Publications by authors named "Mirco Corazzin"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fatty acids stable carbon isotope fractionation in the bovine organism. A compound-specific isotope analysis through gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 7;1641:461966. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences DI4A, University of Udine (UD), Italy.

The contribution of dietary fatty acids to the quality of the meat and their path through the bovine organism is currently the subject of a lot of research. Stable isotope ratio analysis represents a powerful tool for this aim, one that has not been studied in depth yet. In this work, for the first time, the carbon isotopic ratios of six fatty acids (myristic 14:0, palmitic 16:0, stearic 18:0, oleic 18:1n-9, linoleic 18:2n-6 and linolenic 18:3n-3 acids) in different matrixes (diet, rumen, duodenal content, liver and loin) were analysed through gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Moreover, the quantification of the single fatty acids was carried out, providing important information supporting the carbon isotopic ratio results. The variation in the concentration of the fatty acids in the different matrices depends on the chemical modifications they undergo in the sequential steps of the metabolic path. GC-C-IRMS turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate the fate of dietary fatty acids, providing information about the processes they undergo inside the bovine organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.461966DOI Listing
March 2021

Steroids in pig hair and welfare evaluation systems: combined approaches to improve management in pig breeding?

Vet Ital 2020 12 1;56(3):177-184. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

1 Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The aim of the present pilot study was to determine the allostatic load by analysing the hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone‑sulphate (DHEA‑S) of commercial pigs belonging to different farms having good overall animal welfare according to the CREnBA (Centro di Referenza Nazionale per il Benessere Animale - Brescia, Italy) assessment protocol. The study was conducted on 86 pigs belonging to three farms with a grade higher than 8 on the CReNBA welfare evaluation system. Hair samples were taken by shaving on sows 1‑10 days after weaning (Farms 1 and 2) and at the age of 8‑10 months (Farm 3). The hormone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. From the box plots, it is evident that the hair cortisol concentrations of animals were different between farms. Conversely, the variability of the hair DHEA‑S concentration was similar between the F1 and F2 farms but much lower at F3. For all the variables considered (cortisol, DHEA‑S and cortisol/DHEA‑S ratio), F2 showed a higher hair concentration level than F1 (P < 0.05). The study's results indicate that the measurement of cortisol and DHEA‑S in pig hair shows a different allostatic load between them, although the official welfare evaluation method assessed the farms as having good overall animal welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1974.11885.1DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Heat Stress on Dairy Cow Performance and on Expression of Protein Metabolism Genes in Mammary Cells.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat stress on dairy cow performance and on the expression of selected genes involved in milk protein metabolism. Eight Italian Holstein Friesian cows were kept under thermoneutral conditions (temperature-humidity index (THI) < 72, CON) for 8 days and under mild heat stress conditions (72 < THI < 78, HS) for an additional 8 days. The rectal temperature, feed intake, and milk yield were recorded during the last 3 days of the CON and HS periods. During the same time period, milk samples were collected to assess the composition and expression of selected genes involved in milk protein metabolism. Gene expression analyses were performed on somatic cells from milk, which are representative of mammary tissue. In terms of dairy cow performance, HS resulted in lower milk and protein yields and feed intake but higher rectal temperature than for CON ( < 0.05). Under HS, there were greater abundances of HSPA1A ( < 0.05) and BCL2 ( < 0.05), compared to CON, but similar levels of CSN2 ( > 0.05), CSN3 ( > 0.05), HSPA8 ( > 0.05), and STAT5B ( > 0.05) mRNA. Mild heat stress reduced the performance of dairy cows without affecting the expression of genes coding for caseins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696625PMC
November 2020

Effect of Feeding Adaptation of Italian Simmental Cows before Summer Grazing on Animal Behavior and Milk Characteristics.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 11;10(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

