Publications by authors named "Mir Faeq Ali Quadri"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection Is a New Challenge for the Effectiveness of Global Vaccination Campaign: A Systematic Review of Cases Reported in Literature.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 19;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 82511, Saudi Arabia.

Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 seems to be a rare phenomenon. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic search of literature on the SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in order to understand the success of the global vaccine campaigns. A systematic search was performed. Inclusion criteria included a positive RT-PCR test of more than 90 days after the initial test and the confirmed recovery or a positive RT-PCR test of more than 45 days after the initial test that is accompanied by compatible symptoms or epidemiological exposure, naturally after the confirmed recovery. Only 117 articles were included in the final review with 260 confirmed cases. The severity of the reinfection episode was more severe in 92/260 (35.3%) with death only in 14 cases. The observation that many reinfection cases were less severe than initial cases is interesting because it may suggest partial protection from disease. Another interesting line of data is the detection of different clades or lineages by genome sequencing between initial infection and reinfection in 52/260 cases (20%). The findings are useful and contribute towards the role of vaccination in response to the COVID-19 infections. Due to the reinfection cases with SARS-CoV-2, it is evident that the level of immunity is not 100% for all individuals. These data highlight how it is necessary to continue to observe all the prescriptions recently indicated in the literature in order to avoid new contagion for all people after healing from COVID-19 or becoming asymptomatic positive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182011001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535385PMC
October 2021

Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms in Emirati Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 13;14:2863-2869. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: The current study is the first to present the cephalometric norms in Emirati adults and aimed to investigate the differences in the angular and linear soft tissue cephalometric measures between male and female Emirati adults.

Methods: A group of 176 individuals (91 males and 85 females) with normal occlusion, proportional facial profiles were chosen, and lateral cephalograms were obtained. Standard values of 16 soft-tissue measurements were determined. Descriptive statistics were first carried out for each parameter. The Student's -test was then performed to determine significant differences between male and female measurement means. Significant differences were determined at the 95% probability level.

Results: Soft tissue measurements showed that men had a greater soft tissue profile and H-angle than women. A significant difference between the genders was observed for all linear soft tissue measurements except for the lower lip to E-plane, N'-Sn' and Sn'-Stomion/Sn-Me ratio measurements. The lengths and thicknesses of the upper and lower lips independently, protrusion of both upper and lower lips, Sn'-Me' (mm) and N'-Sn'/Sn'-Me' (%) were found to be significantly different (p < 0.001) and so were the upper lip to E-plane (mm) and the soft tissue thickness of the chin measurements (p < 0.05). Except for upper and lower lip protrusion dimensions and the N'-Sn'/Sn'-Me' (%), men presented with greater linear measurements.

Conclusion: The differences in soft-tissue cephalometric norms between men and women were established, suggesting that the orthodontist must individualize therapy using local norms as the reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S334971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520969PMC
October 2021

Differences in COVID-19 Preventive Behavior and Food Insecurity by HIV Status in Nigeria.

AIDS Behav 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Mental Health and Wellness Study Group, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

The aim of the study was to assess if there were significant differences in the adoption of COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors and experience of food insecurity by people living with and without HIV in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited a convenience sample of 4471 (20.5% HIV positive) adults in Nigeria. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the associations between the explanatory variable (HIV positive and non-positive status) and the outcome variables-COVID-19 related behavior changes (physical distancing, isolation/quarantine, working remotely) and food insecurity (hungry but did not eat, cut the size of meals/skip meals) controlling for age, sex at birth, COVID-19 status, and medical status of respondents. Significantly fewer people living with HIV (PLWH) reported a positive COVID-19 test result; and had lower odds of practicing COVID-19 risk preventive behaviors. In comparison with those living without HIV, PLWH had higher odds of cutting meal sizes as a food security measure (AOR: 3.18; 95% CI 2.60-3.88) and lower odds of being hungry and not eating (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI 0.20-0.30). In conclusion, associations between HIV status, COVID-19 preventive behaviors and food security are highly complex and warrant further in-depth to unravel the incongruities identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03433-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360820PMC
August 2021

Factors Associated with Financial Security, Food Security and Quality of Daily Lives of Residents in Nigeria during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 27;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Mental Health and Wellness Study Group, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Nigeria.

