Publications by authors named "Mirka Macel"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High Concentrations of Very Long Chain Leaf Wax Alkanes of Thrips Susceptible Pepper Accessions (Capsicum spp).

J Chem Ecol 2020 Dec 22;46(11-12):1082-1089. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Microbiology, Institute of Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The cuticular wax layer can be important for plant resistance to insects. Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) damage was assessed on 11 pepper accessions of Capsicum annuum and C. chinense in leaf disc and whole plant assays. Thrips damage differed among the accessions. We analyzed the composition of leaf cuticular waxes of these accessions by GC-MS. The leaf wax composition was different between the two Capsicum species. In C. annuum, 1-octacosanol (C alcohol) was the most abundant component, whereas in C. chinense 1-triacotanol (C alcohol) was the prominent. Thrips susceptible accessions had significantly higher concentrations of C-C n-alkanes and iso-alkanes compared to relatively resistant pepper accessions. The triterpenoids α- and ß-amyrin tended to be more abundant in resistant accessions. Our study suggests a role for very long chain wax alkanes in thrips susceptibility of pepper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-020-01226-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677282PMC
December 2020

Metabolomics of Thrips Resistance in Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Reveals Monomer and Dimer Acyclic Diterpene Glycosides as Potential Chemical Defenses.

J Chem Ecol 2019 Jun 8;45(5-6):490-501. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Molecular Interaction Ecology, Institute of Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The development of pesticide resistance in insects and recent bans on pesticides call for the identification of natural sources of resistance in crops. Here, we used natural variation in pepper (Capsicum spp.) resistance combined with an untargeted metabolomics approach to detect secondary metabolites related to thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance. Using leaf disc choice assays, we tested 11 Capsicum accessions of C. annuum and C. chinense in both vegetative and flowering stages for thrips resistance. Metabolites in the leaves of these 11 accessions were analyzed using LC-MS based untargeted metabolomics. The choice assays showed significant differences among the accessions in thrips feeding damage. The level of resistance depended on plant developmental stage. Metabolomics analyses showed differences in metabolomes among the Capsicum species and plant developmental stages. Moreover, metabolomic profiles of resistant and susceptible accessions differed. Monomer and dimer acyclic diterpene glycosides (capsianosides) were pinpointed as metabolites that were related to thrips resistance. Sucrose and malonylated flavone glycosides were related to susceptibility. To our knowledge, this is the first time that dimer capsianosides of pepper have been linked to insect resistance. Our results show the potential of untargeted metabolomics as a tool for discovering metabolites that are important in plant - insect interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-019-01074-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570690PMC
June 2019

Current Challenges in Plant Eco-Metabolomics.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 May 6;19(5). Epub 2018 May 6.

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The relatively new research discipline of Eco-Metabolomics is the application of metabolomics techniques to ecology with the aim to characterise biochemical interactions of organisms across different spatial and temporal scales. Metabolomics is an untargeted biochemical approach to measure many thousands of metabolites in different species, including plants and animals. Changes in metabolite concentrations can provide mechanistic evidence for biochemical processes that are relevant at ecological scales. These include physiological, phenotypic and morphological responses of plants and communities to environmental changes and also interactions with other organisms. Traditionally, research in biochemistry and ecology comes from two different directions and is performed at distinct spatiotemporal scales. Biochemical studies most often focus on intrinsic processes in individuals at physiological and cellular scales. Generally, they take a bottom-up approach scaling up cellular processes from spatiotemporally fine to coarser scales. Ecological studies usually focus on extrinsic processes acting upon organisms at population and community scales and typically study top-down and bottom-up processes in combination. Eco-Metabolomics is a transdisciplinary research discipline that links biochemistry and ecology and connects the distinct spatiotemporal scales. In this review, we focus on approaches to study chemical and biochemical interactions of plants at various ecological levels, mainly plant⁻organismal interactions, and discuss related examples from other domains. We present recent developments and highlight advancements in Eco-Metabolomics over the last decade from various angles. We further address the five key challenges: (1) complex experimental designs and large variation of metabolite profiles; (2) feature extraction; (3) metabolite identification; (4) statistical analyses; and (5) bioinformatics software tools and workflows. The presented solutions to these challenges will advance connecting the distinct spatiotemporal scales and bridging biochemistry and ecology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983679PMC
May 2018

Costs and benefits of admixture between foreign genotypes and local populations in the field.

