Publications by authors named "Mirkuzie Woldie"

53 Publications

Effectiveness of Positive Deviance Approach to Promote Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 24;14:3483-3503. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Suboptimal breastfeeding (BF) contributes to a significant number of infant deaths. A positive deviance approach (PDA) was not studied in Ethiopia, whether it improve exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice. Therefore, we determined the effectiveness of positive deviant approached intervention in increasing the proportion of EBF practice.

Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was employed in Jimma town from February 01 to September 30, 2018. Six randomly selected clusters (kebeles) were randomized into two arms. Then, 260 mothers who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in either the intervention or control arm depending on where they lived. Women in the intervention group received counseling and social support in addition to the usual service to promote EBF, from women identified and trained as positive deviants in their community, while those in the control groups received the usual community-based services from urban health extension professionals. Data on primary and secondary outcome variables were collected at three points, and statistical difference was estimated using Chi- or Fisher exact test. The net effect of the intervention was calculated. The magnitude of the intervention effect was estimated using the relative risk. For all statistical tests, 95% CI with a P-value of <0.05 was used.

Results: The overall response rate at the endline was 98.8%. Exclusive BF was significantly different between the groups at mid and end points, while no difference at baseline. A higher proportion of mothers in the intervention group reported EBF compared to the control group at mid and end-line. The rate of EBF increased by 18.5% (P=0.01) in the intervention group while 0.2% in the counterparts, with a net effect of +18.2%. The probability of practicing EBF was significantly higher for the intervention group compared to the control group. At baseline, the relative risk of avoiding EBF (RR:1.112) was similar among the two groups. However, at follow-up, mothers in the intervention group were 2 times more likely to practice EBF (RR: 2.294) compared to those in the control group.

Conclusion And Recommendation: The PD approach is an effective intervention to promote EBF and also positively affected frequency and duration of BF. Therefore, we recommend the promotion and use of positive deviance approach as a strategy to improve EBF practice in urban settings.

Trial Registration Number: Clinical trial PACTR201805003379263, 23 May 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S324762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403074PMC
August 2021

Inequitable Utilization of Neonatal Health Services in Southwest Ethiopia: The Effects of Socioeconomic Disparities.

Inquiry 2021 Jan-Dec;58:469580211018290

Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Low levels of neonatal health services utilization and high neonatal deaths are often concentrated among socially and economically disadvantaged groups, especially in low-income countries. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess inequity in the use of neonatal health services in Southwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 districts located in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia from 19 March to 28 April 2018. A total of 835 mothers were included in the study with systematic random sampling. Principal component analysis was conducted to develop wealth quintiles of the households. Equity in neonatal health services was measured using rate-ratio, concentration curve, concentration index, and analyzed by binary logistic regression. Neonates from richer families were 1.25 times more likely to use neonatal health services than the poorer households with a concentration index value of 0.07. Neonates from highly educated mothers have better used the services and the corresponding concentration index value of 0.03. Neonatal service utilization was 1.32 times higher in the highest wealth quintile in rural settings. Similarly, services delivered at health posts and hospitals were used 2.4 and 2 times more by the wealthy, whereas services given at health centers are more utilized by the poorest. Outputs of binary logistic regression analysis indicated that neonates from middle quintile wealth households were found to be better neonatal health service users [AOR_1.72, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.82]. Neonate born from a secondary school attended mother [AOR_3.56, 95% CI: 1.90, 6.69] were more likely to use neonatal health services. Neonatal health service utilization in Southwest Ethiopia is more common among neonates from richer households and more educated mothers. There is a big difference among the wealthy and poorer in a rural setting and among those who used health posts. Working on the social-determinants of health will facilitate eliminating inequity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00469580211018290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142524PMC
October 2021

Expanding Maternity Waiting Homes as an Approach to Improve Institutional Delivery in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Case-Control Study.

Inquiry 2021 Jan-Dec;58:469580211018294

Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

With the promising efforts in increasing institutional delivery yet, maternal and child mortality is high in Ethiopia. One of the strategies used to minimize this problem was the introduction of Maternity Waiting Homes (MWH). MWHs are residential facilities for pregnant women near a qualified medical facility. The introduction of MWHs has improved institutional delivery in many countries. In Ethiopia however, the contribution of MWHs was rarely studied. To fill this gap, we have conducted a community-based unmatched case-control study from March 1 to April 20, 2016, in Southwestern Ethiopia. Mothers who delivered at a health facility within 1 year were considered as cases while mothers delivered at home were controls. We used simple random sampling to identify study participants from the pool of cases and controls who were identified by census. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Binary logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors. A total of 140 cases and 273 controls were included in the study. Among the case, 86 (61.4%) used MWHs during their last delivery. Variables like educational status of the mothers [AOR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41, 6.23], educational status of the husband [AOR = 5.19, 95% CI: 1.52, 17.76], and having antenatal care follow up [AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.59, 6.54]. This study remarks, accessing MWHs, creating better awareness in utilizing them, and practicing antenatal follow-up have a crucial role in improving institutional delivery. Therefore, strengthening the existing and establishing new MWHs to deliver quality services is a good strategy in reducing home delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00469580211018294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142013PMC
October 2021

Patient volume and quality of primary care in Ethiopia: findings from the routine health information system and the 2014 Service Provision Assessment survey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 22;21(1):485. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Several studies have reported inadequate levels of quality of care in the Ethiopian health system. Facility characteristics associated with better quality remain unclear. Understanding associations between patient volumes and quality of care could help organize service delivery and potentially improve patient outcomes.

Methods: Using data from the routine health management information system (HMIS) and the 2014 Ethiopian Service Provision Assessment survey + we assessed associations between daily total outpatient volumes and quality of services. Quality of care at the facility level was estimated as the average of five measures of provider knowledge (clinical vignettes on malaria and tuberculosis) and competence (observations of family planning, antenatal care and sick child care consultations). We used linear regression models adjusted for several facility-level confounders and region fixed effects with log-transformed patient volume fitted as a linear spline. We repeated analyses for the association between volume of antenatal care visits and quality.