An online survey was conducted to identify factors associated with financial insecurity, food insecurity and poor quality of daily lives of adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations between the outcome (experience of financial loss, changes in food intake and impact of the pandemic on daily lives) and the explanatory (age, sex, education level, anxiety, depression, HIV status) variables were determined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 4439 respondents, 2487 (56.0%) were financially insecure, 907 (20.4%) decreased food intake and 4029 (90.8%) had their daily life negatively impacted. Males (AOR:0.84), people who felt depressed (AOR:0.62) and people living with HIV -PLHIV- (AOR:0.70) had significantly lower odds of financial insecurity. Older respondents (AOR:1.01) had significantly higher odds of financial insecurity. Those depressed (AOR:0.62) and PLHIV (AOR:0.55) had significantly lower odds of reporting decreased food intake. Respondents who felt anxious (AOR:0.07), depressed (AOR: 0.48) and who were PLHIV (AOR:0.68) had significantly lower odds of reporting a negative impact of the pandemic on their daily lives. We concluded the study findings may reflect a complex relationship between financial insecurity, food insecurity, poor quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status of adults living in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345729PMC
July 2021

Impact of the Poor Oral Health Status of Children on Their Families: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;8(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia.

The impact of poor oral health may not just be limited to the children themselves but can impact their families. The current study aims to perform psychometric analyses of the Arabic version of the Family Impact Scale and investigate the association of its domains with the oral health status of children. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 500 parent-child dyads from high schools of Jazan city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the Family Impact Scale was subjected to reliability and validity tests. The explanatory variables in the current study are: the oral health status, parents combined income, parents' education, age and sex of the child. The descriptive analysis was reported using proportions, this was followed by the bivariate and multivariable analyses. About 24.2% of children were reported to have fair, poor, and very poor oral health. A lower frequency of family impact corresponded with better oral health (OH) status of children ( < 0.001). The likelihood of parent's taking time off from work and having financial difficulties was nearly two-times greater if their children had poor oral health. Similarly, interruption in sleep and other normal activities of parents is four times and five times greater, respectively, if the child has poor oral health status. Thus, the poor oral health of school children in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia is a matter of grave concern as it is observed to be associated with family impacts; particularly affecting the parent's work, sleep, and other normal family activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8070586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305805PMC
July 2021

Oral Health and Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life and General Well-Being among Adolescents in Lesotho, Southern Africa.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jul 7;8(7). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Oral Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: Adolescents' quality of life is reported to be significantly associated with physical and social wellbeing. Although adolescents are 30% of the Southern African population, no previous studies have focused on this group in relation to oral health and quality of life.

Methods: A 40-item survey and clinical oral examinations were conducted in public schools in Maseru from 10 to 25 August 2016. Simple, bivariate, and multivariate regressions were used to evaluate the associations of oral health and psychosocial factors with self-reported general health status and quality of life.

Results: A total of 526 participants, aged 12-19 years old, responded to the survey and participated in the clinical examinations. The majority reported a good (good/very good/excellent) quality of life (84%) and general health (81%). Bivariate results showed that self-reported general health in this population was significantly influenced by age. The presence of toothache and sensitivity in the adolescents were significantly associated with poor (fair/poor) self-reported general health and were found to be the best predictors for self-general health and quality of life.

Conclusions: The absence of dental conditions such as toothache and tooth sensitivity can lead to a better perception of general health and Quality of Life in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8070582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303356PMC
July 2021

Does Dental Fear in Children Predict Untreated Dental Caries? An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 12;8(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of dental fear in predicting untreated dental caries in schoolchildren. This analytical cross-sectional study included children aged 8-10 years residing in Saudi Arabia. Dental status via oral examinations was surveyed with the WHO standardized chart and the Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale was used to score dental fear. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to report the findings at 5% statistical significance. Overall, there were 798 schoolchildren with an average fear score of 36. Nearly 70.4% reported fear of someone examining their mouth. About 76.9% had at least one carious tooth in their oral cavity. Children with dental fear were 1.8 times (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.56) more likely to have at least one untreated carious tooth in their oral cavity than those who did not express fear during oral examinations and dental procedures. Thus, the current study concludes that fear of dentists and dental treatment procedures successfully predicts untreated carious teeth in schoolchildren.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8050382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151813PMC
May 2021

A bibliometric analysis of the top 100 most-cited articles in the Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine (1972-2020).