Ecol Evol 2018 Apr 5;8(7):3675-3684. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Institute of Evolution and Ecology Plant Ecology Group University of Tübingen Tübingen Germany.

Admixture is the hybridization between populations within one species. It can increase plant fitness and population viability by alleviating inbreeding depression and increasing genetic diversity. However, populations are often adapted to their local environments and admixture with distant populations could break down local adaptation by diluting the locally adapted genomes. Thus, admixed genotypes might be selected against and be outcompeted by locally adapted genotypes in the local environments. To investigate the costs and benefits of admixture, we compared the performance of admixed and within-population F1 and F2 generations of the European plant in a reciprocal transplant experiment at three European field sites over a 2-year period. Despite strong differences between site and plant populations for most of the measured traits, including herbivory, we found limited evidence for local adaptation. The effects of admixture depended on experimental site and plant population, and were positive for some traits. Plant growth and fruit production of some populations increased in admixed offspring and this was strongest with larger parental distances. These effects were only detected in two of our three sites. Our results show that, in the absence of local adaptation, admixture may boost plant performance, and that this is particularly apparent in stressful environments. We suggest that admixture between foreign and local genotypes can potentially be considered in nature conservation to restore populations and/or increase population viability, especially in small inbred or maladapted populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901173PMC
April 2018

Thrips advisor: exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops.

J Exp Bot 2018 04;69(8):1837-1848

Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, , TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery060DOI Listing
April 2018

Effects of admixture in native and invasive populations of .

Biol Invasions 2018 21;20(9):2381-2393. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

4Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.

Intraspecific hybridization between diverged populations can enhance fitness via various genetic mechanisms. The benefits of such admixture have been proposed to be particularly relevant in biological invasions, when invasive populations originating from different source populations are found sympatrically. However, it remains poorly understood if admixture is an important contributor to plant invasive success and how admixture effects compare between invasive and native ranges. Here, we used experimental crosses in , a species with well-established history of multiple introductions to Eastern North America, to quantify and compare admixture effects in native European and invasive North American populations. We observed heterosis in between-population crosses both in native and invasive ranges. However, invasive-range heterosis was restricted to crosses between two different Eastern and Western invasion fronts, whereas heterosis was absent in geographically distant crosses within a single large invasion front. Our results suggest that multiple introductions have led to already-admixed invasion fronts, such that experimental crosses do not further increase performance, but that contact between different invasion fronts further enhances fitness after admixture. Thus, intra-continental movement of invasive plants in their introduced range has the potential to boost invasiveness even in well-established and successfully spreading invasive species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-018-1707-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417435PMC
March 2018

Intergenerational environmental effects: functional signals in offspring transcriptomes and metabolomes after parental jasmonic acid treatment in apomictic dandelion.

New Phytol 2018 01 16;217(2):871-882. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, and the Genetics Institute, University of Florida, 2033 Mowry Road, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory-induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and control treatments, we performed leaf RNA-seq gene expression analysis, LC-MS metabolomics and total phenolics assays in offspring plants. Expression analysis, leveraged by a de novo assembled transcriptome, revealed an induced response to JA exposure that is consistent with known JA effects. The intergenerational effect of treatment was considerable: 307 of 858 detected JA-responsive transcripts were affected by parental JA treatment. In terms of the numbers of metabolites affected, the magnitude of the chemical response to parental JA exposure was c. 10% of the direct JA treatment response. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses both identified the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway as a target of intergenerational JA effects. Our results highlight that parental environments can have substantial effects in offspring generations. Transcriptome and metabolome assays provide a basis for zooming in on the potential mechanisms of inherited JA effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741498PMC
January 2018

Evolutionary responses to climate change in a range expanding plant.

