Publications by authors named "Mitchell G Maltenfort"

114 Publications

External Validation Demonstrates Limited Clinical Utility of a Preoperative Prognostic Calculator for Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 3;36(7):2541-2545. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Background: Preoperative calculation of treatment failure risk in patients undergoing surgery for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is imperative to allow for medical optimization and targeted prevention. A preoperative prognostic model for PJI treatment failure was previously developed, and this study sought to externally validate the model.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 380 PJIs treated at two institutions. The model was used to calculate the risk of treatment failure, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) for each institution.

Results: When applying this model to institution 1, an AUC of 0.795 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.693-0.897) was found, whereas institution 2 had an AUC of 0.592 (95% CI: 0.502-0.683). Comparing all institutions in which the model had been applied to, we found institution 2 represented a significantly sicker population and different infection profile.

Conclusion: In this cohort study, we externally validated the prior published model for institution 1. However, institution 2 had a decreased AUC using the prior model and represented a sicker and less homogenous cohort compared with institution 1. When matching for chronicity of the infection, the AUC of the model was not affected. This study highlights the impact of comorbidities and their distributions on PJI prognosis and brings to question the clinical utility of the algorithm which requires further external validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.067DOI Listing
July 2021

Effectiveness of Quickcast Versus Custom-Fabricated Thermoplastic Orthosis Immobilization for the Treatment of Mallet Fingers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Jan 29:1558944720988136. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Mallet finger is a common injury involving a detachment of the terminal extensor tendon from the distal phalanx. This injury is usually treated with immobilization in a cast or splint. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of mallet fingers treated with either a cast (Quickcast) or a traditional thermoplastic custom-fabricated orthosis.

Methods: Our study was a prospective, assessor-blinded, single-center randomized clinical trial of 58 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of bony or soft tissue mallet finger treated with immobilization. Patients were randomized to either an orfilight thermoplastic custom-fabricated orthosis or a Quickcast orthosis. Patients were evaluated at 3, 6, and 10 weeks for bony and 4, 8, and 12 weeks for soft tissue mallets. Skin complications, pain with orthosis, compliance, need for surgical intervention, and extensor lag were compared between the 2 groups.

Results: Both bony and soft tissue mallet finger patients experienced significantly less skin complications (33% vs 64%) and pain (11.2 vs 21.6) when using Quickcast versus an orfilight thermoplastic custom-fabricated orthosis. The soft tissue mallet group revealed a greater difference in pain, favoring Quickcast (6.2 vs 22). No significant difference in final extensor droop or need for secondary surgery was found between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Quickcast immobilization for the treatment of mallet finger demonstrated fewer skin complications and less pain compared with orfilight custom-fabricated splints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944720988136DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Machine Settings on Ultrasound Assessment of B-lines.

J Ultrasound Med 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

The Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: B-lines are a lung ultrasound (LUS) artifact that often indicate pathology. Little is known about the optimal ultrasound machine settings to assess B-lines. We compared settings typically used to evaluate B-lines at our institution with adjusted settings based on recent studies.

Methods: In order to determine typical settings for B-line assessment, we retrospectively reviewed LUS images obtained at our institution. We then prospectively performed LUS with both typical and adjusted settings, using curvilinear and phased array probes, in 20 patients presenting to the emergency department with shortness of breath. The prospectively obtained clips were rated for quality and quantity of B-lines by 14 clinicians with experience in LUS, with 1 assigned for typical settings "much greater," 2 for typical settings "slightly greater," 3 for both settings "similar," 4 for adjusted settings "slightly greater," and 5 for adjusted settings "much greater."

Results: Mean ratings and 95% confidence intervals significantly exceeded the null value of 3 for both B line quality (curvilinear probe: 4.68, 4.50-4.85; phased array probe: 4.02, 3.70-4.35) and B line quantity (curvilinear probe: 4.16, 3.84-4.49; phased array probe: 3.68, 3.41-3.96).

Conclusions: B-line quality and quantity were rated higher using adjusted settings based on recently published evidence than when using settings that are typically employed in our institution. Our findings suggest that B-line assessment should be performed with focal zone at the level of the pleura, harmonics off, and gain increased in the far field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15581DOI Listing
December 2020

After Incision, the Skin Knife Blade Is No More Contaminated Than a Fresh Knife Blade.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jan;29(2):e98-e103

From the Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Introduction: The rationale for discarding the skin knife blade and replacing it with another blade for deeper dissection is to prevent bacteria that may be present on the skin from being carried into the deeper layers of the wound. This practice is very controversial because numerous, yet limited, studies exist that support and refute the findings. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the rate of contamination of a skin knife blade with a control blade.

Methods: We took the surface samples using Replicate Organism Detection and Counting plates of 344 knife blades immediately after making skin incision during the following four types of orthopaedic cases: total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, lumbar spine surgery, and cervical spine surgery. At the same time, we sampled 344 control blades. The comparison of positives skin versus control, overall and within each subgroup was done using a bivariate two-sample z-test for the equality of proportions.

Results: Overall, 35 (5.1%) of the 688 specimens had a positive result. No difference was noted in the rate of positive cultures for the 344 skin blades 4.9% and the 344 control blades 5.2%. No differences were observed in the rate of positive specimens for skin blades (7.4%, 3.4%, 7.7%, and 3.9%) and control blades (2.5%, 4.1%, 7.7%, and 9.2%) for total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, C spine, and L spine, respectively. No differences were observed regarding skin prep, room number, case order, room turnover time, or in-room to incision time. Staphylococus species was the predominant bacteria identified.

Conclusion: We found no evidence to support the theoretical advantage of changing the knife blade after making skin incision to avoid contamination. Contamination rates were the same for both the skin and control blades overall and for all subgroup analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00203DOI Listing
January 2021

Variability in Diagnosed Asthma in Young Children in a Large Pediatric Primary Care Network.

Acad Pediatr 2020 Sep - Oct;20(7):958-966. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania (CC Kenyon, SE Henrickson, and CB Forrest); Applied Clinical Research Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (MG Maltenfort and CB Forrest).

Objective: Our objectives were to 1) quantify the frequency of wheezing episodes and asthma diagnosis in young children in a large pediatric primary care network and 2) assess the variability in practice-level asthma diagnosis, accounting for common asthma risk factors and comorbidities. We hypothesized that significant variability in practice-level asthma diagnosis rates would remain after adjusting for associated predictors.

