Publications by authors named "Minoo Battiwalla"

121 Publications

Return to Work Among Young Adult Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Young adult (YA) survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for late psychosocial challenges, including the inability to return to work post-HCT. Work-related outcomes in this population remain understudied, however. We conducted this study to assess the post-HCT work status of survivors of allogeneic HCT who underwent HCT as YAs and to analyze the patient-, disease-, and HCT-related factors associated with their work status at 1 year post-HCT. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we evaluated the post-HCT work status (full-time, part-time work, unemployed, or medical disability) of 1365 YA HCT survivors who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2015. Percentages of work status categories were reported at 4 time points: 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-HCT. Percentages of post-HCT work status categories at the 1-year time point were also described in relation to survivors' pre-HCT work status categories. Factors associated with 1-year post-HCT work status (full-time or part-time work) were examined using logistic regression. From 6 months to 3 years post-HCT, the percentage of survivors working full-time increased from 18.3% to 50.7% and the percentage working part-time increased from 6.9% to 10.5%. Of patients in full-time work pre-HCT, 50% were unemployed or on medical disability at 1 year post-HCT. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.77), HCT Comorbidity Index score ≥3 (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82), pre-HCT unemployment (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.56), medical disability (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.70), development of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.80), and relapse within 1 year post-HCT (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.56) were associated with a lower likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with total body irradiation (TBI), MAC without TBI (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.53) was associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Graduate school-level education (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.10) was also associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Although the work status among YA HCT survivors continued to improve over time, a substantial subset became or remained unemployed or on medical disability. These findings underscore the need for effective interventions to support return to work in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetics of HLA Peptide Presentation and Impact on Outcomes in HLA-Matched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Internal Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; BMTCT Program, Division of Hematology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs), recipient-derived peptide epitopes presented on the cell surface, are known to mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); however, there are no current methods to associate mHA features with GVHD risk. This deficiency is due in part to the lack of technological means to accurately predict, let alone confirm, the tremendous number of potential mHAs in each individual transplant. Previous studies have shown that different HLA molecules present varying fractions of candidate peptide epitopes; however, the genetic "distance" between HLA-matched donors and recipients is relatively constrained. From these 2 observations, it is possible that the HLA type for a donor-recipient pair (DRP) would provide a surrogate measurement of the number of predicted mHAs, which could be related to GVHD risk. Because different HLA molecules present variable numbers of peptide antigens, a predicted cumulative peptide-binding efficiency can be calculated for individual DRP based on the pair's HLA type. The purpose of this study was to test whether cumulative peptide-binding efficiency is associated with the risk of acute GVHD (aGVHD) or relapse. In this retrospective Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study, a total of 3242 HLA-matched DRPs were analyzed for predicted cumulative peptide-binding efficiency using their HLA types and were divided into tertiles based on their scores. Univariable and multivariable analyses was performed to test for associations between cumulative peptide-binding efficiency for DRPs, divided into the HLA-matched related donor (MRD) and HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) cohorts, and the primary outcomes of aGVHD and relapse. Secondary outcomes investigated included overall survival, disease-free survival, and transplantation-related mortality. Using a computationally generated peptidome as a test dataset, the tested series of HLA class I displayed peptide-binding frequencies ranging from 0.1% to 3.8% of the full peptidome, and HLA class II molecules had peptide-binding frequencies of 12% to 77% across the HLA-DRB1 allotypes. By increasing binding efficiency tertile, the cumulative incidence of aGVHD at 6 months for MUD patients was 41%, 41%, and 45% for HLA class I (P = .336) and 44%, 41%, and 42% for HLA class II (P = .452). The cumulative incidences of relapse at 3 years for MUD transplant recipients were 36%, 38%, and 38% for HLA class I (P = .533) and 37%, 37%, and 38% for HLA class II (P = .896). The findings were similar for MRD transplant recipients. Multivariable analysis did not identify any impact of peptide-binding efficiency on aGVHD or relapse in MUD or MRD transplant recipients. Whereas GVHD is mediated by minor antigen mismatches in the context of HLA-matched allo-HCT, peptide-binding efficiency, which was used as a surrogate measurement for predicted number of binding antigens, did not provide additional clinical information for GVHD risk assessment. The negative result may be due to the limitations of this surrogate marker, or it is possible that GVHD is driven by a subset of immunogenic mHAs. Further research should be directed at direct mHA epitope and immunogenicity prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Ocular surface indicators and biomarkers in chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease: a prospective cohort study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