Oecologia 2017 06 13;184(2):543-554. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, 128 01, Prague 2, Czech Republic.

To understand the biological effects of climate change, it is essential to take into account species' evolutionary responses to their changing environments. Ongoing climate change is resulting in species shifting their geographical distribution ranges poleward. We tested whether a successful range expanding plant has rapidly adapted to the regional conditions in its novel range, and whether adaptation could be driven by herbivores. Furthermore, we investigated if enemy release occurred in the newly colonized areas and whether plant origins differed in herbivore resistance. Plants were cloned and reciprocally transplanted between three experimental sites across the range. Effects of herbivores on plant performance were tested by individually caging plants with either open or closed cages. There was no indication of (regional) adaptation to abiotic conditions. Plants originating from the novel range were always larger than plants from the core distribution at all experimental sites, with or without herbivory. Herbivore damage was highest and not lowest at the experimental sites in the novel range, suggesting no release from enemy impact. Genotypes from the core were more damaged compared to genotypes from newly colonized areas at the most northern site in the novel range, which was dominated by generalist slug herbivory. We also detected subtle shifts in chemical defenses between the plant origins. Genotypes from the novel range had more inducible defenses. Our results suggest that plants that are expanding their range with climate change may evolve increased vigor and altered herbivore resistance in their new range, analogous to invasive plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-017-3864-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487849PMC
June 2017

Erratum to: Chemical Defenses (Glucosinolates) of Native and Invasive Populations of the Range Expanding Invasive Plant Rorippa austriaca.

J Chem Ecol 2016 Oct;42(10):1099

Plant Ecology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-016-0773-0DOI Listing
October 2016

Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

Oecologia 2016 Feb;180(2):507-17

Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-015-3472-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4723625PMC
February 2016

Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

Ecol Evol 2014 Jul 14;4(13):2777-86. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Molecular Interaction Ecology, Institute of Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University Nijmegen P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113299PMC
July 2014

Chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of native and invasive populations of the range expanding invasive plant Rorippa austriaca.

J Chem Ecol 2014 Apr 22;40(4):363-70. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Plant Ecology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Due to global warming, species are expanding their range to higher latitudes. Some range expanding plants have become invasive in their new range. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis and the Shifting Defense Hypothesis (SDH) predict altered selection on plant defenses in the introduced range of invasive plants due to changes in herbivore pressures and communities. Here, we investigated chemical defenses (glucosinolates) of five native and seven invasive populations of the Eurasian invasive range expanding plant, Rorippa austriaca. Further, we studied feeding preferences of a generalist and a specialist herbivore among the populations. We detected eight glucosinolates in the leaves of R. austriaca. 8-Methylsulfinyloctyl glucosinolate was the most abundant glucosinolate in all plants. There were no overall differences between native and invasive plants in concentrations of glucosinolates. However, concentrations among populations within each range differed significantly. Feeding preference between the populations by a generalist herbivore was negatively correlated with glucosinolate concentrations. Feeding by a specialist did not differ between the populations and was not correlated with glucosinolates. Possibly, local differences in herbivore communities within each range may explain the differences in concentrations of glucosinolates among populations. Little support for the predictions of the EICA hypothesis or the SDH was found for the glucosinolate defenses of the studied native and invasive R. austriaca populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-014-0425-1DOI Listing
April 2014

Chemical variation in Jacobaea vulgaris is influenced by the interaction of season and vegetation successional stage.