Methods: We generated a retrospective longitudinal birth cohort of children who visited 1 of 31 pediatric primary care practices within the first 6 months of life from 1/2005 to 12/2016. Children were observed for up to 8 years or until the end of the observation window. We used multivariable discrete time survival models to evaluate predictors of asthma diagnosis by 3-month age intervals. We compared unadjusted and adjusted proportions of children diagnosed with asthma by practice.

Results: Of the 161,502 children in the cohort, 34,578 children (21%) received at least 1 asthma diagnosis. In multivariable modeling, male gender, minority race/ethnicity, gestational age <34 weeks, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and prior wheezing episodes were associated with asthma diagnosis. After adjusting for variation in these predictors across practices, the cumulative incidence of asthma diagnosis by practice by age 6 years ranged from 11% to 47% (interquartile range: 24%-29%).

Conclusions: Across pediatric primary care practices, adjusted incidence of asthma diagnosis by age 6 years ranged widely, though variation gauged by the interquartile range was more modest. Potential sources of practice-level variation, such as differing diagnosis thresholds and labeling of different wheezing phenotypes as "asthma," should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.02.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Prediction of 30-day pediatric unplanned hospitalizations using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups risk adjustment system.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(8):e0221233. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Applied Clinical Research Center, Roberts Center for Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The Johns Hopkins ACG System is widely used to predict patient healthcare service use and costs. Most applications have focused on adult populations. In this study, we evaluated the use of the ACG software to predict pediatric unplanned hospital admission in a given month, based on the past year's clinical information captured by electronic health records (EHRs).

Methods And Findings: EHR data from a multi-state pediatric integrated delivery system were obtained for 920,051 patients with at least one physician visit during January 2009 to December 2016. Over this interval an average of 0.36% of patients each month had an unplanned hospitalization. In a 70% training sample, we used the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to generate regression coefficients for demographic, clinical predictors derived from the ACG system, and prior year hospitalizations. Applying these coefficients to a 30% test sample to generate risk scores, we found that the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.82. Omitting prior hospitalizations decreased the AUC from 0.82 to 0.80, and increased under-estimation of hospitalizations at the greater risk levels. Patients in the top 5% of risk scores accounted for 43% and the top 1% of risk scores accounted for 20% of all unplanned hospitalizations.

Conclusions: A predictive model based on 12-months of demographic and clinical data using the ACG system has excellent predictive performance for 30-day pediatric unplanned hospitalization. This model may be useful in population health and care management applications targeting patients likely to be hospitalized. External validation at other institutions should be done to confirm our results.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221233PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695224PMC
March 2020

Tendinosis develops from age- and oxygen tension-dependent modulation of Rac1 activity.

Aging Cell 2019 06 2;18(3):e12934. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Orthopaedic Research, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Age-related tendon degeneration (tendinosis) is characterized by a phenotypic change in which tenocytes display characteristics of fibrochondrocytes and mineralized fibrochondrocytes. As tendon degeneration has been noted in vivo in areas of decreased tendon vascularity, we hypothesized that hypoxia is responsible for the development of the tendinosis phenotype, and that these effects are more pronounced in aged tenocytes. Hypoxic (1% O ) culture of aged, tendinotic, and young human tenocytes resulted in a mineralized fibrochondrocyte phenotype in aged tenocytes, and a fibrochondrocyte phenotype in young and tendinotic tenocytes. Investigation of the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenotype change revealed that the fibrochondrocyte phenotype in aged tenocytes occurs with decreased Rac1 activity in response to hypoxia. In young hypoxic tenocytes, however, the fibrochondrocyte phenotype occurs with concomitant decreased Rac1 activity coupled with increased RhoA activity. Using pharmacologic and adenoviral manipulation, we confirmed that these hypoxic effects on the tenocyte phenotype are linked directly to the activity of RhoA/Rac1 GTPase in in vitro human cell culture and tendon explants. These results demonstrate that hypoxia drives tenocyte phenotypic changes, and provide a molecular insight into the development of human tendinosis that occurs with aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6516173PMC
June 2019

Does an Elastic Compression Bandage Provide Any Benefit After Primary TKA?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 01;477(1):134-144

The Rothman Institute of Orthopedics at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Compression bandages often are used after TKA to reduce swelling. However, the degree to which they are helpful has not been well characterized.

Questions/purposes: The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of a compression bandage after TKA was associated with (1) less leg swelling (our primary endpoint); or (2) secondary study endpoints, including improved ROM of flexion and extension, lower visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores for worst pain and pain during physical therapy just before surgery, postoperative day (POD) 1, POD 2, and POD 28, or fewer wound complications within 90 days of surgery.

Methods: A prospective, single-center, two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted on 51 patients undergoing simultaneous, bilateral, primary TKA between February 2015 and August 2016. Patients were excluded if they had a body mass index > 40 kg/m, a history of a venous thromboembolic event, an allergy to the dressing or compression bandage, or lymphedema in one or both legs. Participants averaged a mean age of 62 years (range, 40-83 years). In all patients, we released the tourniquet after full wound closure, and we applied an Aquacel dressing to both limbs. Patients were randomized by opaque envelope, and the compression bandage was applied to the randomized limb. For each leg, study personnel not involved in patient care measured the patients' limb circumference (thigh, knee, and tibia), ROM, and VAS pain scores 24 hours after surgery, 48 hours after surgery, and on POD 28. The minimal clinically important difference for circumference was 2 cm with a SD of 2 cm in the circumference. For VAS, it was 2 points with a SD of 2. For ROM, it was 10° with a SD of 15. We conservatively picked an effect size of 0.5 SD and assumed a correlation between limbs of 0.3. This set the power level at 0.80 with an α error of 0.05; thus, a power analysis for paired t-tests indicated that 45 patients would be an appropriate sample size. There were 29 patients randomized to the right leg group and 22 patients randomized to the left leg group. There were no differences between the limb with and without the compression bandage preoperatively.