This longitudinal cohort study compared ocular surface indicators in forty allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) subjects with twenty healthy controls at baseline and identified changes in ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). Outcome measures included: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear osmolarity, Schirmer's test, Oxford corneal staining score, tear break-up time (TBUT), and tear and serum biomarkers (IFN-γ, IL-10, MMP-9, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, TNF-α). At baseline the HSCT group had higher median Oxford corneal staining score (1.7 vs. 0.0; P < 0.0001), higher tear TNF-α (20.0 vs. 11.2 pg/mL; P < 0.0001), lower tear RANTES (70.4 vs. 190.2 pg/mL; P < 0.0001), higher serum IL-8 (10.2 vs. 4.5 pg/mL; P = 0.0008), and higher serum TNF-α (8.7 vs. 4.2 pg/mL; P < 0.0001). The incidence of oGVHD was 62% and associated changes included increased Oxford corneal staining score (4.6 vs. 1.8, P = 0.0001), decreased Schirmer's test (3.0 vs. 10.0; P < 0.0001), and decreased TBUT (4.7 vs. 9.0 s; P = 0.0004). Baseline differences in ocular surface indicators suggest a tendency toward ocular dryness in individuals with hematologic disorders preparing for HSCT. Individuals who developed oGVHD showed changes in corneal staining score, Schirmer's test, and TBUT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01254-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Alternative donor transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: haploidentical relative and matched unrelated donors.

Blood Adv 2021 02;5(4):975-983

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

We compared outcomes in 603 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after HLA-haploidentical relative (n = 176) and HLA-matched unrelated (n = 427) donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2012 to 2017, using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. All transplantations used reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Total-body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide and fludarabine was the predominant regimen for HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was uniformly posttransplantation cyclophosphamide, calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate. Fludarabine with busulfan or melphalan was the predominant regimen for HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT, and GVHD prophylaxis was calcineurin inhibitor with mycophenolate or methotrexate. Results of multivariate analysis revealed higher relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; P = .0055; 2-year relapse rate, 48% vs 33%) and lower disease-free survival (DFS) rates after HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT (HR, 1.29; P = .042; 2-year DFS, 29% vs 36%). However, overall survival (OS) rates did not differ between donor type (HR, 0.94; P = .65; 2-year OS, 46% for HLA-haploidentical and 44% for HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT) because of mortality associated with chronic GVHD. Acute grade 2 to 4 GVHD (HR, 0.44; P < .0001) and chronic GVHD (HR, 0.36; P < .0001) were lower after HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT. By 2 years, probability of death resulting from chronic GVHD was lower after HLA-haploidentical relative compared with HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT (6% vs 21%), negating any potential survival advantage from better relapse control. Both donor types extend access to transplantation for patients with MDS; strategies for better relapse control are desirable for HLA-haploidentical relative donor HCT, and effective GVHD prophylaxis regimens are needed for unrelated donor HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903230PMC
February 2021

Neighborhood poverty and pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes: a CIBMTR analysis.

Blood 2021 01;137(4):556-568

CIBMTR, National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN.

Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. We assembled 2 pediatric cohorts undergoing first allogeneic HCT from 2006 to 2015 at age ≤18 years, including 2053 children with malignant disease and 1696 children with nonmalignant disease. Neighborhood poverty exposure was defined a priori per the US Census definition as living in a high-poverty ZIP code (≥20% of persons below 100% federal poverty level) and used as the primary predictor in all analyses. Our primary outcome was overall survival (OS), defined as the time from HCT until death resulting from any cause. Secondary outcomes included relapse and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in malignant disease, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and infection in the first 100 days post-HCT. Among children undergoing transplantation for nonmalignant disease, neighborhood poverty was not associated with any HCT outcome. Among children undergoing transplantation for malignant disease, neighborhood poverty conferred an increased risk of TRM but was not associated with inferior OS or any other transplantation outcome. Among children with malignant disease, a key secondary finding was that children with Medicaid insurance experienced inferior OS and increased TRM compared with those with private insurance. These data suggest opportunities for future investigation of the effects of household-level poverty exposure on HCT outcomes in pediatric malignant disease to inform care delivery interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845011PMC
January 2021

Age no bar: A CIBMTR analysis of elderly patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

Cancer 2020 12 23;126(23):5077-5087. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) remains an important therapy in the management of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), a disease of older adults.

