Publications by authors named "Miriam Wessels"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genotoxic effects of camphorquinone and DMT on human oral and intestinal cells.

Dent Mater 2015 Oct 15;31(10):1159-68. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Objective: Released components of oral biomaterials can leach into the oral cavity and may subsequently reach the gastrointestinal tract. Camphorquinone (CQ) is the most common used photoinitiator in resinous restorative materials and is often combined with the co-initiator N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT). It has been shown that CQ exerts cytotoxic effects, at least partially due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objective of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CQ in human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT2) and immortalized epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Furthermore, the effects of visible-light irradiation and the co-initiator DMT were investigated as well as the generation of ROS, the potential protective effect of glutathione (GSH) and a recovery period of CQ-treated Caco-2 cells.

Methods: The alkaline comet assay was used to determine DNA damage. Additionally, an enzyme modified comet assay was applied, which detects 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoguanine), a reliable marker for oxidative stress.

Results: Our data revealed that high concentrations of CQ induced DNA lesions in OKF6/TERT2 cells. This DNA damage is at least partly caused by the generation of 8-oxoguanine. In addition, CQ and DMT increased ROS formation and induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells. CQ-treatment resulted in generation of 8-oxoguanine. The antioxidant GSH efficiently prevented CQ-associated DNA damage. Furthermore, a recovery following CQ-treatment significantly reduced DNA damage.

Significance: We conclude that CQ-induced DNA damage is caused by oxidative stress in oral and intestinal cells. These lesions can be prevented and possibly repaired by GSH-treatment and recovery of cells after the photoinitiator is removed from cultures.
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October 2015

Oxidative stress is responsible for genotoxicity of camphorquinone in primary human gingival fibroblasts.

Clin Oral Investig 2014 Jul 16;18(6):1705-10. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Hannover Medical School, 30625, Hannover, Germany,

Objectives: The photoinitiator camphorquinone (CQ), used in dental restorative materials, was found to be cytotoxic in cell cultures. Previously, we have shown that CQ induces alkali labile sites and DNA strand breaks in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) associated with an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate if DNA damage in HGF cells is caused by the generation of ROS.

Material And Methods: HGF cells were treated with different concentrations (0.5-2.5 mM) of CQ. The cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide (PI) assay. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by an enzyme-modified comet assay using human 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), which converts oxidized 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoguanine) into DNA strand breaks and functions as a marker for oxidative modified DNA.

Results: The results showed that CQ induced DNA damage in HGF cells without cytotoxic effects for the chosen treatment time. CQ treatment led to the generation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA, which can be shown by a significant increase in tail moment after CQ treatment by the enzyme-modified comet assay.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that DNA damage due to CQ is caused by oxidative stress in gingival fibroblasts.

Clinical Relevance: A more detailed insight into genotoxic mechanisms in oral cells can be of great importance for a better understanding of the biocompatibility of CQ.
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July 2014

Reduced glutathione prevents camphorquinone-induced apoptosis in human oral keratinocytes.

Dent Mater 2014 Feb 17;30(2):215-26. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover 30625, Germany.

Objectives: Camphorquinone (CQ) is a widely used photoinitiator in dental visible light (VL)-cured resinous materials. However, little is known about the toxicity of CQ in human cells. This study was designed to investigate CQ induced oxidative strain and apoptosis in cultured human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT 2). Furthermore, the effects of visible-light (VL)-irradiation and the reducing agent N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) were investigated. In addition, the preventive potential of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) against CQ induced toxicity was analyzed as well.

Methods: The fluorescent DNA-staining dye Hoechst 33342 was used to quantify total cell numbers. Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Apoptosis was determined by FACS analysis (Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide), by measuring caspase-3/7 activity (ELISA) and by DNA laddering.

Results: Our data show that CQ was dose-dependent cytotoxic and caused oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the outer layer of the plasma membrane, induction of caspase-3 enzyme activity and DNA fragmentation were also observed in CQ exposed cells. Interestingly, CQ-induced ROS generation enhanced by VL irradiation or a simultaneous treatment with DMT showed no quantitative effect on apoptosis. However, co-exposure of cells with GSH significantly reduced the intracellular ROS generation as well as apoptosis caused by CQ.

Significance: This is the first report showing that ROS-induced apoptosis, which is caused by CQ, is prevented by GSH.
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February 2014