Publications by authors named "Mirko Dolci"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pediatric Trauma: Six Years of Experience in a Swiss Trauma Center.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Dec 13. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Pediatric Anesthesia Unit, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide an internationally comparable overview of pediatric trauma of the University Hospital of Lausanne to improve the care of children.

Methods: We analyzed the data from all injured children (<16 years of age) listed in our trauma registry from 2011 to 2016. These children were admitted to the resuscitation room after prehospital triage. Our data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: We included 327 children. Sixty-three percent were male, and the median age was 8 years. Severe trauma (Injury Severity Score (ISS), >15) occurred in 97 children. The principal mechanisms of injury were falls (45%), traffic accidents (29%), and burns (14%). The most frequently affected areas were the head and external body regions. Intensive care admissions amounted to 27%. Twenty percent of patients underwent immediate surgery (wound care, neurosurgery, and orthopedic surgery). The overall mortality rate was 5.5%, with a median ISS of 9. The mortality of severe trauma was 17.5%, with a median ISS of 22. Half of the children died within 6 hours. The main causes of death were falls from greater than 5 m and traffic accidents as pedestrians.

Conclusions: The demographics and patterns of injury in the pediatric trauma population are similar to other European pediatric trauma centers, but the mortality and the severity of injuries can vary (United Kingdom, 3.7%, median ISS of 9; Denmark, 7.3%, median ISS of 9; and Germany, 13.4%, median ISS of 25). The elevated early mortality rate suggests that improvements in prehospital care and early resuscitation could decrease mortality.
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December 2019

Perioperative care of children with sickle cell disease: A systematic review and clinical recommendations.

Am J Hematol 2020 01 2;95(1):78-96. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit, Division of Pediatrics, Department "Woman-Mother-Child", Lausanne University Hospital and Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) require specific perioperative care, and clinical practice in this area remains poorly defined. We aimed to conduct a systematic, PRISMA-based review of the literature, available clinical guidelines and practice recommendations. We also aimed to extract any valuable information for the "best of available-evidence"-based prevention of perioperative adverse events in children with SCD, and highlight the most urgent priorities in clinical research. As data sources, US National Library of Medicine, Medline, National Guideline Clearinghouse, International Guideline Network, TRIP databases were searched for any content until January 2019. We also included institutional, consortia and expert group guidelines. Included were reports/guidelines in English, French, German, and Italian. Excluded were reports on obstetrical and fetal management. We identified 202 reports/guidelines fulfilling the criteria outlined above. A majority focused on visceral, cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery procedures, and only five were multicenter randomized controlled trials and two prospective randomized studies. After grading of the quality of the evidence, the extracted data was summarized into clinical recommendations for daily practice. Additionally, we designed a risk-grading algorithm to identify contexts likely to be associated with adverse outcomes. In conclusion, we provide a systematic PRISMA-based review of the existing literature and ancillary practice and delineate a set of clinical recommendations and priorities for research.
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January 2020

Point-of-care hemostasis in children with congenital heart disease, the POCHEMO study: baseline reference values of thromboelastometry and impedance aggregometry.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2019 Jul;30(5):199-204

Pediatric Cardiology Divisions, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

