were included in the study. Pre-transplant hepatic steatosis was associated with the development of chronic GVHD (OR 4.2, p = 0.02), but was not associated with acute GVHD (OR 1.3, p = 0.7), non-relapse mortality (p = 0.81) or overall survival (p = 0.74). Based on this single center retrospective study, pre-transplant hepatic steatosis is associated with development of chronic GVHD. Further, prospective study with other imaging modalities including non-contrasted CT scans is needed to determine if this association is reproducible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238824PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485815PMC
November 2020

Phase I dose escalation study of naive T-cell depleted donor lymphocyte infusion following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 5;56(1):137-143. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are used to augment post-transplant immune recovery to reduce both infectious complications and disease recurrence. Preclinical studies implicate the naive T-cell subset as the primary driver of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In this phase I dose escalation study, we assessed the safety of a DLI that was depleted of CD45RA+ naive T cells. Sixteen adult patients received a prophylactic DLI at a median of 113 days (range 76-280 days) following an HLA-identical, non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Three patients each received the naive T-cell depleted DLI with a CD3+ dose of 1 × 10/kg, 1 × 10/kg, and 5 × 10/kg. The maximum dose of 1 × 10/kg was expanded to 7 patients. No dose-limiting grade III/IV acute GvHD or adverse events attributable to the DLI were observed at any dose level. One patient developed grade 2 acute GvHD of skin and upper intestines, and another developed moderate chronic GvHD of the lungs following the DLI. With a median follow-up of 2.8 years, 2-year progression-free and overall survival is 50.0% and 68.8%, respectively. In conclusion, these data suggest that a DLI that has been depleted of CD45RA+ naive T cells is feasible and carries a low risk of acute or chronic GvHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0991-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Guidelines for Cord Blood Unit Thaw and Infusion.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 27;26(10):1780-1783. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.018DOI Listing
October 2020

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Version 2.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 05;18(5):599-634

National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) involves the infusion of hematopoietic progenitor cells into patients with hematologic disorders with the goal of re-establishing normal hematopoietic and immune function. HCT is classified as autologous or allogeneic based on the origin of hematopoietic cells. Autologous HCT uses the patient's own cells while allogeneic HCT uses hematopoietic cells from a human leukocyte antigen-compatible donor. Allogeneic HCT is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with certain types of hematologic malignancies, and autologous HCT is primarily used to support patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. Advances in HCT methods and supportive care in recent decades have led to improved survival after HCT; however, disease relapse and posttransplant complications still commonly occur in both autologous and allogeneic HCT recipients. Allogeneic HCT recipients may also develop acute and/or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which results in immune-mediated cellular injury of several organs. The NCCN Guidelines for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation focus on recommendations for pretransplant recipient evaluation and the management of GVHD in adult patients with malignant disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0021DOI Listing
May 2020

Treatment with Foscarnet after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant (Allo-HCT) Is Associated with Long-Term Loss of Renal Function.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 09 23;26(9):1597-1606. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Despite a well-established risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT), the benefits of using nephrotoxic anti-infective agents to treat serious peritransplant infections often outweigh this risk. While there is no consensus on the optimal management of post-allo-HCT human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) reactivation, the nephrotoxic drug foscarnet is often used, although its long-term impact on renal function has not been established. We retrospectively reviewed 987 adult patients who underwent transplantation between 2002 and 2016, of whom 45.3% (n = 447) were exposed to foscarnet. The most frequent indications for foscarnet treatment were cytomegalovirus (n = 257, 57.5%) and HHV6 (n = 139, 31.1%). In the first 3 months post-transplant, patients exposed versus unexposed had similar rates of acute kidney injury and acute kidney failure (defined as 3 times baseline creatinine or <75% baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 61.6% versus 58.7%, P = .42 and 28.1% versus 26.6%, P = .64, respectively). There was no difference in the eGFR at 3 months (P = .36), but patients treated with foscarnet had significantly lower median eGFRs (mL/min/1.73 m) at 6 months (69.3, interquartile range [IQR] 51.4 to 92.8 versus 77.4, IQR 57.3 to 99.3; P = .009) and 12 months (67.8, IQR 52.7 to 85.0 versus 80.7, IQR 63.1 to 102.0; P < .001), respectively. There was also a significant difference in the decline in eGFR from baseline to 12 months (median 32.8, IQR 14.6 to 53.2 versus 21.9, IQR 6.4 to 37.4; P < .001), irrespective of the duration of foscarnet treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients treated with foscarnet were more likely to experience a >30% decrease in eGFR from baseline to 12 months compared to those who were not (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.78; P = .001). We conclude that foscarnet use following allo-HCT had a profound impact on long-term renal function independent of other transplant-related factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026759PMC
September 2020

Impact of Conditioning Intensity of Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Genomic Evidence of Residual Disease.