According to the alpine transhumance system, dairy cows are moved from indoor feeding with conserved forage to fresh herbage feeding on pasture. The aim of this study was to assess, as a feeding adaptation technique, the effect of a gradual inclusion of fresh herbage in the diet of Italian Simmental dairy cows before their transfer to alpine pasture on performance, behavior, and milk characteristics. Eighteen cows were assigned to three groups: animals transferred to alpine pasture with a 10-d feeding adaptation period consisting in gradual access to a pasture close to the valley farm (GT), animals transferred to alpine pasture without a feeding adaptation period (AT), and animals kept in the valley farm (IND). During the first two weeks of summer grazing, GT and AT showed higher rumination time and different concentrations of ketones, hydrocarbons, organic acids, toluene, alcohols, phenols, and dimethyl sulfone in milk as compared to IND, whereas no differences were found in milk yield, composition, or coagulation properties. No differences between GT and AT were evident for the studied variables. The feeding adaptation technique used in this study did not influence the performance and milk characteristics of Italian Simmental dairy cows grazing on alpine pasture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278462PMC
May 2020

Lactic Acid Bacteria: Variability Due to Different Pork Breeds, Breeding Systems and Fermented Sausage Production Technology.

Foods 2020 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Animal Science, University of Udine, via Sondrio 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Changes in the ecology of the various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which are involved in traditional fermented sausages, were investigated in the light of the use of different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed using two different technologies. The semi-quantitative molecular method was applied in order to understand how the different species alternate over time, as well as their concentration ratios. A significant increase in LAB over the first days of fermentation characterized the trials where the starter culture wasn't added (T), reaching values of 10-10 cfu g. On the other hand, in the trials in which sausages were produced with starter addition, LAB counts had a less significant incremental jump from about 10 cfu g (concentration of the inoculum) to 10 cfu g. and were detected as the prevalent population in all the observed fermentations. and also appeared, but their concentration ratios varied depending on the diverse experimental settings. The results of cluster analysis showed that a plant- and breed-specific LAB ecology exists. In addition, it was also observed that the breeding system can influence the presence of certain LAB species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9030338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142627PMC
March 2020

Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Dairy Farms Rearing the Italian Simmental Dual-Purpose Breed.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Feb 13;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

This study aimed to assess the environmental footprint of dairy farms rearing a dual-purpose breed, and to evaluate, through alternative scenario analyses, the fattening of calves and the cultivation of hemp as strategies for reducing the environmental impact of these farms. Eleven farms were evaluated for global warming (GWP), acidification (AC) and eutrophication (EUP) potential. The Life Cycle Assessment method with three scenarios, REAL, based on real data, BEEF, where calves were fattened in farm, and HEMP, where hemp was cultivated in farms, were considered. If referred to 1 m of utilizable agricultural land, the GWP, AC and EUP were 1.6 kgCOeq, 21.7 gSOeq and 7.1 gPOeq, respectively. If referring to 1 kg of fat and protein corrected milk, the emissions were 1.1-1.4 kgCOeq, 14.8-19.0 gSOeq, and 5.0-6.4 gPOeq, depending on the allocation method adopted. The emissions were associated positively with culling rate and negatively with production intensity. In BEEF and HEMP scenarios, the emissions were reduced by 8-11% and by 1-5%, respectively. Fattening the calves, evaluating the cultivation of alternative plants and improving the productive and reproductive efficiency of animals could be effective strategies for reducing the environmental footprint of the farm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10020296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070661PMC
February 2020

Cortisol, DHEA, and Sexual Steroid Concentrations in Fattening Pigs' Hair.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Jun 12;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility and reliability of using hair as a matrix to determine the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sexual steroid concentrations and the cortisol/DHEA ratio in fattening pigs. The results could be also used to plan future research to identify threshold values in order to set up strategies to control the allostatic load and increase the resilience of fattening pigs before slaughter. The study was conducted on 107 commercial crossbred rearing pigs. The hair samples were taken by shaving at the age of 36 weeks, and concentrations of the hormones were measured using a solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay. Females had significantly higher cortisol levels ( < 0.01), significantly lower DHEA concentrations ( < 0.05) and significantly higher cortisol/DHEA ratios ( < 0.01) than barrows. Progesterone was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows ( < 0.01). Testosterone and 17β-estradiol were significantly higher in barrows than in gilts ( < 0.05). If future research can produce threshold values for the different markers examined, the evaluation of animals under subclinical stress conditions will be possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9060345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616490PMC
June 2019

Dietary supplementation of Aspergillus oryzae meal and its effect on performance, carcass characteristics, blood variables, and immunity of broiler chickens.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Nov 31;51(8):2263-2268. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze, 206, 33100, Udine, UD, Italy.