Phytochemistry 2014 Mar 9;99:86-94. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, PO Box 8123, 6700 ES Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Knowledge on spatio-temporal dynamics of plant primary and secondary chemistry under natural conditions is important to assess how plant defence varies in real field conditions. Plant primary and secondary chemistry is known to vary with both season and vegetation successional stage, however, in few studies these two sources of variation have been examined in combination. Here we examine variations in primary and secondary chemistry of Jacobaea vulgaris (Asteraceae) throughout the growing season in early, mid, and late stages of secondary succession following land abandonment using a well-established chronosequence in The Netherlands. We investigated primary and secondary chemistry of both leaves and flowers, in order to determine if patterns during seasonal (phenological) development may differ among successional stages. The chemical concentration of primary and secondary chemistry compounds in J. vulgaris varied throughout the season and was affected by vegetation succession stage. Concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) tertiary-amines were highest in flowers during early Summer and in fields that had been abandoned ten to twenty years ago. PA N-oxide concentrations of both leaves and flowers, on the other hand increased with the progression of both season and succession. In Spring and early Summer chlorophyll concentrations were highest, especially in the oldest fields of the chronosequence. During phenological development, nitrogen concentration increased in flowers and decreased in leaves revealing allocation of nutrients from vegetative to reproductive plant parts throughout the growing season. The highest concentrations of N-oxides and chlorophylls were detected in older fields. Thus, our results suggest that variations in plant patterns of nutritional and defence compounds throughout the growing season are depending on successional context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.12.004DOI Listing
March 2014

Soil biotic impact on plant species shoot chemistry and hyperspectral reflectance patterns.

New Phytol 2012 Dec 1;196(4):1133-1144. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Postbus 50, 6700, AB Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Recent studies revealed that plant-soil biotic interactions may cause changes in above-ground plant chemistry. It would be a new step in below-ground-above-ground interaction research if such above-ground chemistry changes could be efficiently detected. Here we test how hyperspectral reflectance may be used to study such plant-soil biotic interactions in a nondestructive and rapid way. The native plant species Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea erucifolius, and the exotic invader Senecio inaequidens were grown in different soil biotic conditions. Biomass, chemical content and shoot reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths were determined. The data were analysed with multivariate statistics. Exposing the plants to soil biota enhanced the content of defence compounds. The highest increase (400%) was observed for the exotic invader S. inaequidens. Chemical and spectral data enabled plant species to be classified with an accuracy > 85%. Plants grown in different soil conditions were classified with 50-60% correctness. Our data suggest that soil microorganisms can affect plant chemistry and spectral reflectance. Further studies should test the potential to study plant-soil biotic interactions in the field. Such techniques could help to monitor, among other things, where invasive exotic plant species develop biotic resistance or the development of hotspots of crop soil diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04338.xDOI Listing
December 2012

Metabolomics: the chemistry between ecology and genetics.

Mol Ecol Resour 2010 Jul 30;10(4):583-93. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Boterhoeksestraat 48, NL-6666 GA Heteren, The Netherlands Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands Centre for Biosystems Genomics, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Metabolomics is a fast developing field of comprehensive untargeted chemical analyses. It has many applications and can in principle be used on any organism without prior knowledge of the metabolome or genome. The amount of functional information that is acquired with metabolomics largely depends on whether a metabolome database has been developed for the focal species. Metabolomics is a level downstream from transcriptomics and proteomics and has been widely advertised as a functional genomics and systems biology tool. Indeed, it has been successfully applied to link phenotypes to genotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Metabolomics is also increasingly being used in ecology (ecological metabolomics) and environmental sciences (environmental metabolomics). In ecology, the technique has led to novel insights into the mechanisms of plant resistance to herbivores. Some of the most commonly used analytical metabolomic platforms are briefly discussed in this review, as well as their limitations. We will mainly focus on the application of metabolomics in plant ecology and genetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02854.xDOI Listing
July 2010

Attract and deter: a dual role for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant-insect interactions.

Authors:
Mirka Macel

Phytochem Rev 2011 Mar 8;10(1):75-82. Epub 2010 May 8.