J Clin Oncol 2020 04 20;38(12):1273-1283. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Duke University, Durham, NC.

Purpose: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission remain at risk for relapse even after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). AML measurable residual disease (MRD) status before alloHCT has been shown to be prognostic. Whether modulation of the intensity of the alloHCT conditioning regimen in patients with AML who test positive for MRD can prevent relapse and improve survival is unknown.

Methods: Ultra-deep, error-corrected sequencing for 13 commonly mutated genes in AML was performed on preconditioning blood from patients treated in a phase III clinical trial that randomly assigned adult patients with myeloid malignancy in morphologic complete remission to myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC).

Results: No mutations were detected in 32% of MAC and 37% of RIC recipients; these groups had similar survival (3-year overall survival [OS], 56% 63%; = .96). In patients with a detectable mutation (next-generation sequencing [NGS] positive), relapse (3-year cumulative incidence, 19% 67%; < .001) and survival (3-year OS, 61% 43%; = .02) was significantly different between the MAC and RIC arms, respectively. In multivariable analysis for NGS-positive patients, adjusting for disease risk and donor group, RIC was significantly associated with increased relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 6.38; 95% CI, 3.37 to 12.10; < .001), decreased relapse-free survival (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.84 to 4.69; < .001), and decreased OS (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.30; = .01) compared with MAC. Models of AML MRD also showed benefit for MAC over RIC for those who tested positive.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that MAC rather than RIC in patients with AML with genomic evidence of MRD before alloHCT can result in improved survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164487PMC
April 2020

Small-molecule nicotinamide for ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood.

Exp Hematol 2019 12 28;80:11-15. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Umbilical cord blood transplant is an alternative graft source for patients lacking a human leukocyte antigen-matched donor; however, delayed engraftment times have historically resulted in transplant-related morbidity and mortality from complications such as infections and ineffective hematopoiesis. Recent advances in ex vivo expansion techniques have successfully augmented the initial cell dose delivered from an umbilical cord blood graft, leading to improved immune reconstitution, durable hematopoiesis, decreased transplant-related morbidity and mortality, and better outcomes. Herein we review the data for existing and developing ex vivo expansion techniques, with a focus on the preclinical and clinical data for nicotinamide-mediated cord blood expansion across both malignant and benign hematologic indications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2019.11.006DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytomegalovirus in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation: Impact on Costs and Clinical Outcomes Using a Preemptive Strategy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 9;26(3):568-580. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) results in significant morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Establishing the cost and clinical impact is imperative to the selection of appropriate CMV preventative strategies. This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing their first allogeneic HCT between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. Detailed clinical and institutional cost data were obtained from the start of conditioning through 1-year post-transplantation. Baseline characteristics, resource utilization, costs, and outcomes were compared between patients with and without clinically significant CMV infection (csCMVi). One hundred seventy out of 388 patients (44%) developed csCMVi within 1 year after HCT. Within the first year post-HCT, patients with csCMVi had a significantly longer transplantation-related length of stay (mean, 91.7 days versus 78.3 days; P < .0001) and more frequent and prolonged hospitalizations (mean, 2.4 versus 1.7 admissions [P < .0001]; mean, 39.1 versus 31.5 inpatient days [P = .001]) without significantly more admissions to the intensive care unit (28.2% versus 21.6%; P = .408). The use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was greater in patients with csCMVi (73.5% versus 54.1%; P = .0001), although no significant differences were demonstrated in mean platelet or red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Total costs were also higher in patients with csCMVi (mean cost difference, $45,811; 95% CI, $26,385 to $67,544). However, the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and selected infectious complications was not significantly different between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in 1-year and 5-year post-transplantation overall survival (OS) or nonrelapse mortality (NRM) between those with and those without csCMVi, although relapse of underlying disease was significantly lower in the csCMVi group. Overall, our data show that allogeneic HCT recipients with csCMVi had significantly greater medical resource utilization and costs than those without csCMVi. However, clinical outcomes, including GVHD, infections, and mortality, were similar in the 2 groups. Further study is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of CMV preventive modalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418947PMC
March 2020

Intestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Bug Highway to the Bloodstream.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 08 19;25(8):e250-e251. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Duke University School of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.011DOI Listing
August 2019

Current and future perspectives on allogeneic transplantation using ex vivo expansion or manipulation of umbilical cord blood cells.