This study investigated the effect of different levels and consumption periods of Aspergillus oryzae meal on performance, carcass characteristics, blood variables, and immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 270 (male and female) Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 9 treatment groups. Two levels (2 g/kg diet and 4 g/kg diet as-fed) of Aspergillus oryzae meal (AO) and 4 consumption periods of AO (starter, grower, finisher, and entire period) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement were used. Compared with control, AO used during the entire rearing period increased weight gain, reduced relative weight of abdominal fat, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels, and increased antibody titers against influenza and Newcastle disease vaccination and sheep red blood cells injection. Few differences in the variables considered were found if AO was added to broiler diets only during specific consumption periods, and between the two supplementation levels of AO. In conclusion, the addition of AO to the broiler diet can have beneficial effects in terms of performance, carcass composition, and health, but these positive effects were mainly reached adding AO for the entire rearing period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01930-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831530PMC
November 2019

Fatty Acid Profiles of Cow's Milk and Cheese as Affected by Mountain Pasture Type and Concentrate Supplementation.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The aim of this trial was to assess the effect of pasture type and concentrate supplementation on the fatty acids (FA) composition of milk and cheese obtained during summer grazing on mountain pasture. Seventy-two Italian Simmental dairy cows were assigned to two groups that differed by the amount of concentrate supplementation: 3.0 kg/head/d (HIGH) vs. 1.5 kg/head/d (LOW). The dairy cows grazed on a alliance pasture (PAST1), and subsequently they grazed on a alliance pasture (PAST2) for 10 d each. In the last three days of each experimental period, milk samples were collected immediately before each cheese-making event. Cheese samples were collected from each cheese loaf after 60 d of ripening. LOW showed higher FA, FA intermediates of the ruminal biohydrogenation, C18:3 9,12,15, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels than HIGH. The pasture type had a more limited effect on FA composition of milk than concentrate level and was mainly related to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which were higher in PAST1 than PAST2 ( < 0.05). In cheeses, these differences were reduced. The phytanic acid and phytanic isomer ratio (SRR/RRR) in milk were not affected either by supplement level ( > 0.05) or by type of pasture ( > 0.05). Increasing the concentrate offered to dairy cows from 1.5 to 3.0 kg/d did not markedly influence the level of PUFA in cheeses produced during summer grazing on high mountain pasture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9020068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406273PMC
February 2019

Effect of dietary nitrogen level and source on mRNA expression of urea transporters in the rumen epithelium of fattening bulls.

Arch Anim Nutr 2018 Oct;72(5):341-350

a Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences , University of Udine , Udine (UD) , Italy.

This paper aims to study the effect of the dietary treatments on mRNA expression of urea transporter B (UT-B) and some aquaporins (AQP) in rumen epithelium of Italian Simmental young bulls. Eighty animals allocated to 16 pens were fed from about 500 to 650 kg body weight with four experimental diets, which resulted from the combination of two crude protein levels (125 and 110 g/kg dry matter, diets M and L, respectively) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal (SBM) or SBM partly replaced by an isonitrogenous mixture of corn and urea; diets -U and +U, respectively). At slaughtering samples of blood and rumen epithelium were collected from six bulls for each diet. Blood samples were analysed for haematological parameters and quantitative PCR was carried out on the mRNA extracted from the rumen epithelium samples. The bulls fed diets M had lower plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase than those receiving diets L (78.9 vs. 88.3 U/l, p = 0.04). Plasma urea was higher (p = 0.03) for diets M and lower for diets +U (2.0 vs. 2.5 and 1.73 vs. 2.00 mmol/l, respectively, in M and L diets, p = 0.04). The effect of dietary treatments on rumen UT expression were limited to AQP3, which was down regulated (p = 0.01) in diets +U. Finally, a high positive correlation (R = 0.871) between the expressions of AQP7 and AQP10 was found. In conclusion, the AQP3 appears very responsive to dietary treatments and therefore it is a candidate to be further studied in rumen metabolism experiments. The close relationship between mRNA expression of AQP7 and AQP10 indicates a similar function of these two proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2018.1507977DOI Listing
October 2018

Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures.

