Publications by authors named "Mitchell A Cahan"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Fast-track Pathway for Emergency General Surgery at an Academic Medical Center.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 8;267:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Fast Track Pathways (FTP) directed at reducing length of stay (LOS) and overall costs are being increasingly implemented for emergency surgeries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate implementation of a FTP for Emergency General Surgery (EGS) at an academic medical center (AMC).

Methods: The study included 165 patients at an AMC between 2016 and 2018 who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), or laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LI). The FTP group enrolled 89 patients, and 76 controls prior to FTP implementation were evaluated. Time to surgery (TTS), LOS, and post-operative LOS between groups were compared. Direct costs, reimbursements, and patient reported satisfaction (satisfaction 1 = never, 4 = always) were also studied.

Results: The sample was 60.6% female, with a median age of 40 years. Case distribution differed slightly (56.2% versus 42.1% LA, 40.4% versus 57.9% LC, FTP versus control), but TTS was similar between groups (11h39min versus 10h02min, P = 0.633). LOS was significantly shorter in the FTP group (15h17min versus 29h09min, P < 0.001), reflected by shorter post-operative LOS (3h11min versus 20h10min, P< 0.001), fewer patients requiring a hospital bed and overnight stay (P < 0.001). Direct costs were significantly lower in the FTP group, reimbursements were similar (P < 0.001 and P = 0.999 respectively), and average patient reported satisfaction was good (3.3/4).

Conclusion: In an era focused on decreasing cost, optimizing resources, and ensuring patient satisfaction, a FTP can play a significant role in EGS. At an AMC, an EGS FTP significantly decreased LOS, hospital bed utilization while not impacting reimbursement or patient satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.04.012DOI Listing
June 2021

A Translational Model for Venous Thromboembolism: MicroRNA Expression in Hibernating Black Bears.

J Surg Res 2021 01 25;257:203-212. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Hibernating American black bears have significantly different clotting parameters than their summer active counterparts, affording them protection against venous thromboembolism during prolonged periods of immobility. We sought to evaluate if significant differences exist between the expression of microRNAs in the plasma of hibernating black bears compared with their summer active counterparts, potentially contributing to differences in hemostasis during hibernation.

Materials And Methods: MicroRNA sequencing was assessed in plasma from 21 American black bears in summer active (n = 11) and hibernating states (n = 10), and microRNA signatures during hibernating and active state were established using both bear and human genome. MicroRNA targets were predicted using messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts from black bear kidney cells. In vitro studies were performed to confirm the relationship between identified microRNAs and mRNA expression, using artificial microRNA and human liver cells.

Results: Using the bear genome, we identified 15 microRNAs differentially expressed in the plasma of hibernating black bears. Of these microRNAs, three were significantly downregulated (miR-141-3p, miR-200a-3p, and miR-200c-3p), were predicted to target SERPINC1, the gene for antithrombin, and demonstrated regulatory control of the gene mRNA expression in cell studies.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the hibernating black bears' ability to maintain hemostasis and achieve protection from venous thromboembolism during prolonged periods of immobility may be due to changes in microRNA signatures and possible upregulation of antithrombin expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis: Do Medicaid and Non-Medicaid Enrolled Patients Receive the Same Care?

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 04 10;24(4):939-948. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 N Lake Ave, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.

Background: Nationally, Medicaid enrollees with emergency surgical conditions experience worse outcomes overall when compared with privately insured patients. The goal of this study is to investigate disparities in the treatment of cholecystitis based on insurance type and to identify contributing factors.

Methods: Adults with cholecystitis at a safety-net hospital in Central Massachusetts from 2017-2018 were included. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared based on Medicaid enrollment status (Medicare excluded). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare the frequency of surgery, time to surgery (TTS), length of stay (LOS), and readmission rates between groups.

Results: The sample (n = 203) included 69 Medicaid enrollees (34%), with a mean age of 44.4 years. Medicaid enrollees were younger (p = 0.0006), had lower levels of formal education (high school diploma attainment, p < 0.0001), were more likely to be unmarried (p < 0.0001), Non-White (p = 0.0012), and require an interpreter (p < 0.0001). Patients in both groups experienced similar rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, TTS, and LOS; however, Medicaid enrollees experienced more readmissions within 30 days of discharge (30.4% vs 17.9%, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Despite anticipated population differences, the treatment of acute cholecystitis was similar between Medicaid and Non-Medicaid enrollees, with the exception of readmission. Further research is needed to identify patient, provider, and/or population factors driving this disparity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04471-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Treatment of appendicitis: Do Medicaid and non-Medicaid-enrolled patients receive the same care?