Results: Postoperatively, there were no differences between the groups in terms of leg swelling at the thigh (POD 1: mean ± SD = 51 ± 6 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 51 ± 6 without compression bandage, mean Δ = - 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.65 to 0.37], p = 0.586; POD 2: mean ± SD = 53 ± 6 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 53 ± 7 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.22, 95% CI, -0.95 to 0.51, p = 0.548; POD 28: mean ± SD = 47 ± 6 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 47 ± 6 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.01, 95% CI, -0.39 to 0.38, p = 0.975), knee (POD 1: mean ± SD = 45 ± 4 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 45 ± 5 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.44, 95% CI, -1.16 to 0.28, p = 0.223; POD 2: mean ± SD = 46 ± 4 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 46 ± 4 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.30, 95% CI, -0.69 to 0.10, p = 0.137; POD 28: mean ± SD = 42 ± 5 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 42 ± 5 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.21, 95% CI, -0.34 to 0.76, p = 0.446), and shin (POD 1: mean ± SD = 40 ± 4 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 40 ± 4 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.22, 95% CI, -1.23 to 0.79, p = 0.659; POD 2: mean ± SD = 41 ± 4 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 41 ± 4 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.31, 95% CI, -0.72 to 0.09, p = 0.126; POD 28: mean ± SD = 37 ± 4 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 37 ± 4 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -0.34, 95% CI, -0.92 to 0.24, p = 0.246). There were no differences between the groups in terms of flexion ROM (POD 1: mean ± SD = 56 ± 25 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 58 ± 22 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -2.63, p = 0.234; POD 2: mean ± SD = 64 ± 20 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 63 ± 23 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 1.22, p = 0.534; POD 28: mean ± SD = 101 ± 20 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 102 ± 20 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -1.64, p = 0.103) and extension (POD 1: mean ± SD = 12 ± 7 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 12 ± 7 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.51, p = 0.328; POD 2: mean ± SD = 9 ± 5 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 10 ± 6 without compression bandage, mean Δ = -1.28, p = 0.061; POD 28: mean ± SD = 6 ± 14 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 4 ± 4 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 2.19, p = 0.252). With the numbers available, we observed greater maximal postoperative pain for the limb with the compression bandage than the control limb on POD 1 and POD 2, but not on POD 28 (POD 1: mean ± SD = 8 ± 3 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 7 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.66, p = 0.030; POD 2: mean ± SD = 7 ± 2 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 7 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.80, p = 0.008; POD 28: mean ± SD = 4 ± 3 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 3 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.14, p = 0.526). Likewise, there was greater pain during physical therapy for the limb with the compression bandage than the limb without on POD 2, but not on POD 1 and POD 28 (POD 1: mean ± SD = 7 ± 3 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 6 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.29, p = 0.460; POD 2: mean ± SD = 8 ± 2 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 7 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.67, p = 0.018; POD 28: mean ± SD = 5 ± 2 with compression bandage versus mean ± SD = 5 ± 3 without compression bandage, mean Δ = 0.14, p = 0.600). With the numbers available, we observed no difference in 90-day wound healing complications between the limb with and the limb without the compression dressing; however, the sample size was too small to analyze this in a meaningful statistical way. Overall, there were 6% total wound complications in the compression bandage group and 12% total wound complications in the group without the compression bandage (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; p = 0.487). Drainage was not observed in the group with the compression bandage, whereas the group without the compression bandage had 6% drainage (OR, 0.00; p = 0.243). There were no deep infections or reoperations within 90 days postoperatively.

Conclusions: Applying a compression bandage after TKA did not result in any clinical improvement in limb circumference, ROM, or pain. Based on this study, we believe that applying a compression bandage after TKA neither benefits nor harms the patient. Thus, we no longer use compression dressings for routine primary TKA.

Level Of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345293PMC
January 2019

Cost-Effectiveness of Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments for Unicompartmental Knee Arthritis: A Markov Model.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Oct;100(19):1653-1660

Department of Orthopaedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: There has been increased utilization of surgical options for the treatment of end-stage unicompartmental arthritis in patients at both extremes of the age spectrum. The purpose of this study was to determine how these changing paradigms affected the lifetime cost-effectiveness of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and nonsurgical treatment (NST).

Methods: Using a Markov decision analytic model, we assessed how lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) vary as a function of age at the time of initial treatment (ATIT) of patients with end-stage unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKA, UKA, and NST. Separate models were estimated for ATITs at 5-year intervals from 40 through 90 years. Direct medical costs, QALYs, and transition probabilities were determined from the published literature. Indirect costs (lost wages, Social Security disability collections, and value of missed workdays) were calculated. Cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for each treatment at each ATIT. The model assumed no crossover from NST to UKA or TKA. ICERs were compared with a willingness-to-pay threshold of 50,000 U.S. dollars, and a 1-way sensitivity analysis was used to assess the robustness of ICER-based treatment decisions. Societal savings were estimated.

Results: In the base-case model, surgical treatments were less expensive and provided a greater number of QALYs than NST from 40 to 69 years of age. From 70 years of age and onward, surgical treatments remained cost-effective compared with NST, with ICERs remaining below the societal willingness-to-pay threshold. When surgical treatments were compared, UKA dominated TKA for all ATITs. The preferential use of UKA in all U.S. patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis would result in an estimated lifetime societal savings of 987 million to 1.5 billion U.S. dollars per annual wave of patients undergoing treatment.

Conclusions: In this preliminary assessment, recent expansion of surgical treatments into younger and older age demographics appears to be cost-effective in the setting of unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. Our findings suggest that NST should be used sparingly in patients below the age of 70 years and UKA should be chosen over TKA in order to maximize cost-effectiveness.

Level Of Evidence: Economic and decision analysis Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.00837DOI Listing
October 2018

Identification of Risk Factors for Abnormal Postoperative Chemistry Labs after Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2018 Jul;6(4):282-288

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopaedics Surgery, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine patient-specific risk factors and clinical intervention rates for abnormal postoperative Chem-7 panels in shoulder arthroplasty patients.

Methods: Retrospectively, all primary anatomic total (aTSA) and reverse shoulder (RTSA) arthroplasties (between 2007-2013) performed at a single institution were identified. All patients underwent routine preoperative and postoperative day one (POD1) chemistry panels. Each clinically significant component of the Chem-7 panel was independently evaluated using a multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for abnormal results. Associated clinical intervention rates were also calculated.