Results: Our analysis included 424 facilities including 270 health centers, 45 primary hospitals and 109 general hospitals in Ethiopia. Quality was low across all facilities ranging from only 18 to 56% with a mean score of 38%. Outpatient volume varied from less than one patient per day to 581. We found a small but statistically significant association between volume and quality which appeared non-linear, with an inverted U-shape. Among facilities seeing less than 90.6 outpatients per day, quality increased with greater patient volumes. Among facilities seeing 90.6 or more outpatients per day, quality decreased with greater patient volumes. We found a similar association between volume and quality of antenatal care visits.

Conclusions: Health care utilization and quality must be improved throughout the health system in Ethiopia. Our results are suggestive of a potential U-shape association between volume and quality of primary care services. Understanding the links between volume of patients and quality of care may provide insights for organizing service delivery in Ethiopia and similar contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06524-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140434PMC
May 2021

Poor coverage and quality for poor women: Inequalities in quality antenatal care in nine East African countries.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jun;36(5):662-672

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

The use of quality antenatal care (ANC) improves maternal and newborn health outcomes. Ensuring equity in access to quality maternal health services is a priority agenda in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess inequalities in the use of quality ANC in nine East African countries using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. We used two outcome variables to examine ANC service adequacy: four or more ANC contacts and quality ANC. We defined quality ANC as having six of the recommended ANC components during follow-up: blood pressure measurement, urine sample test, blood sample test, provision of iron supplements, drug for intestinal parasite and tetanus toxoid injections. We used the concentration index (CCI) to examine inequalities within and across countries. We fitted a multilevel regression model to assess the predictors of inequalities in the contact and content of ANC. This study included 87 068 women; among those 54.4% (n = 47 387) had four or more ANC contacts, but only 21% (n = 15 759) reported receiving all six services. The coverage of four or more ANC and receipt of all six services was pro-rich within and across all countries. The highest inequality in four or more ANC contacts was in Ethiopia with a CCI of 0.209, while women in Burundi had the highest inequality in coverage of all six services (CCI: 0.318). Higher education levels and media exposure were predictors of service uptake, while women who had unintended pregnancies were less likely to make four or more ANC contacts and receive six services. Interventions to improve access to quality ANC require rethinking the service delivery mechanisms in all countries. Moreover, ensuring equity in access to quality ANC requires tailoring service delivery modalities to address the social determinants of service uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czaa192DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 in Oromia Region of Ethiopia: a review of the first 6 months' surveillance data.

BMJ Open 2021 03 29;11(3):e046764. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Fenot Project, Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Despite unrelenting efforts to contain its spread, COVID-19 is still causing unprecedented global crises. Ethiopia reported its first case on 13 March 2020 but has an accelerated case load and geographical distribution recently. In this article, we described the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Oromia Region, the largest and most populous region in Ethiopia, during the early months of the outbreak.

Methods: We analysed data from the COVID-19 surveillance database of the Oromia Regional Health Bureau. We included all reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed cases reported from the region between 13 March and 13 September 2020.

Results: COVID-19 was confirmed in 8955 (5.5%) of 164 206 tested individuals. The test positivity rate increased from an average of 1.0% in the first 3 months to 6.3% in August and September. About 70% (6230) of the cases were men; the mean age was 30.0 years (SD=13.3), and 90.5% were <50 years of age. Only 64 (0.7%) of the cases had symptoms at diagnosis. Cough was the most common among symptomatic cases reported in 48 (75.0%), while fever was the least. Overall, 4346 (48.5%) have recovered from the virus; and a total of 52 deaths were reported with a case fatality rate of 1.2%. However, we should interpret the reported case fatality rate cautiously since in 44 (84.6%) of those reported as COVID-19 death, the virus was detected from dead bodies.

Conclusion: Despite the steady increase in the number of reported COVID-19 cases, Ethiopia has so far avoided the feared catastrophe from the pandemic due to the milder and asymptomatic nature of the disease. However, with the current pattern of widespread community transmission, the danger posed by the pandemic remains real. Thus, the country should focus on averting COVID-19-related humanitarian crisis through strengthening COVID-19 surveillance and targeted testing for the most vulnerable groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008954PMC
March 2021

Significant inefficiency in running community health systems: The case of health posts in Southwest Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0246559. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Although much has been documented about the performance of the health extension program, there is a lack of information on how efficiently the program is running. Furthermore, the rising cost of health services and the absence of competition among publicly owned health facilities demands strong follow up of efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the technical efficiency of the health posts and determinants in Southwestern Ethiopia.

Methods And Materials: We used data for one Ethiopian fiscal year (from July 2016 to June 2017) to estimate the technical efficiency of health posts. A total of 66 health posts were included in the analysis. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis to estimate technical efficiency. At the first stage, technical efficiency scores were calculated using data envelopment analysis program version 2.1. Predictors of technical efficiency were then identified at the second stage using Tobit regression, with STATA version 14.

Results: The findings revealed that 21.2% were technically efficient with a mean technical efficiency score of 0.6 (± 0.3), indicating that health posts could increase their service volume by 36% with no change made to the inputs they received. On the other hand, health posts had an average scale efficiency score of 0.8 (± 0.2) implying that the facilities have the potential to increase service volume by 16% with the existing resources. The regression model has indicated average waiting time for service has negatively affected technical efficiency.

Conclusion: More than three-quarters of health posts were found inefficient. The technical efficiency score of more than one-third of the health posts is even less than 50%. Community mobilization to enhance the uptake of health services at the health posts coupled with a possible reallocation of resources in less efficient health posts is a possible approach to improve the efficiency of the program.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246559PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895414PMC
July 2021

Inequities in the Uptake of Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in the Biggest Regional State of Ethiopia: Too Far from "Leaving No One Behind".