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Boterhoeksestraat 48, 6666 GA Heteren, The Netherlands.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are the major defense compounds of plants in the Senecio genus. Here I will review the effects of PAs in Senecio on the preference and performance of specialist and generalist insect herbivores. Specialist herbivores have evolved adaptation to PAs in their host plant. They can use the alkaloids as cue to find their host plant and often they sequester PAs for their own defense against predators. Generalists, on the other hand, can be deterred by PAs. PAs can also affect survival of generalist herbivores. Usually generalist insects avoid feeding on young Senecio leaves, which contain a high concentration of alkaloids. Structurally related PAs can differ in their effects on insect herbivores, some are more toxic than others. The differences in effects of PAs on specialist and generalists could lead to opposing selection on PAs, which may maintain the genetic diversity in PA concentration and composition in Senecio species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11101-010-9181-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047672PMC
March 2011

Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression.

Proc Biol Sci 2011 Jan 4;278(1702):2-8. Epub 2010 Aug 4.

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Boterhoeksestraat 48, 6666 Heteren, The Netherlands.

When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important role in biological invasions. In contrast, populations in their native range often remain differentiated and frequently suffer from inbreeding depression owing to isolation. While the advantages of admixture are evident for introduced populations that experienced recent bottlenecks or that face novel selection pressures, it is less obvious why native range populations do not similarly benefit from admixture. Here we argue that a temporary loss of local adaptation in recent invaders fundamentally alters the fitness consequences of admixture. In native populations, selection against dilution of the locally adapted gene pool inhibits unconstrained admixture and reinforces population isolation, with some level of inbreeding depression as an expected consequence. We show that admixture is selected against despite significant inbreeding depression because the benefits of local adaptation are greater than the cost of inbreeding. In contrast, introduced populations that have not yet established a pattern of local adaptation can freely reap the benefits of admixture. There can be strong selection for admixture because it instantly lifts the inbreeding depression that had built up in isolated parental populations. Recent work in Silene suggests that reduced inbreeding depression associated with post-introduction admixture may contribute to enhanced fitness of invasive populations. We hypothesize that in locally adapted populations, the benefits of local adaptation are balanced against an inbreeding cost that could develop in part owing to the isolating effect of local adaptation itself. The inbreeding cost can be revealed in admixing populations during recent invasions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992731PMC
January 2011

Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010 Jul;365(1549):2025-34

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, The Netherlands.

Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880132PMC
July 2010

Climate change and invasion by intracontinental range-expanding exotic plants: the role of biotic interactions.

Ann Bot 2010 Jun 30;105(6):843-8. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: In this Botanical Briefing we describe how the interactions between plants and their biotic environment can change during range-expansion within a continent and how this may influence plant invasiveness.

Scope: We address how mechanisms explaining intercontinental plant invasions by exotics (such as release from enemies) may also apply to climate-warming-induced range-expanding exotics within the same continent. We focus on above-ground and below-ground interactions of plants, enemies and symbionts, on plant defences, and on nutrient cycling.

Conclusions: Range-expansion by plants may result in above-ground and below-ground enemy release. This enemy release can be due to the higher dispersal capacity of plants than of natural enemies. Moreover, lower-latitudinal plants can have higher defence levels than plants from temperate regions, making them better defended against herbivory. In a world that contains fewer enemies, exotic plants will experience less selection pressure to maintain high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Range-expanders potentially affect ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. These features are quite comparable with what is known of intercontinental invasive exotic plants. However, intracontinental range-expanding plants will have ongoing gene-flow between the newly established populations and the populations in the native range. This is a major difference from intercontinental invasive exotic plants, which become more severely disconnected from their source populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcq064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876007PMC
June 2010

Potential contribution of natural enemies to patterns of local adaptation in plants.

New Phytol 2008 4;180(2):524-533. Epub 2008 Jul 4.