Results: Data from 1,012 patients (248 RTSA; 764 aTSA) was analyzed. 5.4% of patients had at least one preoperative abnormal chemistry result. On multivariate analysis, patients with abnormal preoperative Chem-7 labs and a history of renal disease had significantly increased risk for abnormal POD1 labs (). Although 25.6% (259/1,012) of patients had at least one abnormal POD1 lab result, the total postoperative clinical intervention rate was 15.1% (39/259).

Conclusion: Renal disease and a preoperative abnormal chemistry result are important risk factors for abnormal postoperative Chem-7. Optimizing renal status and correcting abnormal blood chemistry results preoperatively may reduce the incidence of abnormal postoperative chemistry results.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110424PMC
July 2018

Postoperative Blood Glucose Levels Predict Infection After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Aug;100(16):1423-1431

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Perioperative hyperglycemia has many etiologies, including medication, impaired glucose tolerance, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or stress, the latter of which is common in patients postoperatively. Our study investigated the influence of postoperative blood glucose levels on periprosthetic joint infection after elective total joint arthroplasty to determine a threshold for glycemic control for which surgeons should strive during a patient's hospital stay.

Methods: A single-institution retrospective review was conducted on 24,857 primary total joint arthroplasties performed from 2001 to 2015. Of these, 13,196 had a minimum follow-up of 1 year (mean, 5.9 years). Postoperative day 1 morning blood glucose levels were utilized and were correlated with periprosthetic joint infection, as defined by the International Consensus Group on Periprosthetic Joint Infection. Multivariable analysis was used to determine the influence of several important covariates on infection. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine significance.

Results: The rate of periprosthetic joint infection increased linearly from blood glucose levels of ≥115 mg/dL. Multivariable analysis revealed that blood glucose levels were significantly associated with periprosthetic joint infection (p = 0.028). The optimal blood glucose threshold to reduce the likelihood of periprosthetic joint infection was 137 mg/dL. The periprosthetic joint infection rate in the entire cohort was 1.59% (1.46% in patients without diabetes compared with 2.39% in patients with diabetes; p = 0.001). There was no significant association between blood glucose level and periprosthetic joint infection in patients with diabetes (p = 0.276), although there was a linear trend.

Conclusions: The relationship between postoperative blood glucose levels and periprosthetic joint infection increased linearly, with an optimal cutoff of 137 mg/dL. Immediate and strict postoperative glycemic control may be critical in reducing postoperative complications, as even mild hyperglycemia was significantly associated with periprosthetic joint infection.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01316DOI Listing
August 2018

Development and Evaluation of a Prognostic Calculator for the Surgical Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2018 09 30;33(9):2986-2992.e1. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Preoperative identification of patients at risk of failing surgical treatment for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is imperative to allow medical optimization and targeted prevention. The purpose of this study was to create a preoperative prognostic calculator for PJI treatment by assessing a patient's individual risk for treatment failure based on many preoperative variables.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 1438 PJIs, treated at 2 institutions from 2000 to 2014. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. A total of 63 risk factors, including patient characteristics, microbiology data, and surgical variables were evaluated using logistic regression, in which coefficients were scaled to produce weighted scores.

Results: The 10 significant risk factors for PJI treatment failure were in descending order of relative weight: irrigation and debridement (30 points), history of myocardial infarction (15 points), revision surgery (11 points), presence of sinus tract (10 points), resistant organisms (9 points), ever smoker (6 points), prior surgery (2.86 points per prior operation), synovial white blood cell count (8.3 × natural log of cell count), body mass index (0.66 per increment), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (depends on both smoking and 2 stage, as these are higher order interaction factors). The area under the curve for this risk model was 0.6904 (95% confidence interval: 0.6476-0.7331).

Conclusion: In this large cohort study, we were able to identify risk factors and their relative weight for predicting PJI treatment failure. Some of the identified factors are indeed modifiable and should be addressed before treating a patient for PJI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.04.034DOI Listing
September 2018

Are Patients Undergoing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Treated Differently at a Physician-owned Hospital?

Clin Spine Surg 2018 06;31(5):211-215

The Rothman Institute Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA.

Study Design: Retrospective case-control study.

Background: Physician-owned specialty hospitals focus on taking care of patients with a select group of conditions. In some instances, they may also create a potential conflict of interest for the surgeon. The effect this has on the surgical algorithm for patients with degenerative cervical spine conditions has not been determined.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent a 1- or 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion between October 2009 and December 2014 at either a physician-owned specialty hospital or an independently owned community hospital were identified. Demographic information, the time course for treatment and the nonoperative treatment regimen were evaluated.

Results: In total, 115 patients undergoing surgery at a physician-owned specialty hospital and 149 patients undergoing surgery at an independent community hospital were identified. Demographic data between the groups including the presence of 12 medical comorbidities and insurance status was similar between the groups. The only difference that was identified was that patients at the surgeon-owned hospital were marginally younger than patients who had surgery at the independent hospital (49.7 vs. 50.0, P=0.048). No difference in the median number of months from the onset of symptoms to surgery (6.51 vs. 7.53 mo, respectively; P=0.55), from the onset of symptoms to the preoperative visit (6.02 vs. 6.02, P=0.64), or from the initial surgical consultation to surgery (0.99 vs. 1.02, P=0.31) was identified. No difference in the number of patients who underwent formal physical therapy (72.2% vs. 67.1%, P=0.42) or who had a cervical steroid injection (55.6% vs. 50.3%, P=0.25%) was identified between patients who had surgery at a physician-owned or independent hospital; however, patients who underwent surgery at the physician-owned hospital were more likely to have taken oral anti-inflammatories (93.0% vs. 83.9%, P=0.04).

Conclusions: When comparing hospitals with similar resources, surgeons do not preferentially select younger, healthier patients with higher paying insurance to be treated at the physician-owned hospital. Furthermore, both the time from the onset of symptoms to surgery and the nonoperative treatment regimen were similar between patients treated at the 2 facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000577DOI Listing
June 2018

Development and Evaluation of a Preoperative Risk Calculator for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 May;100(9):777-785

Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Preoperative identification of patients at risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important for patient optimization and targeted prevention. The purpose of this study was to create a preoperative PJI risk calculator for assessing a patient's individual risk of developing (1) any PJI, (2) PJI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and (3) PJI caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 27,717 patients (12,086 TKAs and 31,167 THAs), including 1,035 with confirmed PJI, who were treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2014. A total of 42 risk factors, including patient characteristics and surgical variables, were evaluated with a multivariate analysis in which coefficients were scaled to produce integer scores. External validation was performed with use of data on 29,252 patients who had undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA) at an independent institution.