J Oral Pathol Med 2021 Aug 19;50(7):649-659. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK.

Objective: The steady and continued increase of the Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine's (JOPM) popularity prompted a bibliometric analysis of the journal. The purpose was to assess the significance and effect of the published research articles in the Journal from 1972 and 2020, aiding the identification of landmark articles. We performed a bibliometric analysis using the top 100 cited papers in the Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine.

Materials And Methods: An extensive review of the Web of Science was undertaken. Standard information such as author details, affiliated institutions, publication year and the country of origin was recorded.

Results: The top 100 cited articles in JOPM were assessed. The maximum and minimum number of citations in the top 100 articles was 1459 and 95, respectively. A total of 16 790 citations were recorded for these 100 articles. Authors were affiliated to 28 different countries, 17 research articles from the UK and 12 from the USA. Other countries furnished seven or fewer articles.

Conclusion: This bibliometric analysis provides a synopsis of research published in the journal over a 48-year period. Recent interest in the journal shows a healthy increase in submissions and profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.13181DOI Listing
August 2021

Oral Health Status and Patterns of Dental Service Utilization of Adolescents in Lesotho, Southern Africa.

Children (Basel) 2021 Feb 7;8(2). Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Oral and Biological Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada.

This study aimed to characterize the best predictors for unmet dental treatment needs and patterns of dental service utilization by adolescents in the Kingdom of Lesotho, Southern Africa. A self-reported 40-item oral health survey was administered, and clinical oral examinations were conducted in public schools in Maseru from August 10 to August 25, 2016. Associations between psychosocial factors with oral health status and dental service utilization were evaluated using simple, bivariate, and multivariate regressions. Five hundred and twenty-six survey responses and examinations were gathered. The mean age of student participants was 16.4 years of age, with a range between 12 and 19 years of age. More than two thirds (68%; = 355) of participants were female. The majority reported their quality of life (84%) and general health to be good/excellent (81%). While 95% reported that oral health was very important, only 11% reported their personal dental health as excellent. Three percent reported having a regular family dentist, with the majority (85%) receiving dental care in a hospital or medical clinic setting; only 14% had seen a dental professional within the previous two years. The majority of participants did not have dental insurance (78%). Clinical examination revealed tooth decay on 30% of mandibular and maxillary molars; 65% had some form of gingivitis. In multivariate analysis, not having dental education and access to a regular dentist were the strongest predictors of not visiting a dentist within the last year. Our results suggest that access to oral health care is limited in Lesotho. Further patient oral health education and regular dental care may make an impact on this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8020120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915077PMC
February 2021

A Case-Control Study of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis in Saudi Arabian Adults.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2020 27;13:1741-1748. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

College of Dentistry, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and periodontitis is bidirectional and has been investigated. However, the evidence from the middle-eastern region is sparse. The current report assessed the association between uncontrolled T2DM and periodontal status from a sample of the Saudi Arabian adult population.

Methods: A case-control study was carried out. Cases were adults diagnosed with periodontitis (clinical attachment loss ≥1 mm) and controls were patients from the same dental setting with no gum conditions matched with age, sex, and location. Diabetes was recorded using HbA1c readings. The other health conditions including hypertension, epilepsy, bronchitis, thyroid disorders, and arthritis were obtained from medical records. Data on the use of tobacco and related products (smoking, khat/qat, sheesha, shammah) were gathered using a self-perceived questionnaire. Frequencies, percentages, p-values, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed.