: Viscoelastic tests and impedance aggregometry allow coagulation evaluation at the bedside, but reference values are scarce in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to establish reference values of thromboelastometry and impedance aggregometry for this population and compare it between age groups. This prospective, single-center, observational study evaluates viscoelastic tests and impedance aggregometry in children with congenital heart disease. A total of 204 children were included with a median age of 3.6 years old. We provide references values for this population with median, percentile 2.5 and percentile 97.5. Infants demonstrate for extrinsic activity a shorter coagulation time (52 [49-55] vs. 56 [51-62] s, P = 0.007) and clot formation time (90 [71-118] vs. 113 [93-146] s, P < 0.0001) so as for intrinsic activity a shorter clot formation time (53 [44-69] vs. 75 [59-92] s, P < 0.0001). The maximal clot firmness was significantly stronger in infants for extrinsic (65 [61-69] vs. 59 [54-63] mm, P < 0.0001), intrinsic (68 [64-70] vs. 61 [57-65] mm, P < 0.0001), and fibrinogen (12 [9-16] vs. 10 [8-13] mm, P = 0.02) activities. Platelet aggregation was significantly higher in infants with an amplitude at 6 min of 28 [23-34] vs. 22 [15-27] Ω, P less than 0.0001, a maximum speed of 11 [9-13] vs. 7 [5-10] Ω/min, P less than 0.0001, and an area under the curve of 120 [92-135] vs. 86 [59-112] Ω min, P less than 0.0001. We provided the first reference values for impedance aggregometry and thromboelastometry in children with congenital heart disease. We showed that these infants tend to have accelerated coagulation and stronger clot firmness compared with older children, but this finding may have only minimal relevance when treating a bleeding child. Trial registration number: (
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July 2019

Anesthetic Management for Concomitant Correction of Congenital Cardiac Defects and Long "O" Ring Tracheal Stenosis: A Role for Heliox?: Report of 2 Cases.

A A Pract 2018 Mar;10(6):154-156

From the Departments of Pediatric Anesthesia, Pediatric Intensive Care, Cardiovascular Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pediatric Cardiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.

We present 2 infants with the rare association of long congenital tracheal stenosis, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary hypertension. We describe a step-by-step assessment of the patients and the necessary procedures for a successful concomitant repair of both cardiac and tracheal malformations. The use of a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) for the induction of anesthesia and pre-cardiopulmonary bypass is discussed.
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March 2018

Cardiorespiratory Alterations Following Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution in a Pediatric and an Adult Porcine Model: A Prospective Interventional Study.

Anesth Analg 2018 03;126(3):995-1003

Anesthesiological Investigations Unit, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is considered as a blood-sparing intervention during the perioperative management. We aimed at comparing the cardiopulmonary consequences of ANH between adult pigs and weaned piglets to establish the effects of lowering hematocrit in these age groups, and thereby testing the hypothesis that difference in the age-related physiological behavior will be reflected in the cardiorespiratory changes following ANH.

Methods: ANH was achieved in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated adult minipigs and 5-week-old weaned piglets by stepwise blood withdrawal (10 mL/kg) with crystalloids replacement. Cardiorespiratory assessments consisted of measuring airway resistance, respiratory tissue elastance, effective lung volume, extravascular lung water, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary blood flow, and cardiac output. Respiratory and hemodynamic measurements were made at control conditions and following each ANH condition obtained with 5 to 7 steps.

Results: ANH induced immediate and progressive increases in airway resistance and tissue elastance in both groups, with more pronounced worsening in adults despite the similar decreases in hematocrit. The increases in extravascular lung water were significantly greater in the adult population with the differences in mean (DM) of 25.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-44.9%). Progressive ANH led to significant decreases in the DM of pulmonary blood flow (45.3%; 95% CI, 19.8%-70.8%) and mean arterial pressure (36.3%; 95% CI, 18.7%-53.9%) only in adults, whereas cardiac output increased significantly only in the piglets (DM, 51.6; 95% CI, 14.2%-89.0%).

Conclusions: While ANH led to mild detrimental cardiorespiratory changes in weaned piglets, gradual developments of bronchoconstriction, lung tissue extravasation and stiffening, and deteriorations in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics were observed in adults. ANH may exert age-dependent cardiorespiratory effect.
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March 2018

Improvement in perioperative care in pediatric cardiac surgery by shifting the primary focus of treatment from cardiac output to perfusion pressure: Are beta stimulants still needed?

Congenit Heart Dis 2017 Sep 5;12(5):570-577. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vaud, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: An important aspect of perioperative care in pediatric cardiac surgery is maintenance of optimal hemodynamic status using vasoactive/inotropic agents. Conventionally, this has focused on maintenance of cardiac output rather than perfusion pressure. However, this approach has been abandoned in our center in favor of one focusing primarily on perfusion pressure, which is presented here and compared to the conventional approach.