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 20;12:595-607. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Institute of Health Science, Department of Public Health, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite improvement in the coverage of most maternal, newborn, and child health services, inequality in the uptake of services still remains the challenge of health systems in most developing countries. This study was conducted to examine the degree of inequities and potential predictors of inequity in reproductive and maternal health services utilization in the Oromia region, Ethiopia.

Methods: The 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data set was used. Utilization rate of four maternal health service categories (family planning, antenatal care, facility based delivery and postnatal care) was considered in the analysis. Equity in each of these indicators was assessed by residence (urban/rural), wealth index, and educational status. Inequality in service utilization was estimated using rate ratios, concentration curve, and concentration indices.

Results: Overall data of 5701 women were used in this analysis. The concentration index to all of the maternal health service utilization indicators showed significance. The concentration index of family planning, antenatal care, facility based delivery, and postnatal care was 0.136 (95% CI=0.099-0.173), 0.106 (95% CI=0.035-0.177), 0.348 (95% CI=0.279-0.418), and 0.348 (95% CI=0.279-0.418), respectively. Maternal age and all of the three socio-demographic factors (residence, education, and wealth) showed inequitable distribution of maternal health service utilization in the Oromia region. The majority of women who were in the favored groups utilized the key reproductive and maternal health services.

Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health services in the study area is grossly skewed to those who are well off, educated, and live in urban areas. Any action intended to improve utilization of maternal and child health services should aim to reduce the unnecessary and avoidable disparity demonstrated in our analysis. This of course demands multisectoral intervention to impact on the determinants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S269955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585815PMC
October 2020

Quality of clinical assessment and management of sick children by Health Extension Workers in four regions of Ethiopia: A cross-sectional survey.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(9):e0239361. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Care-seeking for sick children at the Ethiopian primary health care level is low. This problem may partly be due to unfavorable community perceptions of the quality of care provided. There is, however, limited knowledge on the quality of the clinical assessment and management provided by the health extension workers at the health posts. This study aimed to examine the quality of clinical assessment, classification and management provided to sick under-five children by health extension workers in four regions of Ethiopia.

Methods: Clinical observations of 620 consultations of sick children by health extension workers were conducted from December 2016 to February 2017. A clinical pathway analysis was performed to analyze whether sick children were appropriately assessed, classified and managed according to the integrated Community Case Management guidelines.

Results: Most sick children presented with complaints of cough (58%), diarrhea (36%), and fever (26%).Three quarters of children with respiratory complaints had their respiratory rate counted (74%, 95% CI 69-78), while a third (33%, 95% CI 27-40) of children with diarrhea were assessed for dehydration. Half (53%, 95% CI 49-57) of the sick children were assessed for general danger signs, while a majority (89%, 95% CI 86-92) had their arm circumference measured for malnutrition. Half of the sick children received some treatment and less than one-fifth were referred according to the integrated Community Case management guidelines. Comprehensive counseling was provided to 38% (95% CI 35-42) of the caregivers.

Conclusion: The Ethiopian health extension workers' clinical assessment, classification and management of sick children did to a large extent not follow the clinical guidelines. This lack of adherence could lead to misdiagnoses and lack of potentially life-saving treatments.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239361PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518593PMC
November 2020

Areas of Potential Improvement for Hospitals' Patient-Safety Culture in Western Ethiopia.

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 2020 5;12:113-123. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.

Background: Patient-safety culture is an important component of health-care quality and currentlyan issue of high concern globally. In Ethiopia, little is known about patient-safety culture in hospitals. We assessed the patient-safety culture and associated factors among health-care workers in public hospitals of East Wollega Zone, western Ethiopia.

Methods: This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 421 health-care workers selected using simple random sampling from March 4 to March 29, 2019. A standardized measuring 12 patient safety-culture components was used for data collection. Data were cleaned and entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analysis done using SPSS version 25 (IBM). Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. Significance was set at 95% CI and <0.05, and unstandardized β-coefficients were used to measure extent of association.

Results: This study revealed that the level of patient-safety culture was 49.2% and patient safety culture-component scores ranged from 29.2% for nonpunitive responses to error to 77.9% for teamwork within a hospital unit. Age ≥45 years (=13.642, CI: 5.324-21.959; =0.001), 1-5 years' experience at the current hospital (=5.559, 95% CI 2.075-9.042; =0.002), and working in general hospitals (=11.988, 95% CI 7.233-16.743; <0.001) and primary hospitals (=6.408, 95% CI 2.192-10.624; =0.003) were factors associated with better scores on patient-safety culture.

Conclusion: Overall scores for patient-safety culture were low. Improving the current state of patient safety in public hospitals would require tailored interventions to address low-scoring components, such as nonpunitive responses to error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S254949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425101PMC
August 2020

The effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in preventing severe infectious respiratory diseases other than TB: Implications for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vaccine 2020 09 10;38(41):6374-6380. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Fenot Project, Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The rapid spread of the Coronavirus pandemic and its significant health and social impact urges the search for effective and readily available solutions to mitigate the damages. Thus, evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines like Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has attracted attention. The aim of this review was evidence synthesis on the effect of BCG vaccine in preventing severe infectious respiratory disease including COVD-19, but not tuberculosis. We considered studies conducted on human participants of any study design from any country setting that were published in Enlgish. We did a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, Scopus and Google scholar databases and a free search on Google. The identified studies were appraised and relevant data were extracted using Joanna Briggs Institute tools. The extracted findings were synthesized with tables and narrative summary. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicated that BCG vaccine has a strong protective effect against both upper and lower acute respiratory tract infections. For instance in countries with universal BCG vaccination policy, the incidence of COVID-19 was lower compared to the counterparts. Addtionally, BCG vaccine was found to protect against infections like lethal influenza A virus, pandemic influenza (H1N1), and other acute respiratory tract infections. BCG improved the human body's immune response involving antigen-specific T cells and memory cells. It also induced adaptive functional reprogramming of mononuclear phagocytes that induce protective effects against different respiratory infections other than tuberculosis. In countries with universal BCG vaccination, the incidence and death from acute respiratory viral infection including COVID - 19 is significantly low. However, there is an urgent need for further evidence from well-designed studies to understand the possible role of BCG vaccination over time and across age groups, its possible benefits in special populations such as health workers and cost-savings related to a policy of universal BCG vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.08.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416741PMC
September 2020