Results: Overall sample comprises 166 cases and 332 controls with a mean age of 37.5 years. Multivariable analysis indicated uncontrolled T2DM as an important predictor for periodontitis among Saudi Arabian adults, and they had nearly three times greater odds (OR: 2.779; 95% CI: 1.425-5.419; p=0.003) of being diagnosed with periodontitis in contrast to non-diabetics. Secondary findings revealed that cigarette ever-users were two times more likely to be suffering from periodontitis than never-users, and those brushing once per day or less had five times greater odds of developing periodontitis as compared to those brushing twice daily.

Conclusion: To conclude, the current evidence from Saudi Arabia is supportive of earlier studies and an awareness of this association is warranted among all healthcare providers and patients in the region for early detection of periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S288681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708264PMC
November 2020

Low-Level Laser Therapy and Topical Medications for Treating Aphthous Ulcers: A Systematic Review.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2020 18;13:1595-1605. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The study compares low-level laser therapy with topical medications for treating aphthous ulcers.

Methods: A search of articles in this systematic review was completed in six databases. Treatment and comparative groups comprised of patients subjected to laser therapy and topical medications, respectively. Two different treatment outcomes were considered; pain and size of the lesion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.

Results: From 109 articles, five randomized control trials fulfilled the selection criteria. The overall sample comprised of 98 males and 232 females, with a mean age of 32.4 years. The laser therapies in each included study had different active media and varying wavelengths. Topical medication used in the comparative group were triamcinolone acetonide, amlexanox, granofurin, and solcoseryl. Findings showed that patients who reported lower pain and decreased aphthous ulcer lesions were more in the laser therapy group than in the topical medication group.

Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy was better in treating aphthous ulcer lesions in comparison to topical medications, and all laser wavelengths in the included reports were seen to be effective. However, the results should be interpreted with caution, because no study demonstrated low-risk of bias in all the assessed domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S281495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680689PMC
November 2020

Psychometric Analyses of the Indian (Hindi) Version of the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ).

Children (Basel) 2020 Oct 9;7(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4214, Australia.

The current research aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Hindi Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ) in a child population of India. A randomly selected sample of children aged 11-14 years ( = 331) and their parents completed the Hindi translation of CPQ and the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ), respectively, in this cross-sectional study. Children also provided a self-rating of oral health and were examined for dental caries. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted to assess the dimensionality of the Hindi-CPQ. Internal consistency and reliability on repeated administration were evaluated. Convergent and divergent validities were determined by estimating correlation coefficients between items and the hypothesised subscales. Concurrent validity was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. The four factors extracted in EFA had a total variance of 38.5%, comprising 31 items. Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.90; reliability on repeated administration was 0.92. All the Hindi CPQ items had an item-hypothesised subscale correlation coefficient of ≥0.4, and these were greater than item-other hypothesised subscale correlations, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validities respectively. Hindi-CPQ was associated with self-ratings of the oral health and overall P-CPQ scores demonstrating good concurrent validity. Hindi-CPQ showed a factor structure different from the English CPQ and exhibited good validity and reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7100175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600429PMC
October 2020

A Call for Action to Safely Deliver Oral Health Care during and Post COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 15;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started just a couple of months ago and it grew rapidly causing several deaths and morbidities. The mechanism behind the transmission of the virus is still not completely understood despite a multitude of new specific manuscripts being published daily. This article highlights the oral cavity as a possible viral transmission route into the body via the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor. It also provides guidelines for routine protective measures in the dental office while delivering oral health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558658PMC
September 2020

Tobacco Use and Orofacial Pain: A Meta-analysis.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 10;22(11):1957-1963

Evidence-Based Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jizan, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: The relationship between smoking and general body ache has been shown to be bidirectional. The specific association between tobacco consumption and orofacial pain remains unclear, however.

Aim And Methods: The aim of this systematic review was to explore the association between pain related to diseases of the oral cavity and use of tobacco. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was carried out in September 2019. Tobacco exposure was included irrespective of the method of consumption (smokeless and smoked tobacco), and frequency of the habit. The outcome was defined as clinically diagnosed or self-reported pain in the orofacial region, with no limitation in the duration of the condition or the site of the pain.