Methods: The authors investigated the outcomes of AHCT in patients with MM who were aged ≥70 years. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database registered 15,999 patients with MM in the United States within 12 months of diagnosis during 2013 through 2017; a total of 2092 patients were aged ≥70 years. Nonrecurrence mortality (NRM), disease recurrence and/or progression (relapse; REL), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards models with age at transplantation as the main effect. Because of the large sample size, a P value <.01 was considered to be statistically significant a priori.

Results: An increase in AHCT was noted in 2017 (28%) compared with 2013 (15%) among patients aged ≥70 years. Although approximately 82% of patients received melphalan (Mel) at a dose of 200 mg/m overall, 58% of the patients aged ≥70 years received Mel at a dose of 140 mg/m . On multivariate analysis, patients aged ≥70 years demonstrated no difference with regard to NRM (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3; 99% confidence interval [99% CI], 1-1.7 [P = .06]), REL (HR, 1.03; 99% CI, 0.9-1.1 [P = 0.6]), PFS (HR, 1.06; 99% CI, 1-1.2 [P = 0.2]), and OS (HR, 1.2; 99% CI, 1-1.4 [P = .02]) compared with the reference group (those aged 60-69 years). In patients aged ≥70 years, Mel administered at a dose of 140 mg/m was found to be associated with worse outcomes compared with Mel administered at a dose of 200 mg/m , including day 100 NRM (1% [95% CI, 1%-2%] vs 0% [95% CI, 0%-1%]; P = .003]), 2-year PFS (64% [95% CI, 60%-67%] vs 69% [95% CI, 66%-73%]; P = .003), and 2-year OS (85% [95% CI, 82%-87%] vs 89% [95% CI, 86%-91%]; P = .01]), likely representing frailty.

Conclusions: The results of the current study demonstrated that AHCT remains an effective consolidation therapy among patients with MM across all age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063213PMC
December 2020

Optimal Donor for African Americans with Hematologic Malignancy: HLA-Haploidentical Relative or Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 7;26(10):1930-1936. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Although hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor is potentially curative for hematologic malignancies, survival is lower for African Americans compared with Caucasians. Because only approximately 20% of African Americans will have an HLA-matched unrelated donor, many of these patients undergo HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplantation. In this study, we analyzed outcomes after HLA-haploidentical related donor (n = 249) and umbilical cord blood (n = 118) transplantations in African American patients with hematologic malignancy between 2008 and 2016. The predominant disease was acute myelogenous leukemia for recipients of both types of donor grafts. The incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical relative transplantation (56% and 29%, respectively, versus 33% and 11%, respectively; P < .0001). The 2-year incidence of transplantation-related mortality adjusted for age and conditioning regimen intensity was higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical related donor transplantation (31% versus 18%; P = .008); however, there were no between-group differences in the 2-year adjusted incidence of relapse (30% versus 34%; P = .51), overall survival (54% versus 57%; P = .66), or disease-free survival (43% versus 47%; P = .46). Our findings show that the use of HLA-haploidentical and umbilical cord blood transplants expands the access to transplantation with comparable leukemia-free and overall survival for African Americans with hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530013PMC
October 2020

Upsetting the apple CAR-T (chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy) - sustainability mandates USA innovation.

Br J Haematol 2020 09 1;190(6):851-853. Epub 2020 May 1.

Sarah Cannon Blood Cancer Network, Nashvislle, TN, USA.