Surgery 2019 11 9;166(5):793-799. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Studies using national data sets have suggested that insurance type drives a disparity in the care of emergency surgery patients. Large databases lack the granularity that smaller, single-institution series may provide. The goal of this study is to identify factors that may account for differences in care between Medicaid and non-Medicaid enrollees with appendicitis in central Massachusetts.

Methods: All adult patients with acute appendicitis in an academic medical center between 2010 and 2018 were included. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared according to Medicaid enrollment status. Analyses were performed to assess differences in the frequency of operative treatment, time to surgery, length of stay, and rates of readmission.

Results: The sample included 1,257 patients, 10.7% of whom (n = 135) were enrolled in Medicaid. The proportions of patients presenting with perforated appendicitis (28.9% vs 31.2%, P = .857) and undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy (96.3% vs 90.7%, P = .081) were similar between the 2 groups, as were length of stay (20 hours 30 minutes versus 22 hours 38 minutes, P = .109) and readmission rates (17.8% vs 14.5%, P = .683). Medicaid enrollees did experience somewhat greater time to surgery (6 hours 47 minutes versus 4 hours 49 minutes, P < .001).

Conclusion: Despite anticipated differences in population, the treatment of appendicitis was similar between Medicaid and non-Medicaid enrollees. Medicaid enrollees experienced greater time to surgery; however, further studies are needed to explain this disparity in care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.06.035DOI Listing
November 2019

Role of Mucosal Protrusion Angle in Discriminating between True and False Masses of the Small Bowel on Video Capsule Endoscopy.

J Clin Med 2019 Mar 27;8(4). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave N., Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

The diagnosis of small-bowel tumors is challenging due to their low incidence, nonspecific presentation, and limitations of traditional endoscopic techniques. In our study, we examined the utility of the mucosal protrusion angle in differentiating between true submucosal masses and bulges of the small bowel on video capsule endoscopy. We retrospectively reviewed video capsule endoscopies of 34 patients who had suspected small-bowel lesions between 2002 and 2017. Mucosal protrusion angles were defined as the angle between the small-bowel protruding lesion and surrounding mucosa and were measured using a protractor placed on a computer screen. We found that 25 patients were found to have true submucosal masses based on pathology and 9 patients had innocent bulges due to extrinsic compression. True submucosal masses had an average measured protrusion angle of 45.7 degrees ± 20.8 whereas innocent bulges had an average protrusion angle of 108.6 degrees ± 16.3 ( < 0.0001; unpaired -test). Acute angle of protrusion accurately discriminated between true submucosal masses and extrinsic compression bulges on Fisher's exact test ( = 0.0001). Our findings suggest that mucosal protrusion angle is a simple and useful tool for differentiating between true masses and innocent bulges of the small bowel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518286PMC
March 2019

Response Letter from Green Et al.

Authors:
Mitchell A Cahan

J Gastrointest Surg 2018 07 20;22(7):1307-1308. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-018-3773-2DOI Listing
July 2018

Approach to the Diagnostic Workup and Management of Small Bowel Lesions at a Tertiary Care Center.

J Gastrointest Surg 2018 06 25;22(6):1034-1042. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.

Background: Small bowel lesions (SBL) are rare, representing diagnostic and management challenges. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate diagnostic modalities used and management practices of patients with SBL at an advanced endoscopic referral center.

Methods: We analyzed patients undergoing surgical management for SBL from 2005 to 2015 at a single tertiary care center. Patients were stratified into gastrointestinal bleed/anemia (GIBA) or obstruction/pain (OP).