Results: Altogether, eight studies were selected, with three of them demonstrating good methodology and none of them being of poor quality. Meta-analysis of six studies showed that orofacial pain was significantly worse in tobacco (smoked and smokeless) users (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92, 6.58) in comparison to nonusers. Subgroup analysis showed that the odds of orofacial pain was three times (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.16, 8.46) higher among smokers, but was not associated with smokeless tobacco.

Conclusions: The odds of experiencing orofacial pain among patients with oral diseases increase for patients who are also smokers. The findings could help dentists and other health specialists more effectively manage patients with orofacial pain who are tobacco consumers.

Implications: This study shows that the odds of orofacial pain among patients with oral diseases increase for patients who are smokers. The results are a significant contribution to the literature because, while the relationship between smoking and general body ache has been shown to be bidirectional, the specific association between tobacco use and orofacial pain warranted further study. The findings could help dentists and other specialists more effectively manage patients with orofacial pain who are also tobacco consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa074DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparing case-based and lecture-based learning strategies for orthodontic case diagnosis: A randomized controlled trial.

J Dent Educ 2020 Aug 6;84(8):857-863. Epub 2020 May 6.

Evidence Based Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Case-based learning (CBL), in contrast to traditional lecture-based learning (LBL), is an andragogical method carrying an earnest teaching approach that uses demonstration of clinical cases as an active learning tool.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of knowledge delivery and student satisfaction between CBL and LBL strategies to diagnose orthodontic cases.

Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed. The sample of dental undergraduate students was randomly divided into 2 groups. Average GPA among the groups was compared to establish the baseline measure. Visual slides of 6 orthodontic diagnostic cases were presented to the students after implementing the teaching strategies, and a rubrics-based assessment method was adopted to assess the effectiveness in diagnosis. A questionnaire was distributed to compare the level of satisfaction between the groups exposed to CBL and LBL. A t-test was performed to assess the difference in effectiveness, while Cochran-Armitage trend analysis was performed to analyze the difference in the level of satisfaction between LBL and CBL experiences.

Results: We detected no significant (P = 0.11) relation of gender with effective orthodontic diagnosis. The orthodontic diagnostic ability of students for the 6 cases was significantly different (P < 0.05) in the CBL and LBL groups. The satisfaction score obtained for the CBL group was higher than for the LBL group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that CBL is an effective and acceptable teaching strategy in comparison to traditional LBL among undergraduate dental students embarking on an orthodontic diagnostic course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12171DOI Listing
August 2020

What factors contribute to the self-reported oral health status of Arab adolescents? An assessment using a validated Arabic-WHO tool for child oral health (A-OHAT).

BMC Oral Health 2020 01 28;20(1):21. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Division of Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Gizan, 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The current study was performed; to validate the Arabic version of WHO child oral health assessment tool (A-OHAT), to assess the oral health status of Arab school children and finally to identify the important risk factors associated with the poor teeth and gum conditions of school children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with two-staged simple random sampling technique was implemented. A-OHAT, a self-assessment tool was subjected to psychometric analyses with the respondents being high school children. The Cronbach's alpha and the Intra class correlation values were computed. Paired t-test was performed to identify the differences between the readings after repeated administration, followed by the analysis for convergent validity. This tested Arabic-WHO Child-OHAT was administered to collect the data. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to report on the potential risk factors associated with poor teeth and poor gum conditions of school children.

Results: Psychometric analyses revealed that the Arabic Child Oral Health Assessment Tool (A-OHAT) was reliable and valid. A total of 478 (N) high school children were subjected to the tested tool, of which 66.5% were male and 33.5% were female with a mean age of 16.28 + 1.04 years. 80.3% of school children had poor teeth condition and 36.2% of school children had often experienced toothache. Children had 1.5 times higher odds of having poor teeth condition if they had increased frequency of sweet and candy consumption. It was also seen that increased frequency of sweets and candy consumption by school children had put them at nearly 20% higher risk of having poor gum condition. Finally, children with the habit of using toothbrush had nearly 50% lower chance of having poor gum condition in contrast to the school children who do not use toothbrush.