Design: A retrospective study.

Setting: Regional center for congenital heart disease. University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Patients: All patients with Aristotle risk score ≥8 that underwent surgery from 1996 to 2012 were included. Patients operated between 1996 and 2005 (Group 1: 206 patients) were treated according to the conventional approach. Patients operated between 2006 and 2012 (Group 2: 217 patients) were treated according to our new approach.

Interventions: All patients had undergone surgery for correction or palliation of congenital cardiac defects.

Outcome Measurements: Mortality, duration of ventilation and inotropic treatment, use of ECMO, and complications of poor peripheral perfusion (need for hemofiltration, laparotomy for enterocolitis, amputation).

Results: The two groups were similar in age and complexity. Mortality was lower in group 2 (7.3% in group 1 vs 1.4% in group 2, P < .005). Ventilation times (hours) and number of days on inotropic/vasoactive treatment (all agents), expressed as median and interquartile range [Q1-Q3] were shorter in group 2: 69 [24-163] hours in group 1 vs 35 [22-120] hours in group 2 (P < .01) for ventilation, and 9 [3-5] days in group 1 vs 7 [2-5] days in group 2 (P < .05) for inotropic/vasoactive agents. There were no differences in ECMO usage or complications of peripheral perfusion.

Conclusions: Results in pediatric cardiac surgery may be improved by shifting the primary focus of perioperative care from cardiac output to perfusion pressure.
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September 2017

Endotracheal tube displacement during head and neck movements. Observational clinical trial.

J Clin Anesth 2016 Aug 22;32:54-8. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

CHUV, Anesthesiology Department, Bugnon 21, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Study Objective: Measure the displacements of endotracheal tube (ETT) tip displacement during head and neck movements.

Design: Observational study.

Setting: Ear-nose-throat (ENT) and neurosurgery operating room.

Patients: We performed a maximal head-neck movement trial on 50 adult patients, American Society of Anaesthesiologists 1 or 2. Patients with body mass index >35 kg · m(-2), height <150 cm, airway malformations, pulmonary diseases, difficulties in neck flexion or extension, previous ENT surgery or radiotherapy, gastroesophageal reflux, or dental instability were excluded from the study.

Interventions: ENT and neurosurgery.

Measurements: We measured the change in distance between the ETT tip and the carina, using a fiberscope through the ETT.

Results: After intubation, a wide disparity of tube tip distance to the carina in the neutral position was noted with a median of 5.0 (3.5-7.0) cm. Cephalad tube movement was documented following maximal head and neck extension in 34 (68%) patients and right head rotation in 25 patients (50%). Caudal tube displacement was due to maximal head and neck flexion in 38 patients (76%) and left head rotation in 25 patients (50%). Selective right main bronchus intubation was noted in 2 (4%) patients after maximal head extension.

Conclusion: Maximal head and neck movements led to unpredictable tube displacements. Proper reassessment of tube positioning after head and neck movement of intubated patients is therefore mandatory.
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August 2016

Pediatric emergencies admitted in the resuscitation room of a Swiss university hospital.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2014 Oct;30(10):699-704

From the *Service of Pediatric Surgery, †Emergency Department, ‡Anesthesia Department, and §Service of Pediatrics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: Pediatric resuscitation is an intense, stressful, and challenging process. The aim of this study was to review the life-threatening pediatric (LTP) emergencies admitted in a Swiss university hospital with regards to patients' demographics, reason for admission, diagnosis, treatment, significant events, critical incidents, and outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively collected data was conducted, including all LTP emergencies admitted over a period of 2 years in the resuscitation room (RR). Variables, including indication for transfer, mode of prehospital transportation, diagnosis, and time spent in RR, were recorded.