Results: Of the 42 risk factors studied, 25 were found not to be significant risk factors for PJI. The most influential of the remaining 17 included a previous open surgical procedure, drug abuse, a revision procedure, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The areas under the curves were 0.83 and 0.84 for any PJI, 0.86 and 0.83 for antibiotic-resistant PJI, and 0.86 and 0.73 for S. aureus PJI in the internal and external validation models, respectively. The rates of PJI were 0.56% and 0.61% in the lowest decile of risk scores and 15.85% and 20.63% in the highest decile.

Conclusions: In this large-cohort study, we were able to identify and validate risk factors and their relative weights for predicting PJI. Factors such as prior surgical procedures and high-risk comorbidities should be considered when determining whether TJA is indicated and when counseling patients.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.16.01435DOI Listing
May 2018

Evaluation of the PROMIS pediatric global health scale (PGH-7) in children with asthma.

J Asthma 2019 05 5;56(5):534-542. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

a Department of Pediatrics , Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , PA , USA.

Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PROMIS Pediatric Global Health scale, a 7-item measure of perceived physical, mental, and social health, in children with asthma.

Methods: From February 2014 to February 2015, convenience samples of 8-17 year-old children (n = 182) and parents of 5-17 year-old children (n = 328) visiting an emergency department for treatment of asthma were enrolled. The Asthma Control Test was used to characterize children as controlled versus not controlled, and the PROMIS Asthma Impact Scale was used to assess asthma symptoms' impact on functional status. We conducted longitudinal analyses among 92 children and 218 parents at 3 weeks, and 74 children and 171 parents at 8 weeks after enrollment.

Results: The PGH-7 reliability ranged from 0.66 to 0.81 for child-report and 0.76 to 0.82 for parent-proxy. In cross-sectional analyses, children with controlled asthma had PGH-7 scores 0.40-0.95 standard deviation units higher than those who were uncontrolled. The PGH-7 was responsive to changes in overall general health between time points, with moderate effect sizes (0.5-0.6 standard deviation units). In longitudinal analyses, PGH-7 scores were no different between those who stayed uncontrolled versus became controlled at 3 weeks of follow-up; however, by 8 weeks of follow-up, the differences between these groups were 0.7-0.8 standard deviation units, indicative of large effects.

Conclusions: The PGH-7 is a reliable and valid patient-reported outcome for assessing general health among children with asthma. It is a useful complement to other asthma-specific outcome measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2018.1471701DOI Listing
May 2019

How Much Pain Is Significant? Defining the Minimal Clinically Important Difference for the Visual Analog Scale for Pain After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2018 07 22;33(7S):S71-S75.e2. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: The ability to detect changes in patient-perceived pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is critical to manage postoperative pain. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P) has not been investigated in this population. This study investigated the MCID for VAS-P in the TJA population.

Methods: Postoperative pain scores were collected on 139 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 165 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. VAS-P was measured and Likert scores for changes in pain recorded together throughout the hospitalization per patient. Using a linear mixed model, the mean difference between preceding and current VAS-P was calculated and correlated with Likert score, when the patient reported at least slight improvement or worsening in pain, defining the MCID. Minimal detectable change was calculated using the VAS-P standard error of the means for patients reporting "no change."

Results: For THA, the overall mean and average highest VAS-P were 35.0 mm and 50.4 mm, respectively. For TKA, the overall mean and average highest VAS-P were 42.6 mm and 61.1 mm, respectively. The minimal detectable change in VAS-P was 14.9 mm for THA and 16.1 mm for TKA. The MCID for THA and TKA pain improvement was -18.6 mm and -22.6 mm, respectively, and for worsening was 23.6 mm and 29.1 mm, respectively.

Conclusion: In the postoperative TJA population, VAS-P MCID changes depend on the type of surgical intervention, and whether pain is improving or worsening. Statistically significant VAS-P, improving -18.6 mm and -22.6 mm for THA and TKA patients, respectively, sets a reasonable threshold to identify clinically meaningful pain intervention with high specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.02.029DOI Listing
July 2018

Incise Draping Reduces the Rate of Contamination of the Surgical Site During Hip Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized Trial.

J Arthroplasty 2018 06 2;33(6):1891-1895. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Iodophor-impregnated adhesive incise drapes are widely used during surgeries for reducing surgical site contamination. There is little evidence to support the latter belief. This study evaluated the efficacy of iodophor-impregnated adhesive drapes for reducing bacterial contamination and counts at the incision site during hip surgery.

Methods: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 101 patients undergoing open joint preservation procedure of the hip. Half the patients had the adhesive drape applied to the skin prior to incision, while the remainder underwent the same surgery without a drape. Culture swabs were taken from the surgical site at 5 points (preskin preparation, after skin preparation, postincision, before subcutaneous closure, prior to dressing application) and sent for culture and colony counts. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to estimate effects of time and drape application on contamination rate.

Results: At the conclusion of surgery, 12.0% of incisions with adhesive drapes and 27.4% without adhesive drapes were positive for bacterial colonization. When controlling for preoperative colonization and other factors, patients without adhesive drapes were significantly more likely to have bacteria present at the time of skin closure, and at all time points when swab cultures were taken.

Conclusion: It appears that the iodophor-impregnated adhesive draping significantly reduces bacterial colonization of the incision. Bacterial count at the skin was extremely high in some patients in whom adhesive drapes were not used, raising the possibility that a subsequent surgical site infection or periprosthetic joint infection could arise had an implant been utilized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2018.01.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients with Retention of Prior Hardware Material: What is the Outcome?

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2018 Jan;6(1):23-26

Rothman Institute of Orthopaedics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Rothman Institute of Orthopaedics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is an information gap in literature regarding postoperative outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with hardware in-situ from the previous knee surgery. The present study aims to evaluate impact of retained hardware on short-term outcome of TKA patients.

Methods: Perioperative radiographs of patients who had undergone TKA between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed and patients in whom partial or complete retention of hardware was evident after TKA were included. These patients were matched in 1 to 2 ratio based on age (+/- 2 years), gender, surgeon and year of surgery to a group of patients that underwent primary TKA without hardware in the affected knee. The average follow up of these patients was 43.45 (range 12-155.2) months. Complication rates were compared between the two groups using statistical tests that took into account the matched data structure.