Int J Hematol 2019 Jul 23;110(1):50-58. Epub 2019 May 23.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Duke University School of Medicine, 2400 Pratt St. DUMC 3961, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

In patients with hematologic malignancies, the outcome of umbilical cord blood transplantation has improved and is now comparable to that of matched unrelated donor transplantation. However, the limitation of using umbilical cord blood has been a delay in both hematopoietic and immunologic recovery. Strategies have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One strategy involves ex vivo expansion of the umbilical cord blood unit prior to transplantation. A second strategy involves exposure of the umbilical cord blood graft to compounds aimed at improving homing and engraftment following transplantation. Many of these strategies are now being tested in late phase multi-center clinical trials. If proven cost effective and efficacious, they may alter the landscape of donor options for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02670-6DOI Listing
July 2019

Interrater Reliability of Clinical Grading Measures for Cutaneous Chronic Graft-vs-Host Disease.

JAMA Dermatol 2019 07;155(7):833-837

Department of Dermatology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Cutaneous chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is often associated with poor patient outcomes. A reliable and practical method for assessing disease severity and response to therapy among these patients is urgently needed.

Objective: To evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of skin-specific and range of motion (ROM) variables of the 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) response criteria for cGVHD and a skin sclerosis grading scale (SSG).

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this observational study performed at a single tertiary academic center, 6 academic blood and marrow transplant specialists and 4 medical dermatologists examined 8 patients with diagnosed cutaneous cGVHD on July 10, 2015. The patient cohort was enriched for patients with sclerotic features. Each patient was evaluated by using the skin-specific and ROM criteria of the 2014 NIH response criteria for cGVHD and an SSG ranging from 0 to 3. Each patient was also asked to complete quality-of-life scoring instruments. Interrater agreement and reliability were estimated by calculating the Krippendorff α and Cohen κ statistics. Data were analyzed from September 29, 2015, through November 22, 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Estimation of interrater agreement by interclass coefficient (Krippendorff α and Cohen κ statistics) for the skin-specific and ROM components of the 2014 NIH Response Criteria for Chronic GVHD and for the SSG.

Results: The median age of the patients evaluated was 54 years (range, 46-58 years). Patients were predominantly male (6 [75%]). Six of the 8 patients had a predominantly sclerotic cutaneous phenotype. Interrater agreement among our experts was acceptable for NIH skin feature score (0.68; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86) and good for NIH ROM scoring (0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.86). Dermatologists had acceptable agreement for NIH skin GVHD score (0.69; 95% CI, 0.25-0.82) and skin feature score (0.78; 95% CI, 0.17-0.98), good agreement in ROM grading (0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-0.90), and near perfect agreement in identifying sclerosis (0.82; 95% CI, 0.27-0.97).

Conclusions And Relevance: Although dermatologists had acceptable agreement in NIH skin GVHD score and skin features score, near perfect agreement in identifying cutaneous sclerosis, better agreement in grading severity of cutaneous cGVHD, especially in the intermediate grades, appears to be needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.5459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583829PMC
July 2019

Plerixafor alone for the mobilization and transplantation of HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cells.

Blood Adv 2019 03;3(6):875-883

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN.

Plerixafor, a direct antagonist of CXCR4/stromal-derived factor 1, can safely and rapidly mobilize allografts without the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, prospective study of plerixafor-mobilized HLA-identical sibling allografts for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in recipients with hematological malignancies. Donors (n = 64) were treated with subcutaneous plerixafor (240 µg/kg) and started leukapheresis (LP) 4 hours later. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of donors who were successfully mobilized: defined as collection of ≥2.0 × 10 CD34 cells per kilogram recipient weight in ≤2 LP sessions. Recipients subsequently received reduced intensity (RIC; n = 33) or myeloablative (MAC; n = 30) conditioning. Sixty-three of 64 (98%) donors achieved the primary objective. The median CD34 cell dose per kilogram recipient weight collected within 2 days was 4.7 (0.9-9.6). Plerixafor was well tolerated with only grade 1 or 2 drug-related adverse events noted. Bone pain was not observed. Plerixafor-mobilized grafts engrafted promptly. One-year progression-free and overall survivals were 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36% to 71%) and 63% (95% CI, 46% to 79%) for MAC and 64% (95% CI, 47% to 79%) and 70% (95% CI, 53% to 84%) for RIC recipients, respectively. Donor toxicity was reduced relative to G-CSF mobilized related donors. This is the first multicenter trial to demonstrate that, as an alternative to G-CSF, plerixafor rapidly and safely mobilizes sufficient numbers of CD34 cells from matched sibling donors for HCT. Engraftment was prompt, and outcomes in recipients were encouraging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01696461.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018027599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436017PMC
March 2019

Phase I/II Study of Stem-Cell Transplantation Using a Single Cord Blood Unit Expanded Ex Vivo With Nicotinamide.