Results: One hundred and twelve patients underwent surgery after presenting with either GIBA (n = 67) or OP (n = 45). The mean age of our study population was 61.8 years and 45% were women. Patients with GIBA were more likely to have chronic or acute-on-chronic symptoms (100% vs 67%) and more often referred from outside hospitals (82 vs. 44%) (p < 0.01). The most common preoperative imaging modalities were video capsule endoscopy (VCE) (96%) for GIBA and computer tomography CT (78%) for OP. Findings on VCE and CT were most frequently concordant with operative findings in GIBA (67%) and OP (54%) patients, respectively. Intraoperatively, visual inspection or palpation of the bowel successfully identified lesions in 71% of patients. When performed in GIBA (n = 26), intraoperative enteroscopy (IE) confirmed or identified lesions in 69% of patients. Almost all (90%) GIBA patients underwent small bowel resections; most were laparoscopic-assisted (93%). Among patients with OP, 58% had a small bowel resection and the majority (81%) were laparoscopic-assisted. Surgical exploration failed to identify lesions in 10% of GIBA patients and 24% of OP patients. Among patients who underwent resections, 20% of GIBA patients had recurrent symptoms compared with 13% of OP patients.

Conclusion: Management and identification of SBL is governed by presenting symptomatology. Optimal management includes VCE and IE for GIBA and CT scans for OP patients. Comprehensive evaluation may require referral to specialized centers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-018-3668-2DOI Listing
June 2018

Comparative coagulation studies in hibernating and summer-active black bears (Ursus americanus).

Thromb Res 2017 Oct 1;158:16-18. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 N Lake Ave, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2017.07.034DOI Listing
October 2017

Cholecystostomy Treatment in an ICU Population: Complications and Risks.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2016 Oct;26(5):410-416

Departments of *Surgery †Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

Background: Percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement has widely been used as an alternative treatment to cholecystectomy, especially in advanced disease or critically ill patients. Reported postprocedural complication rates have varied significantly over the last decade. The goal of this study is to evaluate the safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy tube treatment in critically ill patients.

Study Design: We performed a retrospective chart analysis of 96 critically ill patients who underwent cholecystostomy tube placement during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay between 2005 and 2010 in a tertiary care center in central Massachusetts. Complications within 72 hours of cholecystostomy tube placement and any morbidity or mortality relating to presence of cholecystostomy tube were considered.

Results: A total of 65 male and 31 female patients with a mean age of 67.4 years underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement during an ICU stay. Sixty-six patients experienced a total of 121 complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 69%. Fifty-four of these complications resulted from the actual procedure or the presence of the cholecystostomy tube; the other 67 complications occurred within 72 hours of the cholecystostomy procedure. Ten patients died. Tube dislodgment was the most common complication with a total of 34 episodes.

Conclusions: Cholecystostomy tube placement is associated with frequent complications, the most common of which is tube dislodgment. Severe complications may contribute to serious morbidity and death in an ICU population. Complication rates may be underreported in the medical literature. The potential impact of cholecystostomy tube placement in critically ill patients should not be underestimated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000319DOI Listing
October 2016

Timing and choice of intervention influences outcome in acute cholecystitis: a prospective study.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2014 Oct;24(5):414-9

Acute Care Surgery Program, Department of Surgery, Division of Minimally Invasive Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

Purpose: Determine which management strategy is ideal for patients with acute cholecystitis.

Materials And Methods: Prospective enrollment between August 2009 and March 2011. Large academic center. Patients with acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, intravenous antibiotics followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Primary endpoints were postoperative complications and 30-day mortality.

Results: A total of 162 patients were enrolled, 53 (33%) with simple acute cholecystitis and 109 (67%) with complex acute cholecystitis. Of the 109 patients with complex cholecystitis, 77 (70.6%) underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission and 6 patients (5.5%) had an unsuccessful laparoscopic cholecystectomy requiring conversion to cholecystostomy. Radiology performed cholecystostomy in 19 (11.7%) patients with complex acute cholecystitis and 4 (2.5%) patients with simple acute cholecystitis for a total 23 patients of the 162 patients in the study. Nine of the 23 patients had dislodged tubes (39.1%). Two of the 23 patients (8.7%) had significant bile leaks resulting in either sepsis or emergency surgery. One patient (4.3%) had a wound infection. Overall, patients with complex acute cholecystitis had a higher morbidity rate (31.2%) compared with patients with simple acute cholecystitis (26.4%).