Animals (Basel) 2018 May 16;8(5). Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by (Poion) and (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8050076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981287PMC
May 2018

Organic meat quality of dual purpose young bulls supplemented with pea (Pisum sativum L.) or soybean.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Feb 22;98(3):938-944. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Background: One of the main constraints established by organic legislation that limits the development of the rearing of young bulls is the ban on the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). Most of the worldwide cultivated soybean is GMO, therefore the use of alternative protein sources should be evaluated. In this study, the effect of dietary substitution of soybean with pea (Pisum sativum L.) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of dual purpose young bulls reared following the organic method was investigated.

Results: Twenty-four young bulls of Rendena breed were randomly assigned to two diet treatments differing in protein supplement (soybean (SB) or field pea (FP)). Carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition, colour, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force did not differ between groups. Regarding meat fatty acid composition, SB showed higher concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 t and lower C16:1n-9c, C14:0, C17:1n-9c and C18:1n-9c than FP. In descriptive sensory analysis, trained judges were not able to differentiate meats from SB and FP, which also had similar overall liking expressed by consumers.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that FP can replace SB in the diet of dual purpose young bulls with only a minor influence on fatty acid composition and no effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8540DOI Listing
February 2018

Greenhouse gas balance of mountain dairy farms as affected by grassland carbon sequestration.

J Environ Manage 2017 Jul 30;196:644-650. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Recent studies on milk production have often focused on environmental impacts analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. In grassland-based livestock systems, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Nevertheless, there is no commonly shared methodology. In this work, the GHG emissions of small-scale mountain dairy farms were assessed using the LCA approach. Two functional units, kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) and Utilizable Agricultural Land (UAL), and two different emissions allocations methods, no allocation and physical allocation, which accounts for the co-product beef, were considered. Two groups of small-scale dairy farms were identified based on the Livestock Units (LU) reared: <30 LU (LLU) and >30 LU (HLU). Before considering soil carbon sequestration in LCA, performing no allocation methods, LLU farms tended to have higher GHG emission than HLU farms per kg of FPCM (1.94 vs. 1.59 kg CO-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.10), whereas the situation was reversed upon considering the m of UAL as a functional unit (0.29 vs. 0.89 kg CO-eq/m, P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, considering physical allocation, the difference between the two groups became less noticeable. When the contribution from soil carbon sequestration was included in the LCA and no allocation method was performed, LLU farms registered higher values of GHG emission per kg of FPCM than HLU farms (1.38 vs. 1.10 kg CO-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.05), and the situation was likewise reversed in this case upon considering the m of UAL as a functional unit (0.22 vs. 0.73 kg CO-eq/m, P ≤ 0.05). To highlight how the presence of grasslands is crucial for the carbon footprint of small-scale farms, this study also applied a simulation for increasing the forage self-sufficiency of farms to 100%. In this case, an average reduction of GHG emission per kg of FPCM of farms was estimated both with no allocation and with physical allocation, reaching 27.0% and 28.8%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.03.052DOI Listing
July 2017

Relocation and Hair Cortisol Concentrations in New Zealand White Rabbits.

J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2017 Jan-Mar;20(1):1-8. Epub 2016 May 18.

a Department of Food Science , University of Udine , Udine , Italy.

To investigate how long relocation modified hair cortisol concentrations in New Zealand white rabbits, 19 rabbits were subjected to a change in their breeding facility at the beginning of the trial and then were kept under stable environmental conditions. Hair samples were collected at the time of arrival to the nonhuman animal facility and at 40-day intervals from the same skin area for up to 440 days after the animals' arrival to the facility. A period effect on the hair cortisol concentration was found (p < .01). The transfer of the rabbits to the new facility might have induced an increase in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (p < .01). A second increase in hair cortisol concentration (p < .01) occurred at 320 days, after a change of personnel at the facility that occurred at 280 days, which was the only environmental change. The relocation of rabbits to the facility resulted in a stress response leading to elevated cortisol levels. The effect of relocation on mean cortisol concentrations was exhausted within 120 days when all environmental factors were kept stable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2016.1183489DOI Listing
July 2017

Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

Meat Sci 2016 Aug 14;118:1-7. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Via Sondrio, 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.03.015DOI Listing
August 2016

Assessment of calpain and caspase systems activities during ageing of two bovine muscles by degradation patterns of αII spectrin and PARP-1.