Results: Of the 60,939 pediatric emergencies treated in our university hospital over 2 years, a total of 277 LTP emergencies (0.46%) were admitted in the RR. They included 160 boys and 117 girls, aged 6 days to 15.95 years (mean, 6.69 years; median, 5.06). A medical problem was identified in 55.9% (n = 155) of the children. Of the 122 children treated for a surgical problem, 35 (28.3%) went directly from the RR to the operating room. Hemodynamic instability was noted in 19.5% of all LTP emergencies, of which 1.1% benefited from O negative transfusion. Admission to the intensive care unit was necessary for 61.6% of the children transferred from another hospital. The average time spent in the RR was 46 minutes. The overall mortality rate was 7.2%.

Conclusions: The LTP emergencies accounted for a small proportion of all pediatric emergencies. They were more medical than surgical cases and resuscitation measures because of hemodynamic instability were the most frequent treatment.
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October 2014

Success and failure for children born with facial clefts in Africa: a 15-year follow-up.

World J Surg 2012 Aug;36(8):1963-9

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Center of the Canton of Vaud (CHUV), 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: This study reviews the 15 year program of our Department of Pediatric Surgery for the treatment and follow-up of children born with a cleft in Benin and Togo.

Methods: We analyzed files of children born in Africa with a cleft. They were referred to us through a nongovernmental organization (NGO) between 1993 and 2008 and assessed in Africa by local pediatricians before and after surgery. Operations were performed by our team.

Results: Two hundred files were reviewed: 60 cases of unilateral cleft lip, seven of bilateral cleft lip, 44 of unilateral cleft lip palate (UCLP), 29 of bilateral cleft lip palate (BCLP), 53 of cleft palate (CP), three of bilateral oro-ocular cleft, one of unilateral and two of median clefts (Binder), and one of commissural cleft. Sixty-nine (35 %) of these cases were not operated in Africa: 25 (12.5 %) had not shown up, 28 (15 %) were considered unfit for surgery (Down's syndrome, HIV-positive, malnutrition, cardiac malformation), and 16 (7.5 %) were transferred to Switzerland. Palatal fistula occurred in 20 % of UCLP, 30 % of BCLP, and 16 % of CP. Evaluation of speech after palate surgery gave less than 50 % of socially acceptable speech.

Conclusions: Our partnership with a NGO and a local team makes it possible to treat and subsequently follow children born with a cleft in West Africa. Surgery is performed under good conditions. If aesthetic results are a success, functional results after palate surgery need further improvement to promote integration in school and social life.
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August 2012

Hemodynamic and respiratory effects of pediatric urological retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery: a prospective study.

J Urol 2006 Apr;175(4):1461-5

Division of Urology, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Our understanding of the effects of retroperitoneal CO(2) insufflation on cardiopulmonary variables in children remains limited. This study was designed to investigate prospectively the effect of CO(2) insufflation in a pediatric population undergoing retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.

Materials And Methods: We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of patients enrolled between July 2003 and August 2004. Anesthesia was administered following a standardized protocol. Data collection included respiratory rate, PAP, O(2) saturation, ETCO(2), HR, MAP, electrocardiogram and insufflation pressure. All variables were recorded before, during and after CO(2) insufflation at regular intervals of 1 to 2 minutes, with up to 23 measurements recorded for each period.

Results: A total of 18 participants were recruited. Mean +/- SD for age and weight were 79.4 +/- 53.2 months and 26.7 +/- 15.5 kg, respectively. Mean retroperitoneal CO(2) insufflation pressure was kept at 12 mm Hg. Significant differences (p <0.05) in average ETCO(2), PAP and MAP were noted after CO(2) insufflation compared to baseline (pre-pneumoretroperitoneum) values. HR and temperature did not change. At completion of the laparoscopic intervention physiological variables exhibited a trend to return to baseline values.

Conclusions: This prospective study documents significant changes in systemic hemodynamic variables that seem to be directly associated with the insufflation of CO(2) during pediatric retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. This ongoing evaluation confirms the effect of laparoscopic urological surgery and CO(2) insufflation on cardiopulmonary function in children.
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April 2006