J Clin Oncol 2019 02 4;37(5):367-374. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

3 University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Increasing the number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells within an umbilical cord blood (UCB) graft shortens the time to hematopoietic recovery after UCB transplantation. In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of a UCB graft that was expanded ex vivo in the presence of nicotinamide and transplanted after myeloablative conditioning as a stand-alone hematopoietic stem-cell graft.

Methods: Thirty-six patients with hematologic malignancies underwent transplantation at 11 sites.

Results: The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 42 was 94%. Two patients experienced secondary graft failure attributable to viral infections. Hematopoietic recovery was compared with that observed in recipients of standard UCB transplantation as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (n = 146). The median time to neutrophil recovery was 11.5 days (95% CI, 9 to 14 days) for recipients of nicotinamide-expanded UCB and 21 days (95% CI, 20 to 23 days) for the comparator ( P < .001). The median time to platelet recovery was 34 days (95% CI, 32 to 42 days) and 46 days (95% CI, 42 to 50 days) for the expanded and the comparator cohorts, respectively ( P < .001). The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 was 44%, and grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD at day 100 was 11%. The cumulative incidence at 2 years of all chronic GVHD was 40%, and moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 10%. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 24% and 33%, respectively. The 2-year probabilities of overall and disease-free survival were 51% and 43%, respectively.

Conclusion: UCB expanded ex vivo with nicotinamide shortens median neutrophil recovery by 9.5 days (95% CI, 7 to 12 days) and median platelet recovery by 12 days (95% CI, 3 to 16.5 days). This trial establishes feasibility, safety, and efficacy of an ex vivo expanded UCB unit as a stand-alone graft.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368416PMC
February 2019

HSCT-GAVE as a Manifestation of Chronic Graft versus Host Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Existing Literature.

Case Rep Transplant 2018 12;2018:2376483. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Gastric antral vascular ectasia or "watermelon stomach" is a significant cause of nonvariceal upper GI bleeding and is characterized by red, tortuous ectatic vessels along longitudinal folds in the gastric antrum. The existing literature links GAVE to patients with cirrhosis, scleroderma, bone marrow transplantation, and chronic renal failure among other associations, but its pathophysiology remains ill-defined. Over 30 cases of hematopoietic stem cell transplant-related GAVE (HSCT-GAVE) have been reported in the literature to date and there are likely many more that go undiagnosed or are attributed to another cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Interestingly, a busulfan-containing conditioning regimen has been the primary factor implicated in the etiology of HSCT-GAVE because this was common to all cases in the literature to date. Here, we present the first case of HSCT-GAVE in a patient that was treated with a non-busulfan-containing conditioning regimen. We propose a link between chronic GVHD and the development of HSCT-GAVE that is supported by a similar development of GAVE in patients with systemic sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2376483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867646PMC
March 2018

Easy-to-Read Informed Consent Form for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Clinical Trials: Results from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network 1205 Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 10 18;24(10):2145-2151. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Because of the complexity of hematopoietic cell transplant trial treatments, informed consent forms are often long and difficult to read. We evaluated a 2-column easy-to-read informed consent (ETRIC) form that incorporates elements of health literacy and readability in participants and centers participating in Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) clinical trials. In a randomized study 198 adult patients from 25 centers potentially eligible to participate in 4 BMT CTN interventional trials were randomized to the ETRIC form or a standard consent form for that trial. Both forms were written at no more than an eighth-grade reading level. The primary endpoint was objective comprehension score on the Quality of Informed Consent, part A (QuIC-A) instrument. In a parallel evaluation study, 2 moderators conducted semistructured interviews of 49 investigators, research staff, and institutional review board (IRB) members at 9 BMT CTN trial sites. The mean QuIC-A scores were comparable in 152 patients (77%) assessable for the primary endpoint (ETRIC form, 80.5; standard form, 81.8; P = .37). In regression analysis there was no significant association between the consent type and QuIC-A score. In the evaluation study dominant themes identified on qualitative analyses included general comfort and willingness to use the ETRIC template and that its formatting and layout enhancements would offer additional value to research participants, investigators, and IRBs. IRB language preferences and requirements, length, and prior experience with alternative consent formats were perceived as barriers. Among patients considering participation in BMT CTN clinical trials, the formatting enhancements of the ETRIC form did not alter comprehension of the trial. Despite local challenges to implementation, trial sites generally viewed the ETRIC form favorably and expressed willingness to use it over standard consent form.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193865PMC
October 2018

Shared Decision-Making in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 9;24(5):883-884. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Adult Sickle Cell Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Division of Hematology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.04.001DOI Listing
May 2018
-->