Conclusions And Relevance: A high complication rate seen with radiology placed percutaneous cholecystostomy tubes prompted our center to reevaluate the treatment algorithm used to treat patients with complex acute cholecystitis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, if laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not felt to be safe due to gallbladder wall thickening or symptoms of >72 hours' duration, we now encourage the use of intravenous antibiotics to "cool" patients down followed by interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy approximately 6 to 8 weeks later. Patients who do not respond to antibiotics should undergo attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and if unable to be performed safely, a laparoscopic cholecystostomy tube can be placed under direct visualization for decompression followed by interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a later date.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000075DOI Listing
October 2014

Transforming the culture of surgical education: promoting teacher identity through human factors training.

Arch Surg 2011 Jul;146(7):830-4

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Context: Promoting a culture of teaching may encourage students to choose a surgical career. Teaching in a human factors (HF) curriculum, the nontechnical skills of surgery, is associated with surgeons' stronger identity as teachers and with clinical students' improved perception of surgery and satisfaction with the clerkship experience.

Objective: To describe the effects of an HF curriculum on teaching culture in surgery.

Design, Setting, Participants, And Intervention: Surgeons and educators developed an HF curriculum including communication, teamwork, and work-life balance.

Main Outcome Measures: Teacher identity, student interest in a surgical career, student perception of the HF curriculum, and teaching awards.

Results: Ninety-two of 123 faculty and residents in a single program (75% of total) completed a survey on teacher identity. Fifteen of the participants were teachers of HF. Teachers of HF scored higher than control participants on the total score for teacher identity (P < .001) and for subcategories of global teacher identity (P = .001), intrinsic satisfaction (P = .001), skills and knowledge (P = .006), belonging to a group of teachers (P < .001), feeling a responsibility to teach (P = .008), receiving rewards (P =.01), and HF (P = .02). Third-year clerks indicated that they were more likely to select surgery as their career after the clerkship and rated the curriculum higher when it was taught by surgeons than when taught by educators. Of the teaching awards presented to surgeons during HF years, 100% of those awarded to attending physicians and 80% of those awarded to residents went to teachers of HF.

Conclusion: Curricular focus on HF can strengthen teacher identity, improve teacher evaluations, and promote surgery as a career choice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.2011.157DOI Listing
July 2011

Integration of basic clinical skills training in medical education: an interprofessional simulated teaching experience.

Teach Learn Med 2011 Jul-Sep;23(3):278-84

Academic Affairs , University of Massachusetts Medical School-Graduate School of Nursing, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Background: A 2004 survey reveals that the implementation of the 1998 AAMC report on medical student clinical skills training is slow. Given the importance of intravenous catheter placement, a creative approach evolved to educate medical students on this important skill.

Description: As part of a community service learning initiative, six graduate nursing students developed, implemented, and evaluated a pilot IV Cannulation Education Module taught to medical students.

Evaluation: Data analysis of 63 participants reveals improved knowledge and confidence in medical students' ability to place an intravenous catheter. The objectives were met and the process enjoyed by students of both professions.

Conclusion: Opportunities for interprofessional teaching and learning include clinical skills training. Medical students learned an important skill taught by graduate nursing students who developed and evaluated a curriculum that met their own graduate course objectives. Both professions appreciated the opportunity to work collaboratively to achieve their respective programmatic goals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2011.586934DOI Listing
November 2011

A human factors curriculum for surgical clerkship students.

Arch Surg 2010 Dec;145(12):1151-7

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA.

Hypothesis: Early introduction of a full-day human factors training experience into the surgical clerkship curriculum will teach effective communication skills and strategies to gain professional satisfaction from a career in surgery.

Design: In pilot 1, which took place between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008, 50 students received training and 50 did not; all received testing at the end of the rotation for comparison of control vs intervention group performance. In pilot 2, a total of 50 students were trained and received testing before and after rotation to examine individual change over time.

Setting: University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Participants: A total of 148 third-year medical students in required 12-week surgical clerkship rotations.

Interventions: Full-day training with lecture and small-group exercises, cotaught by surgeons and educators, with focus on empathetic communication, time management, and teamwork skills.

Main Outcome Measures: Empathetic communication skill, teamwork, and patient safety attitudes and self-reported use of time management strategies.