Anim Sci J 2016 Mar 21;87(3):462-6. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

The activities of calpain and caspase systems during ageing in Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Infraspinatus (IS) muscles of Italian Simmental young bulls (Bos taurus) were assessed. Samples from 10 animals were collected within 20 min of exsanguination (T0), after 48 h (T1) and 7 days (T2) post mortem. Calpain and caspase activity were evaluated based on the formation of αII spectrin cleavage products of 145 kDa (SBDP145) and 120 kDa (SBDP120), respectively. Caspase activity was also assessed by the presence of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage product. At T0, LL showed higher levels of SBDP145 than IS (P < 0.01), while SBDP120 and PARP-1 degradation products were similar between muscles. At T1, no difference was found in the level of SBDP145 between muscles, while SBDP120 and PARP-1 cleavage products were not detected. At T2 neither αII spectrin nor PARP-1 cleavage products were found. LL and IS showed different proteolysis after slaughter that was influenced more by calpain than caspase activity, which was detectable only in the early post mortem period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12473DOI Listing
March 2016

Early post mortem expression of genes related to tenderization in two Italian Simmental young bulls' skeletal muscles differing in contractile type.

Anim Sci J 2015 Dec 8;86(12):992-9. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

The early post mortem expression of eight genes potentially involved in meat ageing process and the tenderness of two Italian Simmental young bulls' (Bos taurus) skeletal muscles differing in their contractile type were evaluated. Samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Infraspinatus (IS) muscles were collected from 17 bulls. The messenger RNA (mRNA) abundances of calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), Hsp40 and Hsp70 were detected by quantitative PCR. The myosin heavy chain-slow and -fast isoform content, the pH48h and the lipid content of the muscles were in line with the contractile and metabolic type. In comparison with the fast LL, the slow IS showed a lower calpain-1/calpastatin mRNA content ratio after slaughtering and a higher Warner-Bratzler Initial Yield value after 7 days of ageing. Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA abundances were significantly lower in LL than IS, highlighting their potential role in the ageing process of bovine muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12386DOI Listing
December 2015

Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

Meat Sci 2015 Aug 10;106:69-77. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Via Sondrio, 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy.

The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.04.001DOI Listing
August 2015

Montasio cheese liking as affected by information about cows breed and rearing system.

J Dairy Res 2015 Feb 7;82(1):15-21. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science,University of Udine,Via delle Scienze 206,33100 Udine,Italy.

Unlabelled: European consumers are more and more aware of the credence attributes of foods, particularly of those of animal origin. The aim of the paper was to assess whether the information about production system may modify the consumer liking of cheese. Montasio PDO cheese (MC), usually made by milk from indoor reared cows of different breeds, was processed from pure milk of Italian Simmental (IS) cows (ISMC) or of IS cows grazing on mountain pasture (ALP-ISMC). A consumer test was carried out in two sessions on 60-d ripened cheeses. In the first, both cheeses were tasted by Montasio consumers in blind condition (Perceived liking, PL). Then the respondents were asked to read information about the breed and the rearing system and to give their Expected liking (EL). Two weeks after, in the second session, the same consumers tasted the two cheeses with the linked information (Actual liking, AL). Despite the similar PL average score (ISMC: 21±2·3 vs.

Alp-ismc: 23±2·2 points on Labelled Affective Magnitude scale, P>0·05), it was possible to identifying consumers' clusters with differential liking for the two types of Montasio PDO, that were characterised by different physico-chemical properties. Consumers express a high EL for ISMC (38±2·6 points) and even more for ALP-ISMC (61±2·5 points). The AL of ISMC (35±2·1 points) was similar and statistically not different from the EL (complete assimilation of information about breed). For ALP-ISMC the assimilation was complete for consumers (29%) who have expressed a positive PL for it, at least twice as much than ISMC. For the rest of consumers, both information and intrinsic properties play a significant role in the AL of the pasture-derived cheese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029914000545DOI Listing
February 2015

Characterization and differentiation of Italian Parma, San Daniele and Toscano dry-cured hams: a multi-disciplinary approach.