University of Fribourg, Department of Biology, Unit of Ecology and Evolution, Chemin du musée 10, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Genetic differentiation among plant populations and adaptation to local environmental conditions are well documented. However, few studies have examined the potential contribution of plant antagonists, such as insect herbivores and pathogens, to the pattern of local adaptation. Here, a reciprocal transplant experiment was set up at three sites across Europe using two common plant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata. The amount of damage by the main above-ground plant antagonists was measured: a rust fungus infecting Holcus and a specialist beetle feeding on Plantago, both in low-density monoculture plots and in competition with interspecific neighbours. Strong genetic differentiation among provenances in the amount of damage by antagonists in both species was found. Local provenances of Holcus had significantly higher amounts of rust infection than foreign provenances, whereas local provenances of Plantago were significantly less damaged by the specialist beetle than the foreign provenances. The presence of surrounding vegetation affected the amount of damage but had little influence on the ranking of plant provenances. The opposite pattern of population differentiation in resistance to local antagonists in the two species suggests that it will be difficult to predict the consequences of plant translocations for interactions with organisms of higher trophic levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02545.xDOI Listing
March 2009

Climate vs. soil factors in local adaptation of two common plant species.

Ecology 2007 Feb;88(2):424-33

University of Fribourg, Department of Biology, Ecology and Evolution, Chemin du musée 10, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Evolutionary theory suggests that divergent natural selection in heterogeneous environments can result in locally adapted plant genotypes. To understand local adaptation it is important to study the ecological factors responsible for divergent selection. At a continental scale, variation in climate can be important while at a local scale soil properties could also play a role. We designed an experiment aimed to disentangle the role of climate and (abiotic and biotic) soil properties in local adaptation of two common plant species. A grass (Holcus lanatus) and a legume (Lotus corniculatus), as well as their local soils, were reciprocally transplanted between three sites across an Atlantic-Continental gradient in Europe and grown in common gardens in either their home soil or foreign soils. Growth and reproductive traits were measured over two growing seasons. In both species, we found significant environmental and genetic effects on most of the growth and reproductive traits and a significant interaction between the two environmental effects of soil and climate. The grass species showed significant home site advantage in most of the fitness components, which indicated adaptation to climate. We found no indication that the grass was adapted to local soil conditions. The legume showed a significant home soil advantage for number of fruits only and thus a weak indication of adaptation to soil and no adaptation to climate. Our results show that the importance of climate and soil factors as drivers of local adaptation is species-dependent. This could be related to differences in interactions between plant species and soil biota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[424:cvsfil]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
February 2007

Differences in effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids on five generalist insect herbivore species.

J Chem Ecol 2005 Jul;31(7):1493-508

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

The evolution of the diversity in plant secondary compounds is often thought to be driven by insect herbivores, although there is little empirical evidence for this assumption. To investigate whether generalist insect herbivores could play a role in the evolution of the diversity of related compounds, we examined if (1) related compounds differ in their effects on generalists, (2) there is a synergistic effect among compounds, and (3) effects of related compounds differed among insect species. The effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were tested on five generalist insect herbivore species of several genera using artificial diets or neutral substrates to which PAs were added. We found evidence that structurally related PAs differed in their effects to the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, the aphid Myzus persicae, and the locust Locusta migratoria. The individual PAs had no effect on Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae caterpillars. For S. exigua, we found indications for synergistic deterrent effects of PAs in PA mixtures. The relative effects of PAs differed between insect species. The PA senkirkine had the strongest effect on the thrips, but had no effect at all on the aphids. Our results show that generalist herbivores could potentially play a role in the evolution and maintenance of the diversity of PAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-5793-0DOI Listing
July 2005

Natural hybridization between Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus: molecular and chemical evidence.