Results: Empathy scores were not higher for trained vs untrained groups in pilot 1 but improved from 2.32 to 3.45 on a 5-point scale (P < .001) in pilot 2. Students also were more likely to ask for the nurse's perspective and to seek agreement on an action plan after team communication training (pilot 1, f = 7.52, P = .007; pilot 2, t = 2.65, P = .01). Results were mixed for work-life balance, with some trained groups scoring significantly lower than untrained groups in pilot 1 and no significant improvement shown in pilot 2.

Conclusions: The significant increase in student-patient communication scores suggests that a brief focused presentation followed by simulation of difficult patient encounters can be successful. A video demonstration can improve interdisciplinary teamwork.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.2010.252DOI Listing
December 2010

Human Emotion and Response in Surgery (HEARS): a simulation-based curriculum for communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism in surgical residency training.

J Am Coll Surg 2010 Aug;211(2):285-92

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

Background: This study examines the development and implementation of a pilot human factors curriculum during a 2-year period. It is one component of a comprehensive 5-year human factors curriculum spanning core competencies of interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism and using low-and high-fidelity simulation techniques.

Study Design: Members of the Department of Surgery and the Center for Clinical Communication and Performance Outcomes jointly constructed a curriculum for PGY1 and PGY2 residents on topics ranging from challenging communication to time and stress management. Video demonstrations, triggers, and simulated scenarios involving acting patients were created by surgeons and medical educators. Pre- and postintervention measures were obtained for communication skills, perceived stress level, and teamwork. Communication skills were evaluated using a series of video vignettes. The validated Perceived Stress Scale and Teamwork and Patient Safety Attitudes survey were used. Residents' perceptions of the program were also measured.

Results: Twenty-seven PGY1 residents and 15 PGY2 residents participated during 2 years. Analyses of video vignette tests indicated significant improvement in empathic communication for PGY1 (t = 3.62, p = 0.001) and PGY2 (t = 5.00, p = 0.004). There were no significant changes to teamwork attitudes. Perceived levels of stress became considerably higher. PGY1 residents reported trying 1 to 3 strategies taught in the time management session, with 60% to 75% reporting improvement post-training.

Conclusions: This unique and comprehensive human factors curriculum is shown to be effective in building communication competency for junior-level residents in the human and emotional aspects of surgical training and practice. Continued refinement and ongoing data acquisition and analyses are underway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2010.04.004DOI Listing
August 2010

Prevalence of thrombophilias in patients presenting for bariatric surgery.

Obes Surg 2009 Sep 5;19(9):1278-85. Epub 2009 Jul 5.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 7081, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7081, USA.

Background: The rise in bariatric surgery has driven an increased number of complications from venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence supports obesity as an independent risk factor for VTE, but the specific derangements underlying the hypercoagulability of obesity are not well defined. To better characterize VTE risk for the purpose of tailoring prophylactic strategies, we developed a protocol for thrombophilia screening in patients presenting for bariatric surgery at our institution.

Methods: Between April 2004 and April 2006, 180 bariatric surgery candidates underwent serologic screening for inherited thrombophilias (Factor V-Leiden mutation, low Protein C activity, low Protein S activity, Free Protein S deficiency) and acquired thrombophilias (D-Dimer elevation, Fibrinogen elevation, elevation of coagulation factors VIII, IX, and XI, elevation of Lupus anticoagulants and homocysteine level, and Antithrombin III deficiency). Prevalence rate of each thrombophilia in the subject group was compared to the actual prevalence rate of the general population.

Results: Most plasma markers of both inherited and acquired thrombophilias were identified in higher than expected proportions, including D-Dimer elevation in 31%, Fibrinogen elevation in 40%, Factor VIII elevation in 50%, Factor IX elevation in 64%, Factor XI elevation in 50%, and Lupus anticoagulant in 13%.

Conclusions: Obesity is a well-described demographic risk factor for VTE. In bariatric surgery candidates routinely screened for serologic markers, both inherited and acquired thrombophilias occurred more frequently than in the general population, and may therefore prove to be useful for individualized VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-009-9906-7DOI Listing
September 2009

Risk-group targeted inferior vena cava filter placement in gastric bypass patients.

Obes Surg 2009 Apr 6;19(4):451-5. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7081, USA.