Utilization of routine health information and associated factors among health workers in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0233092. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Public Health College of Health Science and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

Background: The utilization of routine health information is an essential factor of the structural capacity of health departments and public health performance depends on the effectiveness of information use for routine and programed decisions. Considerable research has been conducted in health data collection and ways to improve data quality, but little is known about utilization of routine health information among health workers in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess level of utilization of routine health information and associated factors among health workers in Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2019.

Methods And Materials: Facility-based cross-sectional study design with both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was employed at the Hadiya zone from March 10-25, 2019. A total of 480 health workers were included in the study and systematic random sampling was employed to select the health care workers in the study. The results were analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. Finally, the binary logistic regression was used to examine independent predictors.

Result: Good level of utilization of routine health information was reported by 301 (62.7%, 95% CI: 58.5%-66.9%) of the health workers. Training [AOR = 8.12; 95% CI: (4.33-15.23)], supportive supervision [AOR = 2.34; 95% CI:(1.40-3.92)], good perceived culture of health information [AOR = 5.05; 95% CI: (2.99-8.50], having a standard set of indicators (AOR = 2.05 95%; CI: (1.23-3.41) and competence on routine health information tasks [AOR = 5.85; 95% CI: (3.41-10.02)] were independent predictors.

Conclusion: Good level of utilization of routine health information was noted in less than two-third of the study participants. Further training, supportive supervision, perceived culture of health information, having standard set of indicators and competence on routine health information task were factors that improve routine health information utilization.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233092PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241741PMC
August 2020

Perceived organizational culture and its relationship with job satisfaction in primary hospitals of Jimma zone and Jimma town administration, correlational study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 19;20(1):438. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia.

Background: The concept of Organizational Culture (OC) which refers to the pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions may not be articulated through verbal language. However, it shapes the way people behave and the way things get done in an organization. The management of organizational culture is increasingly viewed as necessary part of health system reform. Major cultural transformation of an organization must be secured alongside structural and procedural changes in order to achieve desired quality and performances improvements in health systems. It is therefore essential to understand organizational culture, job satisfaction level of the health workers and the link between them.

Methodology: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted in four primary hospitals of Jimma zone and town administration. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The collected data were checked for completeness, entered and documented into Epi-data version 3.1 and Exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Finally descriptive statistics, Paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction and the results were presented using tables and charts.

Result: It was indicated from the finding that, the dominant existing organizational culture typology in the primary hospitals was Hierarchy culture (MS = 22.31, ±2.82).and the preferred organizational culture typology was Innovative culture (MS = 26.09, ±4.72). The health workers had low to medium level of job satisfaction where only (29.40%) of the health workers were very satisfied with their hospital physical working environment. Existing perceived clan culture had positive and significant correlation with health workers' satisfaction in relation to work relation dimension (r = .16, p < 0.002).

Conclusion: while acknowledging all limitation of observational study we reached to the conclusion that an employees of the respective primary hospitals would prefer to work in environment characterized by innovative and clan culture and their satisfaction level is medium so that the managers should undertake major cultural transformation and must work to improve the job satisfaction level of health workers within their respective hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05319-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236334PMC
May 2020

Identification of relevant performance indicators for district healthcare systems in Ethiopia: a systematic review and expert opinion.

Int J Qual Health Care 2020 May;32(3):161-172

Institute for Medical Data Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Marchioninistr. 17, D-81377 München, Germany.

Purpose: To identify potential performance indicators relevant for district healthcare systems of Ethiopia.

Data Sources: Public Library of Medicine and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality of the United States of America, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Library and Google Scholar were searched.

Study Selection: Expert opinions, policy documents, literature reviews, process evaluations and observational studies published between 1990 and 2015 were considered for inclusion. Participants were national- and local-healthcare systems. The phenomenon of interest was the performance of healthcare systems. The Joanna Briggs Institute tools were adapted and used for critical appraisal of records.

Data Extraction: Indicators of performance were extracted from included records and summarized in a narrative form. Then, experts rated the relevance of the indicators. Relevance of an indicator is its agreement with priority health objectives at the national and district level in Ethiopia.

Results Of Data Synthesis: A total of 11 206 titles were identified. Finally, 22 full text records were qualitatively synthesized. Experts rated 39 out of 152 (25.7%) performance indicators identified from the literature to be relevant for district healthcare systems in Ethiopia. For example, access to primary healthcare, tuberculosis (TB) treatment rate and infant mortality rate were found to be relevant.

Conclusion: Decision-makers in Ethiopia and potentially in other low-income countries can use multiple relevant indicators to measure the performance of district healthcare systems. Further research is needed to test the validity of the indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzaa012DOI Listing
May 2020

Poor nutrition for under-five children from poor households in Ethiopia: Evidence from 2016 Demographic and Health Survey.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(12):e0225996. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Jimma University; Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Ethiopia is commonly affected by drought and famine, and this has taken quite a toll on citizens of the country, particularly the under-five children. Undernutrition among under-five children in Ethiopia is a prominent public health concern, and it lacked attention for decades. However, the government of Ethiopia, together with other stakeholders, committed to overcoming the impact of malnutrition through the transformational plan. Here we show the magnitude of undernutrition among under-five children and the factors predicting the achievement of global nutrition targets set for 2025 at the World Health Assembly.