Conclusion: To conclude, the study provides a reliable and valid tool to assess the oral health status of Arab adolescents. Improper oral hygiene habits and diet were identified as the plausible risk factors for poor teeth and gum condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-1018-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986000PMC
January 2020

Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Tob Induc Dis 2019 18;17:56. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Cancer of the oral cavity is regarded lethal with a fairly low mean 5-year survival rate. The current systematic review and meta-analysis is the first of its kind to examine, if the evidence from the Middle East and North African region indicates an association between oral cancer and tobacco; and evaluates the quality of the evidence that portrays this relationship.

Methods: A search for articles was carried out in October 2017 and then cross-checked at the end of June 2018 using Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases. Retrieved articles were later subjected to eligibility criteria. The search was not limited to any particular research design adopted by the investigators. However, dissertations, theses and opinion-based reviews generated from the search were excluded during the screening of titles and abstracts. Quality of included studies was determined objectively (Newcastle Ottawa Scale) and subjectively. Revman (Version 5.3) was used for conducting the meta-analysis.

Results: Six studies satisfied the selection criteria of the current review. The New Castle Ottawa evaluation scale suggested that the three cross-sectional studies and the three case-control studies included in the current review were of relatively low to moderate quality. All included studies explored the association of only one form of smokeless tobacco, i.e. shammah. Three case-control studies revealed a pooled estimate odds ratio of 38.74 (95% CI: 19.50-76.96), indicating that the odds for the occurrence of oral cancer among shammah users were nearly 39 times higher compared to the non-users.

Conclusions: Shammah is a potential risk factor for oral cancer; thus, it is necessary that public health practitioners design and implement effective strategies to prevent the abuse of shammah.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/110259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770623PMC
July 2019

Is there evidence for the impact of poor oral health on school performance?

BMC Oral Health 2019 07 11;19(1):143. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

As part of our study, we reviewed the report published in BMC-Oral Health, titled "An assessment of the impacts of child oral health in Indonesia and associations with self-esteem, school performance and perceived employability" by Maharani et.al, 2017. We noted a plausible error in the interpretation of results in the report and re-examined the published data. Contradictory to the published report, our analysis showed no evidence for the relationship between toothache and poor school performance. Significant relationship was only found between plaque accumulation and school performance. We argued that the error may have originated from an unclear objective and misclassification of school performance variable before applying statistical test to address the objective of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-019-0822-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625084PMC
July 2019

Perceived Stress among Undergraduate Dental Students in Relation to Gender, Clinical Training and Academic Performance.

Acta Stomatol Croat 2018 Mar;52(1):37-45

Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the perceived stress and its sources among undergraduate dental students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data were collected using the DES questionnaire. The overall score of stress and scores by individual domains were described and analyzed by different grouping factors: gender, study level, marital status and GPA.

Results: A total of 366 dental students agreed to take a part in this study. Up to 57% of the participants were females. The overall DES score was 1.67 ± 0.45. Female students and married students scored higher stress levels than their counterparts. Stress increased significantly among students as their educational level increased. Inversely, the stress levels were lower in participants with high GPA. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that "Study level" and "Gender" were significant independent determinants of overall DES and, also, most of the stress domains. Forty one percent of the variability in DES score can be explained by these determinants.

Conclusion: DES among dental students in Jazan University is moderate and slightly higher. It is higher among females and increases significantly with study progression. However, students who had higher GPA showed lower levels of stress.