Results: We included a total of 55 cases and 110 controls. The incidence of complications was higher, although not all statistically significant, in the case group. Only mechanical complications were significantly different in the cases group (5.5% versus 0%, ). Time to event analysis using the mixed-effects Cox model didn't show a statistically significant difference between two groups for various outcomes.

Conclusion: Presence of retained hardware around the knee may predispose the patient to a higher rate of complications particularly mechanical complications of the implant after TKA. Further studies are required to investigate impact of retained hardware around the knee in patients undergoing TKA. III.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799595PMC
January 2018

Effect of Facility Ownership on Utilization of Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018 Mar;26(5):177-185

From the Rothman Institute at Jefferson, Philadelphia, PA.

Introduction: We examined practice patterns and surgical indications in the management of common shoulder procedures by surgeons practicing at physician-owned facilities.

Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of 501 patients who underwent arthroscopic shoulder procedures performed by five surgeons in our practice at one of five facilities during an 18-month period. Two of the facilities were physician-owned, and three of the five surgeons were shareholders. Demographics, insurance status, symptom duration, time from injury/symptom onset to the decision to perform surgery (at which time surgical consent is obtained), and time to schedule surgery were studied to determine the influence of facility type and physician shareholder status.

Results: Median duration of symptoms before surgery was significantly shorter in workers' compensation patients than in non-workers' compensation patients (47% less; P < 0.0001) and in men than in women (31% less; P < 0.001), but was not influenced by shareholder status or facility ownership (P > 0.05). Time between presentation and surgical consent was not influenced by facility ownership (P = 0.39) or shareholder status (P = 0.50). Time from consent to procedure was 13% faster in physician-owned facilities than in non-physician-owned facilities (P = 0.03) and 35% slower with shareholder physicians than with nonshareholder physicians (P < 0.0001).

Discussion: The role of physician investment in private healthcare facilities has caused considerable debate in the orthopaedic surgery field. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the effects of shareholder status and facility ownership on surgeons' practice patterns, surgical timing, and measures of nonsurgical treatment before shoulder surgery.

Conclusions: Neither shareholder status nor facility ownership characteristics influenced the speed with which surgeons determined that shoulder surgery was indicated or surgeons' use of preoperative nonsurgical treatment. After the need for surgery was determined, patients underwent surgery sooner at physician-owned facilities than at non-physician-owned facilities and with nonshareholder physicians than with shareholder physicians.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00782DOI Listing
March 2018

Child Mortality In The US And 19 OECD Comparator Nations: A 50-Year Time-Trend Analysis.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2018 01;37(1):140-149

Christopher B. Forrest is a professor of pediatrics at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

The United States has poorer child health outcomes than other wealthy nations despite greater per capita spending on health care for children. To better understand this phenomenon, we examined mortality trends for the US and nineteen comparator nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for children ages 0-19 from 1961 to 2010 using publicly available data. While child mortality progressively declined across all countries, mortality in the US has been higher than in peer nations since the 1980s. From 2001 to 2010 the risk of death in the US was 76 percent greater for infants and 57 percent greater for children ages 1-19. During this decade, children ages 15-19 were eighty-two times more likely to die from gun homicide in the US. Over the fifty-year study period, the lagging US performance amounted to over 600,000 excess deaths. Policy interventions should focus on infants and on children ages 15-19, the two age groups with the greatest disparities, by addressing perinatal causes of death, automobile accidents, and assaults by firearm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0767DOI Listing
January 2018

Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2017 Dec;99(24):2077-2084

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The search for a single standard reference test for determining periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) through analysis of synovial fluid has yielded numerous biomarkers as potential candidates. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of synovial fluid biomarkers and to determine which test has the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for the diagnosis of PJI.

Methods: An online literature search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases identified 33 articles reporting a total of 13 major parameters for diagnosing PJI through analysis of synovial fluid. Each of the included articles was independently analyzed for risk of bias and for concerns regarding applicability utilizing the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2) tool. The mada (meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy) tool was used to generate forest plots for sensitivity, specificity, and the log of the DOR, as well as summary statistics.

Results: In this analysis, 13 index tests (leukocyte count; measurement of the percentage of polymorphonucleocytes [PMN%] and the levels of C-reactive protein [CRP], α-defensin, leukocyte esterase [LE], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [G-CSF]; culture; and polymerase chain reaction [PCR] analysis) were evaluated on the basis of ≥2 articles. Of these tests, 8 (leukocyte count, PMN%, CRP, α-defensin, LE, IL-6, IL-8, and culture) were appropriate for pooled analysis. The overall sensitivity of these 8 markers was 0.85, and all but culture showed a sensitivity of ≥0.8. All markers showed a specificity of ≥0.9. Of the 8 tests, measurement of the α-defensin level showed the highest log DOR.

Conclusions: Synovial fluid leukocyte count, PMN%, CRP, α-defensin, LE, IL-6, and IL-8 all demonstrated high sensitivity for diagnosing PJI, with α-defensin being the best synovial marker based on the highest log DOR. However, other synovial fluid tests that demonstrate good diagnostic performance can also be used in combination for the diagnosis of PJI.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.00123DOI Listing
December 2017

Computer-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty: Is There a Difference Between Image-Based and Imageless Techniques?

J Arthroplasty 2018 04 21;33(4):1076-1081. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Joint Reconstruction Research Center (JRRC), Orthopedic Department of Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia.

Background: Image-based and imageless computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (CATKA) has become increasingly popular. This study aims to compare outcomes, including perioperative complications and transfusion rate, between CATKA and conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA), as well as between image-based and imageless CATKA.

Methods: Using the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases codes, we queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2005 to 2011 to identify unilateral conventional TKA, image-based, and imageless CATKAs as well as in-hospital complications and transfusion rates.

Results: A total of 787,809 conventional TKAs and 13,246 CATKAs (1055 image-based and 12,191 imageless) were identified. The rate of CATKA increased 23.13% per year from 2005 to 2011. Transfusion rates in conventional TKA and CATKA cases were 11.73% and 8.20% respectively (P < .001) and 6.92% in image-based vs 8.27% in imageless (P = .023). Perioperative complications occurred in 4.50%, 3.47%, and 3.41% of cases after conventional, imageless, and imaged-based CATKAs, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, perioperative complications were significantly higher in conventional TKA compared to CATKA (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.33, P = .01). There was no significant difference between imageless and image-based CATKA (P = .34). Length of hospital stay and hospital charges were not significantly different between groups (P > .05).