Methods: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016 was used for this study. A total of 9494 child-mother pairs were included in this analysis. The nutritional status indicators (Height-for-age, Weight-for-height and Weight-for-age) of children were measured and categorized based on the World Health Organization child growth standards. A multilevel logistic regression model adjusted for clusters and sampling weights were used to identify factors associated with stunting, underweight, and wasting. The independent variables were assessed by calculating the odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Result: The prevalence of stunting was 38.3% (95% CI: 36.4% to 40.2%), under-weight 23.3% (95%CI: 21.9% to 24.9%) and wasting 10.1% (95%, CI: 9.1% to 11.2%). Sex of the child (male), children older than 24 months, recent experience of diarrhea, household wealth index (poorest), and administrative regions (Tigray, Amhara and developing regions) had a higher risk of undernutrition. On the other hand, children born from overweight mothers and educated mother (primary, secondary or higher) had a lower risk of undernutrition.

Conclusion: The burden of undernutrition is still considerably high in Ethiopia. Implimentation of strategies and policies that focus on improving the socioeconomic educatiional status of the community need to be sustained. Generally, actions targeted on factors contributing to undernutrition among under-five children demands immediate attention to achieve national and global nutrition target.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225996PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924648PMC
March 2020

How Effective are Mentoring Programs for Improving Health Worker Competence and Institutional Performance in Africa? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Evidence.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2019 5;12:989-1005. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Ethiopian Evidence Based Healthcare: JBI Center of Excellence, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Mentoring programs are frequently recommended as innovative and low-cost solutions, and these have been implemented in many healthcare institutions to tackle multiple human resource-related challenges. This review sought to locate, appraise and describe the literature reporting on mentorship programs that were designed to improve healthcare worker competence and institutional performance in Africa.

Methods: This review searched and synthesized reports from studies that assessed the effectiveness of mentorship programs among healthcare workers in Africa. We searched for studies reported in the English language in EMBASE, CINAHL, COCHRANE and MEDLINE. Additional search was conducted in Google Scholar.

Results: We included 30 papers reporting on 24 studies. Diverse approaches of mentorship were reported: a) placing a mentor in health facility for a period of time (embedded mentor), b) visits by a mobile mentor, c) a mentoring approach involving a team of mobile multidisciplinary mentors, d) facility twinning, and e) within-facility mentorship by a focal person or a manager.

Implication For Practice: Mentoring interventions were effective in improving the clinical management of infectious diseases, maternal, neonatal and childhood illnesses. Mentoring interventions were also found to improve managerial performance (accounting, human resources, monitoring and evaluation, and transportation management) of health institutions. Additionally, mentoring had improved laboratory accreditation scores. Mentoring interventions may be used to increase adherence of health professionals to guidelines, standards, and protocols. While different types of interventions (embedded mentoring, visits by mobile mentors, facility twinning and within-facility mentorship by a focal person) were reported to be effective, there is no evidence to recommend one model of mentoring over other types of mentoring.

Implications For Research: Further research-experimental methods measuring the impact of different mentoring formats and longitudinal studies establishing their long-term effectiveness-is required to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of mentoring. Further studies are needed to explore why and how different mentoring programs succeed and the meaningfulness of mentoring programs for the different stakeholders are also required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S228951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901118PMC
December 2019

Technical efficiency of neonatal health services in primary health care facilities of Southwest Ethiopia: a two-stage data envelopment analysis.

Health Econ Rev 2019 Oct 27;9(1):27. Epub 2019 Oct 27.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Disparity in resource allocation is an issue among various health delivery units in Ethiopia. To sufficiently address this problem decision-makers require evidence on efficient allocation of resources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the technical efficiency of primary health care units providing neonatal health services in Southwest Ethiopia.

Methods: Two-stage data envelopment analysis was conducted based on one-year (2016/17) data from 68 health posts and 23 health centers in Southwest Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from each of the facility, respective district health offices and finance and economic cooperation offices. Technical efficiency scores were calculated using data envelopment analysis software version 2.1. Tobit regression was then applied to identify determinants of technical efficiency. STATA version 14 was used in the regression model and for descriptive statistics.

Results: By utilizing the best combination of inputs, eight health posts (11.76%) and eight health centers (34.78%) were found to be technically efficient in delivering neonatal health services. Compared with others included in the analysis, inefficient health delivery units were using more human and non-salary recurrent resources. The regression model indicated that there was a positive association between efficiency and the health center head's years of experience and the facility's catchment population. Waiting time at the health posts was found to negatively affect efficiency.

Conclusions: Most of health posts and the majority of health centers were found to be technically inefficient in delivering neonatal health services. This indicates issues with the performance of these facilities with regards to the utilization of inputs to produce the current outputs. The existing resources could be used to serve additional neonates in the facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13561-019-0245-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815357PMC
October 2019

Birth outcomes of singleton term breech deliveries in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Jul 17;12(1):428. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Independent Public Health Consultant, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Objective: Breech delivery is generally associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality than cephalic presentation. Hence describing the outcomes of singleton term breech deliveries in Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), Southwest Ethiopia addresses in recommendation of improving perinatal outcomes and developing protocols in selecting eligible women.

Results: The incidence of singleton term breech delivery was 5.3%. Majority, (52.8%) of them had undergone emergency cesarean delivery (C/D), and 38.9% had vaginal breech delivery. There were 14 (13.9%) intrapartum fetal deaths of whom 5.6% were recorded at JUMC. A quarter (25%) of the neonates required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit; 40.7% had perinatal asphyxia, and there were 3 early onset neonatal deaths making up a perinatal mortality rate of 157.4 per 1000 breech births. The incidence of breech delivery was relatively high. Vaginal breech delivery was lower. Significant proportions of adverse perinatal outcomes were recorded. Introduction of a protocol for managing breech deliveries to select eligible women for trial of breech delivery and strengthen training of junior health professionals regularly on how to conduct assisted vaginal breech delivery to improve perinatal outcome is recommended. Further studies to identify determinants of perinatal outcomes is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4442-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637559PMC
July 2019

Disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Western Ethiopia: Should women continue to tolerate?