Clinical Significance: Reduction and/or relief of stress among dental students will reflect positively on persistence and academic achievement, which will lead to better management and care of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15644/asc52/1/6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6050751PMC
March 2018

Individual and Integrated Effects of Potential Risk Factors for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Mar 27;19(3):791-796. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with a high prevalence reported in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this study were to check individual and integrated effects of potential risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: A case control study was designed with a sample of 210 subjects, in which histopathologically confirmed incident cases (n=70) and controls (n=140) matched for age, gender and referral route, were recruited. Differences in exposure to potential risk factors between cases and controls were assessed using chi-square and McNemar analyses. A logistic regression model with interactions was applied to check individual and integrated effects. Results: Mean age of the sample was 55 years (+ 20 years). Shammah (O.R = 33.01; C.I = 3.22 – 39.88), shisha (O.R = 3.96; C.I = 0.24 – 63.38), and cigarette (O.R = 1.58; C.I = 0.13, 2.50) consumption was significantly associated (P<0.05) with oral squamous cell carcinoma development. In contrast, Khat chewing (O.R = 0.67; C.I = 0.19-2.36) was without significant effect. An increase in odds ratios was observed when combinations of shammah and shisha (O.R = 35.03; C.I = 11.50-65.66), shisha and cigarettes (O.R = 10.52; C.I = 1.03 – 33.90) or shamma and cigarettes (O.R = 10.10; C.I = 0.50 - 20.40) were used. Conclusion: Combined exposure to risk-factors has serious implications and policies on oral cancer prevention should be designed with attention to this aspect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980857PMC
March 2018

Antibiotic Prescription Knowledge of Dentists in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Online, Country-wide Survey.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Mar 1;17(3):198-204. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim: Dentists are probably contributing to the development of bacterial resistance to certain antibiotics. Campaigns to promote prudent use of antibiotics in dentistry are, thus, needed but require proper identification of dentists' knowledge gaps. The objective here was to comprehensively evaluate antibiotic prescription knowledge of dentists in Saudi Arabia.

Material And Methods: A link to an online, previously validated questionnaire was emailed to 5199 dentists registered with the Saudi Dental Society. The questionnaire comprised 42 scorable items measuring antibiotics prescription knowledge in five different domains in addition to nonscorable questions regarding first-choice antibiotics and previous attendance of a course/workshop about antibiotic prescription. Each correct answer was given one mark. Mean scores were calculated as percentages and categorized as good (> 80%), intermediate (60-80%), or poor (< 60%).

Results: The response rate was 9.4%; however, only 373 (7.2%) fully completed the questionnaire. Around half of the participants (52%) reported prescribing amoxicillin/clavulanate as the first-choice antibiotic; 62% reported attending a course/workshop in the last 5 years. The average knowledge score was 69%, being highest for nonclinical indications (79%) and lowest for prophylactic use (56%). The worst per-item scores were noted for rheumatic heart disease (19%), trismus (28%), surgical extraction (30%), apicectomy (31%), and periodontal abscess (33%). Female dentists, dentists in governmental sector, and those with higher qualifications had significantly better knowledge.

Conclusion: The level of knowledge was hardly intermediate and several deficits were identified, indicating an urgent need for educational campaigns and provision of guidelines promoting rational use of antibiotics by dentists.

Clinical Significance: Irrational use of antibiotics by dentists can contribute to the problem of antibacterial resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1827DOI Listing
March 2016

Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students.

Int J Dent 2015 30;2015:842096. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic regression was also performed after adjusting for covariates. Results. A high response rate (95%) was obtained as the distribution and collection of questionnaire was within an hour interval. 85% (63%, males; 22%, females) experienced an episode of bruxism at least one time in the past six months. Regression analysis revealed an association of stress (P = 0.00; OR = 5.902, 95% CI 2.614-13.325) and khat use (P = 0.05; OR = 1.629, 95% CI 0.360-7.368) with bruxism. Interestingly, it is observed that the one who chew khat experienced 3.56 times (95% CI; 2.62-11.22) less pain when compared to the nonusers. Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to assess the association of bruxism with khat chewing. High amount of stress and khat use can be considered as important risk indicators for awake bruxism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/842096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4605374PMC
October 2015

Oral squamous cell carcinoma and associated risk factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: a hospital based case control study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(10):4335-8

Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia E-mail :

Background: Oral cancer is the third most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia, the highest incidence of which is reported from Jazan province. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of various locally used substances, especially shamma, with oral cancer in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia.