Background: Despite a growing body of evidence guiding appropriate perioperative thromboprophylaxis in the general population, few data direct strategies to reduce deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the morbidly obese. We have implemented a novel protocol for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk stratification in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) candidates at our institution, which augments clinical assessment with screening for thrombophilias, to guide retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter utilization.

Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from patients who underwent primary RYGB between 2001 and 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was completed. During that time, clinical assessment of VTE risk was amplified by focused plasma screening for common thrombophilias (factors VIII, IX, and XI, d-dimer, fibrinogen). Preoperative prophylactic IVC filters were offered to high-risk patients. The database was reviewed for perioperative DVTs, PEs, and filter-related complications.

Results: Of 330 patients, in 162 attempts, 160 had prophylactic IVC filters placed with four complications overall (2.47%). No patient had symptoms of PE during the planned 6-week filter period, though one had a PE occur immediately after filter removal (0.63%); in contrast, five of 170 patients (2.94%) without prophylactic IVC filters presented with symptomatic PE (p = 0.216). In total, 147 (91.88%) prophylactic filters were removed.

Conclusions: Risk-group targeted prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement prior to RYGB is safe with a trend towards reduced occurrence of PE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-008-9794-2DOI Listing
April 2009

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Surg Clin North Am 2008 Dec;88(6):1295-313, ix

Department of Surgery, University Campus, 55 Lake Avenue North, The University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has supplanted open cholecystectomy for most gallbladder pathology. Experience has allowed the development of now well-established technical nuances, and training has raised the level of performance so that safe LC is possible. If safe cholecystectomy cannot be performed because of acute inflammation, LC tube placement should occur. A systematic approach in every case to open a window beyond the triangle of Calot, well up onto the liver bed, is essential for the safe completion of the operation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2008.07.005DOI Listing
December 2008

The effect of external pneumatic compression on regional fibrinolysis in a prospective randomized trial.

J Vasc Surg 2002 Nov;36(5):953-8

Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, and the Office of Biostatistics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555, USA.

Introduction: External pneumatic compression devices (EPC) prevent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by reducing lower extremity venous stasis. Early studies suggested they also enhance fibrinolytic activity; however, in a recent study, EPC had no effect on systemic fibrinolysis in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The hypothesis of this study was that EPCs enhance regional fibrinolysis in these subjects.

Methods: Forty-five patients (44 male, one female; mean age, 67 years) undergoing major abdominal surgery (35 bowel procedures, 10 aortic reconstructions) were prospectively randomized to one of three groups for DVT prophylaxis: subcutaneous heparin injections (HEP), thigh-length sequential EPC devices (EPC), or both (HEP+EPC). Prophylaxis was begun immediately before surgical incision and continued until postoperative day 5 or patient discharge. Venous blood samples were collected from the common femoral vein for measurement of regional fibrinolysis after induction of anesthesia but before initiation of prophylaxis, and on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. A baseline sample was collected the day before surgery. Fibrinolysis was quantified with measurement of the activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; the activator of fibrinolysis) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with amidolytic technique.

Results: tPA activity in all groups was normal at baseline; baseline PAI-1 activity was elevated. Within each prophylaxis group, no significant changes occurred in either tPA or PAI-1 activities after induction of anesthesia or after surgery compared with before surgery (P >.05, analysis of variance with repeated measures). No changes occurred between postoperative samples and after anesthesia within each group. No significant enhancement of fibrinolysis, manifested as either increased tPA activity or decreased PAI-1 activity, occurred in either EPC group compared with the HEP group at any time point (P >.05, analysis of variance with repeated measures). No differences were noted when surgery was performed for malignant disease versus nonmalignant disease.

Conclusion: In this study, enhanced regional fibrinolysis in the lower extremities could not be detected with the use of EPCs, as measured with tPA and PAI-1 activity in common femoral venous blood samples. EPC devices do not appear to prevent DVT with fibrinolytic enhancement; effective and safe prophylaxis is provided only when the devices are used in a manner that reduces lower extremity venous stasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mva.2002.128938DOI Listing
November 2002

Jewish medical ethics: issues, sources, and the librarian's role.

Authors:
Mitchell A Cahan

Jud Librariansh 1986-1987;3(1-2):120-4

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 1991