PLoS One 2019 7;14(6):e0217126. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Public Health, Wollega University; Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Background: Healthcare coverage in Ethiopia has improved dramatically in recent decades. However, facility-based delivery remains persistently low, while maternal mortality remains high. This paper presents the prevalence and associated factors of disrespect and abuse (D&A) during childbirth in public health facilities of western Oromia, Ethiopia.

Method: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 612 women from February 2017 to May 2017. Exit interview with the mothers were conducted upon discharge from the maternity ward. We measured D&A during childbirth using seven dimensions. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the association between experience of D&A and client characteristics and institutional factors.

Result: Three quarters (74.8%) of women reported experiencing at least one form of D&A during their facility childbirth. The types of D&A experienced by the women were; physical abuse (37.1%), non-dignified care (34.6%), non-consented care (54.1%), non-confidential care (40.4%), neglect (25.2%), detention (2.9%), and discrimination (13.2%). Experiences of D&A were 1.6 times more likely to be reported by women delivering at hospitals than health centers (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.66). Women without a companion throughout their delivery were almost 10 times more likely than women who had a companion to encounter D&A (OR: 9.94, 95% CI: 5.72, 17.28). On the other hand, women with more than 1,368-birr (USD 57) monthly income were less likely to experience any type of D&A (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: .21, .65).

Conclusion: Three in four women reported experiencing at least one form of D&A during labor and delivery. This demonstrates a real disconnect between what the health system intends to achieve and what is practiced and calls for fundamental solutions in terms of both improving quality of facility-based delivery and ensuring women's right to receive health care with dignity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217126PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555589PMC
February 2020

Time for action: Intimate partner violence troubles one third of Ethiopian women.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0216962. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Intimate partner violence is a major challenges faced by women especially in developing world. Its consequences range from personal health problems up to countrywide loss of productivity and poverty. There is limited empirical evidence documenting intimate partner violence and underlying reasons in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of intimate partner violence and associated factors in Ethiopia.

Methods: We analyzed the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. About 2,750 women aged 15-49 years were included in the survey. Intimate partner violence was measured in three dimensions: physical, emotional and sexual violence. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors. Variables with p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with dimensions of violence. All analysis were adjusted for clusters and sample weights.

Results: Overall 32.5% of Ethiopian women experienced at least one type of intimate partner violence. Physical and emotional violence were each experienced by 22.5% of the women, while 9.6% of the study participants encountered sexual violence. The age difference between a woman and her intimate partner has a positive effect on emotional and sexual violence while the opposite is true for physical violence. Moreover, physical violence was significantly associated with place of residence, and husband education. Both emotional and sexual violence were predicted by wealth of the household and husband's employment status. In addition to these, lower educational status of the partner affects emotional violence positively.

Conclusion: Substantial proportion of women in Ethiopia continue to suffer from intimate partner violence. Physical and emotional violence were much more common than sexual violence. In the light of determinants, we have reported in here, we recommend empowering women in all realm of life by improving their socio-economic status with focus to their educational and economic status.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216962PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522024PMC
February 2020

Exploration of facilitators and barriers to the implementation of a guideline to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination in the Ethiopian healthcare settings: A descriptive qualitative study.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(5):e0216887. Epub 2019 May 13.

The Joanna Briggs Institute, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: The barriers to uptake of guidelines underscore the importance of going beyound the mere synthesis of evidence to tailoring the synthesized evidence into local contexts and situations. This requires in-depth exploration of local factors. This project aimed to assess contextual barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a guideline developed to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) in the Ethiopian healthcare setting.

Methods: A descriptive qualitative research study was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) framework. The interview was conducted among a purposive sample of seven key informants from Jimma University and Jimma Zone HIV Prevention and Control Office. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using Atlas ti version 7.5 software packages.

Results: Guideline attributes, provider-related factors and organizational and practice-related were identified as factors that can potentially affect the implementation of the guideline. The presence of expert patients were identified as agents for guideline implementation, whilst regular health education programs in addition to initiatives related to service quality improvement, were identified as suitable platforms to assist with the implementation of this guideline. Study participants recommended that the guideline should be disseminated through multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings, gate keepers such as opinion leaders and unit heads, one-to-five networks and mentorship programs, as well as training, workshops and posters. The current study also indicated that continuous monitoring, evaluation and mentorship are critical elements in the integration of the guideline into the system of the hospital.

Conclusions: This study identified that guideline implementation can make use of existing structures and pathways such as MDT meetings, service quality improvement initiatives, one-to-five networks, training and workshops. Teamwork and partnership with stakeholders should be strengthened to strengthen facilitators and tackle barriers related to the implementation of the guideline. Effective implementation of the guideline also requires establishing an implementation structure. Moreover, indicators developed to track the implementation of stigma reduction guideline should be integrated into mentorship, MDT meetings and evaluation programs of the hospital to improve performance and to assist data collection on implementation experiences.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216887PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513051PMC
January 2020

Technical Efficiency of Maternal and Reproductive Health Services in Public Hospitals of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

Health Serv Insights 2019 10;12:1178632919837630. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

As the Ethiopian health system faced critical resource constraints, wise use of the available health resources is a priority agenda. Therefore, our study aimed to assess technical efficiency of maternal and reproductive health services in public hospitals of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Two-stage data envelopment analysis was performed among 14 hospitals with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumptions. Technical efficiency scores were computed at the first stage, and predictors were determined using Tobit regression at the second stage. The assessment revealed that 12 (85.7%) hospitals were pure technical efficient and 9 (64.29%) hospitals were scale efficient. Level (primary/general) (β = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16-2.18), service years (β = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.003-0.03), and size of catchment population (β = 5.58E-07, 95% CI = 2.95E-08 to 1.09E-06) were positively associated with technical efficiency of maternal and reproductive health service, whereas average waiting time for maternal health service (β = -0.03, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.01) was negatively associated with efficiency. In conclusion, most of the hospitals were technically efficient and around two-thirds were operating scale efficient. Allocation of more resources to older secondary hospitals with larger catchment population could result in more efficient use of resources for maternal and reproductive health service delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178632919837630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458666PMC
April 2019

Reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination in healthcare settings: A systematic review of quantitative evidence.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0211298. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

The Joanna Briggs Institute, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Introduction: Stigma and discrimination (SAD) related to HIV compromise access and adherence to treatment and support programs among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The ambitious goal of ending the epidemic of HIV by 2030 set by the United Nations Joint Program of HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) will thus only be achieved if HIV-related stigma and discrimination are reduced. The objective of this review was to locate, appraise and describe international literature reporting on interventions that addressed HIV-related SAD in healthcare settings.

Methods: The databases searched were: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica Database from Elsevier (EMBASE), PubMed and Psychological Information (PsycINFO) database. Two individuals independently appraised the quality of the papers using appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI. Quality of evidence for major outcomes was assessed using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).

Results: We retained 14 records reporting on eight studies. Five categories of SAD reduction (information-based, skills building, structural, contact-based and biomedical interventions) were identified. Training popular opinion leaders (POLs) resulted in significantly lower mean avoidance intent scores (MD = -1.87 [95% CI -2.05 to -1.69]), mean prejudicial attitude scores (MD = -3.77 [95% CI -5.4 to -2.09]) and significantly higher scores in mean compliance to universal precaution (MD = 1.65 [95% CI 1.41 to 1.89]) when compared to usual care (moderate quality evidence). The Summary of Findings table (SOF) is shown in Table 1.

Conclusions: Evidence of moderate quality indicates that training popular opinion leaders is effective in reducing avoidance intent and prejudicial attitude and improving compliance to universal precaution. Very low quality evidence indicates that professionally-assisted peer group interventions, modular interactive training, participatory self-guided assessment and intervention, contact strategy combined with information giving and empowerment are effective in reducing HIV-related stigma.Further Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are needed. Future trials need to use up-to-date and validated instruments to measure stigma and discrimination.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211298PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347272PMC
October 2019

Level and Factors Associated with Professional Commitment of Health Professionals Providing Institutional Delivery Services in Public Health Facilities, Southwest Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2018 Jul;28(4):495-504

Department of Health Economics, Management, and Policy, Faculty of public health, Institute of health,Jimma University, Ethiopia.

Background: Professional commitment is beyond a commitment for a particular organization and implies the individuals' perspective towards their profession and the motivation that they have to stay in their job with willingness to strive and uphold the values and goals of the profession. In Ethiopia, uptake of institutional delivery services is low. However, the level and factors associated with professional commitment is not known so far. Hence, our objective is to assess the level and factors associated with commitment of health professionals providing institutional delivery services in public health facilities of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 01-20, 2016. A total of 442 eligible health professionals were included from randomly selected 7 districts and 47 respective health facilities. Health professionals were requested to fill self-administered questionnaire. After checking its completeness, the data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for statistical analysis. Factor analysis was conducted. Simple and multiple linear regression were done using 95%CI and significance was declared at P<0.05. All assumptions of linear regression and principal component analysis were checked.

Results: The percentage mean score of professional commitment was 72.71% (SD21.88). The percentage mean score for perceived maternal health goal scale was 68.37% with the total variance explained being 69.68%. Perceived staff interaction, work-life balance, affective organizational commitment, normative organizational commitment, personal characteristics and perceived maternal health goal were independent predictors of professional commitment.

Conclusion: The percentages mean score of professional commitment was medium. Hence, Health professionals should foster their level of professional commitment to increase uptake of institutional delivery services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i4.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308734PMC
July 2018

Community health volunteers could help improve access to and use of essential health services by communities in LMICs: an umbrella review.

Health Policy Plan 2018 Dec;33(10):1128-1143

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

A number of primary studies and systematic reviews focused on the contribution of community health workers (CHWs) in the delivery of essential health services. In many countries, a cadre of informal health workers also provide services on a volunteer basis [community health volunteers (CHV)], but there has been no synthesis of studies investigating their role and potential contribution across a range of health conditions; most existing studies are narrowly focused on a single condition. As this cadre grows in importance, there is a need to examine the evidence on whether and how CHVs can improve access to and use of essential health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report an umbrella review of systematic reviews, searching PubMed, the Cochrane library, the database of abstracts of reviews of effects (DARE), EMBASE, ProQuest dissertation and theses, the Campbell library and DOPHER. We considered a review as 'systematic' if it had an explicit search strategy with qualitative or quantitative summaries of data. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal assessment checklist to assess methodological quality. A data extraction format prepared a priori was used to extract data. Findings were synthesized narratively. Of 422 records initially found by the search strategy, we identified 39 systematic reviews eligible for inclusion. Most concluded that services provided by CHVs were not inferior to those provided by other health workers, and sometimes better. However, CHVs performed less well in more complex tasks such as diagnosis and counselling. Their performance could be strengthened by regular supportive supervision, in-service training and adequate logistical support, as well as a high level of community ownership. The use of CHVs in the delivery of selected health services for population groups with limited access, particularly in LMICs, appears promising. However, success requires careful implementation, strong policy backing and continual support by their managers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czy094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415721PMC
December 2018

Are we too far from being client centered?

PLoS One 2018 15;13(10):e0205681. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Quality of service provision in health facilities is fundamental to ensure effective care. However, women's actual experience of care is often neglected.

Objective: To assess perceived quality of institutional delivery services and associated factors among women who delivered in public health facilities of Southwest Ethiopia.