Materials And Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was designed and patient records were scanned for histologically confirmed oral cancer cases. Forty eight patients who were recently diagnosed with oral cancer were selected as cases. Two healthy controls were selected for each observed case and they were matched with age (+/-5 years) gender and location. Use of different forms of tobacco such as cigarettes, pipe-smoking and shamma (smokeless- tobacco) was assessed. Khat, a commonly used chewing substance in the community was also included. Descriptive analysis was first performed followed by multiple logistic regression (with and without interaction) to derive odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs).

Results: Mean age of the study sample (56% males and 44% females) was 65.3 years. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that shamma use increased the odds of developing oral cancer by 29 times (OR=29.3; 10.3-83.1). Cigarette (OR=6.74; 2.18-20.8) was also seen to have an effect. With the interaction model the odds ratio increased significantly for shamma users (OR=37.2; 12.3-113.2) and cigarette smokers (OR=10.5; 2.88-3.11). Khat was observed to have negative effect on the disease occurrence when used along with shamma (OR=0.01; 0.00-0.65).

Conclusions: We conclude that shamma, a moist form of smokeless tobacco is a major threat for oral cancer occurrence in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. This study gives a direction to conduct further longitudinal studies in the region with increased sample size representing the population in order to provide more substantial evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.10.4335DOI Listing
February 2016

Reliability and validity of Arabic Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (AREALD-30) in Saudi Arabia.

BMC Oral Health 2014 Sep 29;14:120. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, P,O Box: 114, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Background: To evaluate the reliability and validity of Arabic Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (AREALD-30) in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A convenience sample of 200 subjects was approached, of which 177 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 88.5%. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-99), was translated into Arabic to prepare the longer and shorter versions of Arabic Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (AREALD-99 and AREALD-30). Each participant was provided with AREALD-99 which also includes words from AREALD-30. A questionnaire containing socio-behavioral information and Arabic Oral Health Impact Profile (A-OHIP-14) was also administered. Reliability of the AREALD-30 was assessed by re-administering it to 20 subjects after two weeks. Convergent and predictive validity of AREALD-30 was evaluated by its correlations with AREALD-99 and self-perceived oral health status, dental visiting habits and A-OHIP-14 respectively. Discriminant validity was assessed in relation to the educational level while construct validity was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Results: Reliability of AREALD-30 was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99. It exhibited good convergent and discriminant validity but poor predictive validity. CFA showed presence of two factors and infit mean-square statistics for AREALD-30 were all within the desired range of 0.50 - 2.0 in Rasch analysis.

Conclusions: AREALD-30 showed excellent reliability, good convergent and concurrent validity, but failed to predict the differences between the subjects categorized based on their oral health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-14-120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190341PMC
September 2014

Effectiveness of an intervention program on knowledge of oral cancer among the youth of Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(5):1913-8

Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan U niversity, Jazan, Saudi Arabia E-mail :

Background: The study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Saudi Arabia (KSA), aiming to analyze the effectiveness of an intervention program in improving the knowledge of oral cancer among the youth.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1,051 young Saudis (57% males and 43% females with a mean age of 20.4 ± 1.98) were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Knowledge assessment was accomplished using a closed-ended questionnaire which was subjected to reliability tests. Prevalence of risk factors in relation to gender was analyzed using the chi-squared test. Effectiveness was calculated by comparing the pre- and post-intervention means, using the two-tailed paired t-test. Multiple logistic regression was employed in order to determine factors associated with awareness of risk habits, signs/symptoms and prevention of oral cancer. The significance level in this study was set at 0.05.

Results: Females were seen to be more into the habit of sheesha smoking (3.3% rather than the use of other forms of risk factors. Prevalence of diverse risk factors such as cigarette smoking (20%), sheesha (15.3%), khat (27%) and shamma (9%) was seen among males. Gender and the use of modifiable risk factors among the study sample were significantly (p<0.001) associated with effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention program was highly effective (p<0.001) in improving the knowledge of oral cancer among the youth in Jazan, KSA. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and gender are the most significant factors affecting knowledge.

Conclusions: The study gives a direction for further public health initiatives in this oral cancer prone region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.5.1913DOI Listing
December 2014
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