Meat Sci 2014 Jan 20;96(1):288-94. Epub 2013 Jul 20.

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

This study aimed at characterizing the sensory quality of Italian PDO dry-cured Parma, San Daniele and Toscano hams, applying a multi-disciplinary approach. Ham sensory profile as well as physico-chemical, aromatic, morphological and textural characteristics was investigated. There was a great difference between Toscano ham and Parma and San Daniele hams, which were more similar even though differentiated. Toscano ham showed higher scores for pork-meat odor, saltiness, dryness, fibrousness and hardness; accordingly, this ham was described by a high NaCl content and by high values of instrumental hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. Parma ham was characterized by a cured flavor, whereas San Daniele ham showed a wider fatty area and higher pH values. Parma and San Daniele hams were also described by higher values of sweetness, RGB color values and water activity. Sensory characteristics evaluated by trained assessors were correlated to instrumental measures, indicating that instrumental devices can be effectively applied for dry-cured ham characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.014DOI Listing
January 2014

Effect of rearing system (mountain pasture vs. indoor) of Simmental cows on milk composition and Montasio cheese characteristics.

J Dairy Res 2013 Nov 26;80(4):390-9. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Dairy cattle in the Alps are traditionally maintained on high altitude pastures during summer. In recent decades, however, many farmers prefer to maintain the cows always indoor with a hay-based diet. Many authors have shown that the forage type is able to modify the characteristics of milk and cheese. Recently the product specification of PDO Montasio allowed differentiation between mountain cheeses and other products. Aim of this trial is to study the effect of rearing system on the characteristics of milk and cheese produced in this context. One hundred and twenty Simmental dairy cows were considered, 60 grazed on high altitude pasture, and 60 kept indoor and fed a hay-based diet. Cheese production was repeated in two periods (early July and late August) and ripened two and six months. Pasture-derived milk and cheese presented higher fat and lower protein content than hay-derived ones. Rearing systems also affected cheese colour. Textural parameters, hardness, gumminess and chewiness were found to be higher in pasture-derived cheese. In addition, it showed lower level of total saturated fatty acids, and higher level of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than hay-derived cheeses. Consumers perceived the difference of cheeses in terms of colour and holes, but they express a similar overall liking. More limited effects of period and ripening time were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029913000344DOI Listing
November 2013

Effects of stocking density and supplement level on milk production and cheese characteristics in Brown cows grazing on mountain pasture.

J Dairy Res 2008 Aug;75(3):357-64

Department of Animal Science, University of Udine, 33010 Pagnacco, Udine, Italy.

Twenty-eight Brown cows were maintained on a mountain pasture for a period of 40 days and assigned to 4 groups following a factorial design 2 stocking density (0.7 and 1.4 cows/ha)x2 supplement levels (2.4 and 4.8 kg organic matter (OM)/d). Herbage intake, animal body condition score (BCS), milk yield, milk chemical and coagulation properties, cheese composition, rheology and sensory characteristics were measured. The average herbage intake was 12.2 kg OM/d, with a significant effect related to stocking density (low, 13.1 v. high, 11.4 kg OM/d). BCS variation was always negative and changed with supplement level, although with no statistical significance (-0.43 points on average). Milk yield was lower for the group with lower availability of herbage (low supplement and high stocking density: 15.9 kg/d), whereas it was comparable among others groups (16.9 kg/d on average). The group with high supplement and low stocking density produced milk with worse cheese making properties. Cheese composition analyses showed an effect of supplement level on calcium content, and on parameters for degree of ripening, such as nitrogen fractions and lipolysis index. As for the textural parameters, hardness and gumminess were found to be higher with the low level of supplement. The different level of supplementation could differentiate the groups on the basis of the sensory perception of cheese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029908003531DOI Listing
August 2008