Method: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia, from February 29 to March 20, 2016. A total of 423 mothers who delivered in public health facilities during the last 12 months were selected to participate in the study. Study participants were identified using simple random sampling procedure. Principal component analysis was used to generate scores for three sub-dimensions of perceived quality. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of these sub-dimensions.

Results: Perceived quality of institutional delivery services was measured with three dimensions: perceived interpersonal interaction, health care delivery and health facility/structure. We found that perceived quality of interpersonal interaction was negatively affected by educational level (read and write) (β: -0.331, 95% CI: -0.523, -0.140), urban residence (β: -0.485, 95% CI: -0.696, -0.275), antenatal care (less than three visits) (β: -0.238, 95% CI: -0.419,-0.056) and delivery service attended by male provider (β: -1.286, 95% CI: -1.463,-1.109). Perceived quality of health care delivery was negatively associated with still birth (β: -0.642, 95% CI: -1.092,-0.193) and delivery services attended by male provider (β: -0.689, 95% CI: -0.907,-0.472). Urban residence (β: -0.260, 95% CI: -0.515,-0.005), and antenatal care (less than three visits) (β: -0.394, 95% CI: -0.628,-0.161) were negatively associated with perceived quality of health facility/structure.

Conclusion: Overall, the perceived quality of institutional delivery services was low. We recommend that health managers and health care providers jointly work to transform birth care at the health facilities to deliver person-centered care. Addressing the preferences of clients is as important as taking care of structural concerns pinpointed in this study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205681PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188795PMC
April 2019

Reducing HIV-related stigma and discrimination in healthcare settings: a systematic review of guidelines, tools, standards of practice, best practices, consensus statements and systematic reviews.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2018 28;11:405-416. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

School of Public Health, The Joanna Briggs Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia,

Introduction: Policy makers and health professionals prefer to use preappraised and summarized evidence. Stigma and discrimination (SAD) reduction activities and programs are needed to improve the quality of care delivered to people living with HIV and the success of HIV-related prevention, care and treatment programs. The objective of this review was to identify and describe systematic reviews, best practices, consensus statements, standards of practice and guidelines that addressed SAD among healthcare workers (HCWs).

Methods: All documents in the form of systematic reviews, best practices, consensus statements, standards of practice and guidelines were considered for inclusion. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies reported in English with unlimited date range in Excerpta Medica Database from Elsevier (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Psychological Information (PsycINFO) database and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). Websites of organizations and guideline databases were also searched. Two individuals independently appraised the quality of the documents using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) checklist and the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews. Data extraction was done using a customized tool that was developed to record the key information of the source that is relevant to the review question.

Results: Twelve records (six guideline-related documents and six systematic reviews) were included in the review. Interventions and recommendations developed to reduce HIV-related SAD were categorized into information-based, structural, biomedical, counseling and support, skills building and contact interventions.

Conclusion: Implications for practice: Interventions that reduce HIV-related SAD are broadly categorized into information-based, structural, biomedical, counseling and support, skills building and contact interventions. Because of limited methodological description of the included documents, it was difficult to draw recommendations for policy and practice. Future studies need to use up-to-date instruments to measure SAD. Further studies of greater methodological quality are needed. Guidelines, tools and best practice documents that aim to reduce HIV-related SAD should be developed with the considerations of research evidence on the specific setting and specific targeted populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S170720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6118284PMC
August 2018

Evaluation of a guideline developed to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination in healthcare settings and establishing consensus.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(7):e0198781. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

The Joanna Briggs Institute, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Developing guidelines and policies is critical to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) in healthcare settings. To this end, a multidisciplinary panel developed a guideline to reduce SAD. This project evaluated the appropriateness of implementing the guideline in the Ethiopian context.

Methods: A consensus of the expert panel was established through a modified Delphi technique which was followed by a panel meeting. Initial tentative recommendations were distributed to experts through e-mails to be evaluated using the modified guideline implementability appraisal (GLIA) v.2.0 checklist.

Results: In the first round of the Delphi survey, all (13) panel members evaluated the guideline. The overall score for the general domain of the modified GLIA checklist was 96.56%. The scores for individual recommendations ranged from 68.33% to 92.76%. Maximum and minimum scores were attained for measurability (97.71%) and flexibility (59.77%) domains respectively. Percentages mean score lower than 75% was obtained for flexibility and validity domains. Participants suggested that additional tools and training should be added to the guideline. In the second round of the survey, all the recommendations received endorsement with scores above 75%. Maximum and minimum scores were attained for measurability (100%) and flexibility (86.88%) domains respectively. During the panel meeting, issues of responsibility for implementing the guideline were discussed.

Conclusion: The project evaluated implementability of a guideline developed to reduce HIV-related SAD in healthcare settings. The Delphi survey was followed by a half-day meeting that helped in further clarification of points.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198781PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063398PMC
December 2018

Technical efficiency of public health centers in three districts in Ethiopia: two-stage data envelopment analysis.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Jul 13;11(1):465. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of the study was to measure technical and scale efficiency of public health centers in three districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. A two-stage data envelopment analysis was used. First, we estimated technical and scale efficiency of the health centers. In the second stage, institutional and environmental factors were against technical efficiency of the health centers to identify factors associated to efficiency of the health centers.

Results: Eight out of the 16 health centers in the study were found to be technically efficient, with an average score of 90% (standard deviation = 17%). This indicates that on average they could have reduce their utilization of all inputs by about 10% without reducing output. On the other hand, 8 out of 16 health centers were found to be scale efficient, with an average scale efficiency score of 94% (standard deviation = 9%). The inefficient health centers had an average scale score of 89%; implying there is potential for increasing total outputs by about 11% using the existing capacity/size. Catchment population and number of clinical staff were found to be directly associated with efficiency, while the number of nonclinical staff was found to be inversely associated with efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3580-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044096PMC
July 2018
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