Conclusion: CATKA has low complication rates and may improve patient outcomes after TKA. CATKA, especially the image-based technique, may reduce in-hospital complications and transfusion without increasing hospital charges and length of hospital stay significantly. Large prospective studies with long follow-up are required to verify potential benefits of CATKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.11.030DOI Listing
April 2018

Operating Room Traffic Increases Aerosolized Particles and Compromises the Air Quality: A Simulated Study.

J Arthroplasty 2018 03 16;33(3):851-855. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Strategies to prevent bacterial fallout and reduce particle count in the operating room (OR) are key components of preventing periprosthetic joint infection. Although OR traffic control is an important factor, a quantitative study has not been performed to investigate the influence of personnel and door opening on OR air quality. This simulated study aimed to examine the influence of these 2 factors on particle density in OR with and without the laminar air flow (LAF).

Methods: Both experiments took place within an empty OR of an arthroplasty unit equipped with an LAF system. First, the number of particles in the air was counted using a particle counting apparatus while 9 persons entered the room, one every 15 minutes. Second, the door was opened and closed starting with zero door openings per minute and increasing to 4 in 15-minute increments. Both experiments were performed once with the LAF turned on and once without.

Results: The number of personnel in the OR and the number of door openings per minute correlate with the density of particles. Both relationships were significantly reduced by turning the LAF on (correlation coefficients <0.4). With the LAF being turned on, the particle density per person decreased from 211.19 to 18.19 particles/ft (P < .001) and the particle density per rate of door openings declined from 117.80 to 1.90 particles/ft (P = .017).

Conclusion: This study confirms that personnel and door opening are a major source of particles in the OR air. Controlling traffic is critical for reduction of particles and is likely to be a key preventative strategy in reducing periprosthetic joint infection. LAF is protective against the negative influence of number of people and door openings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.10.012DOI Listing
March 2018

Patient-Reported Disability Measures Do Not Correlate with Electrodiagnostic Severity in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2017 Aug 11;5(8):e1440. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.; and Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.

Background: Electrophysiologic studies including electromyography and nerve conduction studies play a role in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), despite evidence that these studies do not correlate with CTS-specific symptom scores. There is a lack of evidence comparing electrophysiologic data with general measures of function.

Methods: Fifty patients presenting for CTS treatment over an 8-month period were analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed surveys including the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Survey [(physical component summary 12, mental component summary (MCS-12)]. Electromyography and nerve conduction studies were performed on all patients and compared with outcome scores.

Results: Analysis demonstrated no relationship between DASH or MCS-12 and electrodiagnostic severity. No significant correlations were noted between DASH or MCS-12 and median motor or sensory latency. There was a moderate-weak correlation (rho = 0.34) between more severe electrophysiologic grade and better function based on physical component summary 12.

Conclusions: Electrodiagnostic severity grades do not correlate with patient-reported disability, including the DASH and MCS-12 surveys. There is a counterintuitive correlation between more-severe electrodiagnostic findings and decreased physical disability. These findings indicate that disability may not correlate with electrodiagnostic severity of median neuropathy in CTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000001440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5585434PMC
August 2017

Periarticular Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection Versus Intra-Articular Bupivacaine Infusion Catheter for Analgesia After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2017 Aug;99(16):1337-1344

1The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Intra-articular bupivacaine hydrochloride (HCl) infusion catheters and periarticular injections of liposomal bupivacaine are often used as postoperative local anesthetics. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacies of these local anesthetics following total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: This study was a superiority trial with a randomized, controlled, double-blinded design. Patients were randomly assigned to either delivery of bupivacaine HCl by the ON-Q* Pain Relief System pump (n = 96) or by an injection of Exparel (liposomal bupivacaine) (n = 104). The primary outcome of this study was cumulative narcotic consumption on postoperative days 0 through 3. Narcotic consumption data were collected retrospectively from in-hospital records while patients were in the hospital. Following discharge, narcotic consumption data were gathered from patient surveys, as were secondary outcomes measures.

Results: We did not identify greater narcotic use in the ON-Q* group compared with the Exparel group (p = 0.641). The mean difference between the groups was 0.5 morphine equivalent (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.7 to +2.8), with the ON-Q* group consuming an average 10.4 morphine equivalents (95% CI = 8.7 to 12.0) compared with 10.9 (95% CI = 9.3 to 12.5) in the Exparel group. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to any of the secondary measures of pain with the exception of pain while walking and pain with physical therapy (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010, respectively), both of which showed an approximately 1-point difference in favor of the ON-Q* group on a visual analog scale (VAS). There were also no differences in the postoperative side effects, including nausea, constipation, or vomiting, or in the rates of study-related complications, patient satisfaction, or length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: Exparel did not have superior efficacy compared with the ON-Q* Pain Relief System as reflected by narcotic consumption, our primary outcome. There were small significant differences, in favor of the ON-Q* group, in 2 secondary measures of pain during activity, but these approximately 1-point VAS differences are unlikely to be clinically relevant. The choice of a local anesthetic modality should be based on a combination of safety, convenience, and cost considerations.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.16.00571DOI Listing
August 2017

The Effect of Hospital Ownership on Health Care Utilization in Orthopedic Surgery.

Clin Spine Surg 2018 03;31(2):73-79

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: To determine if ownership of a specialty hospital or ambulatory surgery centers (ASC) affects surgical volume.

Materials And Methods: All surgeries performed by 75 orthopedic surgeons at a single practice between January 1, 2010 and March 1, 2015 were identified. During this time, the practice purchased an ownership stake in 1 hospital and 3 ASC. The total surgical volume by partnership status and location was collected and analyzed.

Results: A total of 104,661 surgical surgeries were performed by 75 surgeons. Over the 62 months, there was an average increase in the number of surgical cases performed per surgeon per year of 2.82±0.48 cases; however, the average increase in cases per year was lower for equity partners by 1.51 cases per year (P<0.0001). In the 2 years before purchasing the specialty hospital, the increase in the number of surgical cases per surgeon per month was 0.093±0.087 cases. In the 2 years after investing in the physician-owned specialty hospital, there was a decrease in the number of cases performed per surgeon per month by 0.027±0.110 (P=0.92).