Mol Ecol 2004 Aug;13(8):2267-74

Institute of Biology, Plant Ecology Section, Leiden University. PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Hybridization is known to be involved in a number of evolutionary processes, including species formation, and the generation of novel defence characteristics in plants. The genus Senecio of the Asteraceae family is highly speciose and has historically demonstrated significant levels of interspecific hybridization. The evolution of novel chemical defence characteristics may have contributed to the success of Senecio hybrids. Chemical defence against pathogens and herbivores has been studied extensively in the model species Senecio jacobaea, which is thought to hybridize in nature with Senecio aquaticus. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) composition to confirm that natural hybridization occurs between S. jacobaea and the closely related species S. aquaticus. AFLPs are also used to estimate the ancestry of hybrids. We also demonstrate that even highly back-crossed hybrids can possess a unique mixture of defence chemicals specific to each of the parental species. This hybrid system may therefore prove to be useful in further studies of the role of hybridization in the evolution of plant defence and resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02235.xDOI Listing
August 2004

Variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid patterns of Senecio jacobaea.

Phytochemistry 2004 Apr;65(7):865-73

Leiden University, Institute for Biology, Plant Ecology, PO Box 9516 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

We studied the variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) patterns of lab-grown vegetative plants of 11 European Senecio jacobaea populations. Plants were classified as jacobine, erucifoline, mixed or senecionine chemotypes based on presence and absence of the PAs jacobine or erucifoline. Due to the presence of jacobine, total PA concentration in jacobine chemotypes was higher than in erucifoline chemotypes. Both relative and absolute concentrations of individual PAs differed between half-sib and clonal families, which showed that variation in PA patterns had a genetic basis. Within most populations relative abundance of PAs varied considerably between individual plants. Most populations consisted either of the jacobine chemotype or of the erucifoline chemotype, sometimes in combination with mixed or senecionine chemotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.02.009DOI Listing
April 2004

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids as oviposition stimulants for the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae.

J Chem Ecol 2003 Jun;29(6):1435-46

Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

In choice experiments with artificial leaves, we tested related pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) for their stimulatory effects on the oviposition of the cinnabar moth, a specialist on the PA-containing plant Senecio jacobaea. The PAs from S. jacobaea that we tested stimulated oviposition. Monocrotaline also stimulated oviposition although this PA is not found in plants of the genus Senecio. The moths preferred ovipositing on filter paper with a PA mixture extracted from S. jacobaea to ovipositing on filter paper with single PAs. Senkirkine, heliotrine, and retrorsine did not stimulate oviposition. The nonactive retrorsine differs only in one OH group to the active senecionine, indicating that small structural differences alter the stimulatory activity of PAs. However, a PA mixture extracted from a nonhost plant, Senecio inaequidens, that consisted of 81% of the nonactive retrorsine did stimulate oviposition. Oviposition preferences between Senecio species seem to be determined by chemical compounds other than PAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1024269621284DOI Listing
June 2003

Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio species does not affect the specialist herbivore Tyria jacobaeae.

Oecologia 2002 Dec 1;133(4):541-550. Epub 2002 Dec 1.

Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The evolution of the diversity of related secondary metabolites in plants is still poorly understood. It is often thought that the evolution of plant secondary metabolites is driven by specialist insect herbivores and under this coevolutionary model it is expected that related compounds differ in their effects on specialist herbivores. Here we focus on the diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Senecio species and their effects on Tyria jacobaeae, a specialist moth on Senecio jacobaea. As a first step to determine the effects of related PAs on T. jacobaeae, we studied larval performance on plants from 11 S. jacobaea populations and eight Senecio species with different PA compositions. Although the populations of S. jacobaea differed in their PA compositions, there was no difference in larval performance among the populations. Larval performance differed among the eight species but we could not show a correlation with PA composition. Oviposition choice experiments showed a strong correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance on the eight species but oviposition preference did not seem to be correlated with PAs. We found no indications that related PAs differ in effects on the specialist T. jacobaeae; therefore it seems unlikely that T. jacobaeae is a driving force behind the evolution of the diversity of PAs. Alternatively, we propose that the evolution of the diversity of PAs is driven by selection pressure from generalist herbivores or that the diversity of PAs may even be selectively neutral.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1074-6DOI Listing
December 2002