Conclusions: In a well-established large orthopedic practice, surgeon ownership of a hospital or ASC does not lead to an increase in surgical volume.

Level Of Evidence: Level 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000565DOI Listing
March 2018

Factors Contributing to Hospital Stay and Total Inpatient Charges in Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Review of the National Inpatient Sample.

Foot Ankle Spec 2018 Jun 8;11(3):230-235. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (JLC, BMZ, DED), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is commonly performed for end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Given rising costs and declining reimbursements, identifying variables increasing length of stay (LOS) and total inpatient charges (TICs) of TAA is necessary for providing cost-effective care. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was reviewed between 1993 and 2010, identifying LOS and TIC for TAA. Using a multivariate analysis, patient comorbidities, demographics, payment, and hospital details were evaluated. Median LOS decreased from 5 to 2 days, whereas median TICs increased from $21 382.53 to $62 028.00. Regionally, the South and Midwest had decreased TICs, whereas the West had an increased TIC. There was no significant difference in LOS geographically. Rural hospitals demonstrated decreased TICs, whereas urban private hospitals showed decreased LOS and decreased TICs. Large hospitals were associated with increased LOS and TICs. Compared with Medicare, private insurers demonstrated decreased LOS with equivalent TICs. Diabetics significantly increased mean LOS by 1 day, without a significantly increased TIC. Despite a decreased LOS, hospital charges have increased between 1993 and 2010 in TAA. We found that regional differences and hospital characteristics were associated with differences in LOS and TICs. Identification of these factors provides important information to facilities and surgeons.

Levels Of Evidence: Level IV: Economic/decision analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640017720748DOI Listing
June 2018

Optimizing Mechanical Alignment With Modular Stems in Revision TKA.

J Arthroplasty 2017 09 26;32(9S):S209-S213. Epub 2017 May 26.

The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Although mechanical alignment is critical for optimal function and long-term implant durability, the role of modular stems in achieving ideal alignment is unclear.

Methods: We identified 319 revision total knee arthroplasty from 2003-2013, for which stem length, stem diameter, and stem fixation method were recorded prospectively. Three-dimensional canal-filling ratio, the product of canal-filling ratio at the stem tip in both the anteroposterior and lateral planes, and alignment were measured radiographically.

Results: Ideal alignment of the femur was considered to be 95° in the anteroposterior (AP) plane and from 1° of extension to 4° of flexion in the lateral plane, and ideal tibial alignment was considered to be 90° in the AP plane. Even after accounting for difference in stem size and canal-fill, ideal AP alignment was more reliably achieved with press-fit stems.

Conclusion: Furthermore, increased engagement of the diaphysis and its anatomical axis with canal-filling stems facilitates accurate alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.05.039DOI Listing
September 2017

Perioperative Complications in Patients With Sleep Apnea Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2017 09 27;32(9):2680-2683. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aims to evaluate the effect of sleep apnea (SA) on perioperative complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and whether the type of anesthesia influences these complications.

Methods: Using the ninth and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases, coding systems, we queried our institutional TJA database from January 2005 to June 2016 to identify patients with SA who underwent TJA. These patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio based on age, gender, type of surgery, and comorbidities to patients who underwent TJA but were not coded for SA. Perioperative complications were identified using the same coding systems. Multivariate analysis was used to test if SA is an independent predictor of perioperative complications and if type of anesthesia can affect these complications.

Results: A total of 1246 patients with SA were matched to 3738 patients without SA. Pulmonary complications occurred more frequently in patients with SA (1.7% vs 0.6%; P < .001), confirmed using multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-5.36; P = .001). Use of general anesthesia increased risk of all but central nervous system complications and mortality (odds ratio = 15.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.93-64.07; P < .001) regardless of SA status compared with regional anesthesia. Rates of pulmonary and gastrointestinal complications, acute anemia, and mortality were lower in SA patients when regional anesthesia was used (P < .05).

Conclusion: SA increases risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of regional anesthesia may reduce risk of pulmonary complications and mortality in SA patients undergoing TJA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.04.040DOI Listing
September 2017

Povidone-Iodine-Based Solutions for Decolonization of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus: A Randomized, Prospective, Placebo-Controlled Study.

J Arthroplasty 2017 09 3;32(9):2815-2819. Epub 2017 May 3.

Rothman Institute of Orthopaedics, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus decolonization reduces the risk of surgical site infections after orthopedic procedures. Povidone-iodine (PI)-based solutions have shown promising results in bacteria decolonization. The unique physiology of the nose may pose challenges for the bioactivity profiles of PI solutions. This study compared the antibacterial efficacy of an off-the-shelf PI product with a specifically manufactured PI-based skin and nasal antiseptic (SNA).

Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted at a single institution between April 2014 and July 2015. Four hundred and twenty-nine patients undergoing primary or revision total joint arthroplasty, femoroacetabular osteoplasty, pelvic osteotomy, or total shoulder arthroplasty were included. 10% off-the-shelf PI, 5% PI-based SNA, or saline (placebo) were used for nasal decolonization. Baseline cultures were taken immediately preoperatively, followed by treatment of both nares twice for 2 minutes with 4 applicators. Reculturing of the right nostril occurred at 4 hours and the left at 24 hours.

Results: Ninety-five of the 429 patients (22.1%) had a positive culture result for S. aureus; 13 (3.03%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Of these 95, 29 were treated with off-the-shelf PI, 34 with SNA, and 32 with saline swabs. At 4 hours post-treatment, S. aureus culture was positive in 52% off-the-shelf PI patients, 21% SNA patients, and 59% saline patients. After 24 hours posttreatment, S. aureus culture was positive in 72% off-the-shelf PI patients, 59% SNA patients, and 69% saline group. SNA was significantly more effective at decolonizing S. aureus over the 4-hour time interval (P = .003); no significant difference was observed over the 24-hour time interval between the 3 groups.

Conclusion: A single application of PI-based SNA before surgery may be effective in eliminating nasal S. aureus in over two-thirds of patients. Off-the-shelf PI swabs were not as effective at 4 hours as the specifically manufactured product for S. aureus decolonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2017.04.039DOI Listing
September 2017
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