Seldom has a medical advance in cancer therapy been as pivotal as the advent of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell immunotherapy. While the first applications targeted the CD19 antigen on lymphoid malignancies, the incredible specificity of these 'living drugs', curative potential and generalisability to other targets have richly justified their declaration as 2019's breakthrough of the year by Science magazine. Two CAR-T products, Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel) and Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) were Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved in the USA in late 2017, with the FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb heralding 'a new frontier in medical innovation with the ability to reprogram a patient's own cells to attack a deadly cancer'. Building upon early enthusiasm, nearly 1000 cell- and gene-therapy investigational new drug applications are pending with the FDA, which expects to review and approve between 10 and 20 such treatments annually by 2025. Despite the enormous promise and urgent unmet need fulfilled by CAR-T cells, the real-world adoption of the two FDA-approved treatments has been slow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16685DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of autologous blood transfusion after bone marrow harvest on unrelated donor's health and outcome: a CIBMTR analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 30;55(11):2121-2131. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Pre-harvest autologous blood collection from bone marrow (BM) donors is performed to meet potential post-operative transfusion needs. This study examines the impact of autologous blood transfusion on BM donor's health and safety. The study included first-time unrelated BM donors from the United States whose BM harvest was facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) centers between 2006 and 2017. Examination of 7024 BM donors revealed that 60% received at least one unit of autologous blood. The donors who received autologous blood were older, had lower hemoglobin pre-harvest, underwent longer duration of anesthesia, and higher volume BM harvest. Only donors who underwent high-volume BM harvest, defined as a BM harvest volume >27% of donor's blood volume, benefited from autologous transfusion. After a high-volume BM harvest, autologous blood transfusion was shown to decrease grade 2 to 4 collection-associated toxicities within 48 h of BM donation (p = 0.010) and shorten the time to donor-reported "complete" recovery from donation-associated symptoms (p < 0.001). Therefore, autologous transfusion could be avoided as support of marrow donation in the majority of unrelated BM donors and should be limited to cases where the planned BM harvest volume is expected to exceed 27% of donor's blood volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0911-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606543PMC
November 2020

Late effects after ablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adolescent and young adult acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2020 03;4(6):983-992

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

There is marked paucity of data regarding late effects in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated late effects and survival in 826 1-year disease-free survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML, with an additional focus on comparing late effects based upon MAC type (total body irradiation [TBI] vs high-dose chemotherapy only). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of subsequent neoplasms was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-6%); 10-year cumulative incidence of nonmalignant late effects included gonadal dysfunction (10%; 95% CI, 8%-13%), cataracts (10%; 95% CI, 7%-13%), avascular necrosis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-10%), diabetes mellitus (5%; 95% CI, 3%-7%), and hypothyroidism (3%; 95% CI, 2%-5%). Receipt of TBI was independently associated with a higher risk of cataracts only (hazard ratio [HR], 4.98; P < .0001) whereas chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with an increased risk of cataracts (HR, 3.22; P = .0006), avascular necrosis (HR, 2.49; P = .006), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.36; P = .03). Estimated 10-year overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 73% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ on the basis of conditioning type. In conclusion, late effects among survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML are frequent and are more closely linked to cGVHD than type of conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094022PMC
March 2020

Immune Response Following Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Women After Hematopoietic Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):696-705

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is found in about 40% of women who survive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and can induce subsequent neoplasms.

Objective: To determine the safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18) in clinically stable women post-allogeneic transplant compared with female healthy volunteers.

Interventions: Participants received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in intramuscular injections on days 1 and 2 and then 6 months later.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective, open-label phase-1 study was conducted in a government clinical research hospital and included clinically stable women posttransplant who were or were not receiving immunosuppressive therapy compared with healthy female volunteers age 18 to 50 years who were followed up or a year after first receiving quadrivalent HPV vaccination. The study was conducted from June 2, 2010, until July 19, 2016. After all of the results of the study assays were completed and available in early 2018, the analysis took place from February 2018 to May 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Anti-HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18-specific antibody responses using L1 virus-like particle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were measured in serum before (day 1) and at months 7 and 12 postvaccination. Anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralization titers were determined using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay.

Results: Of 64 vaccinated women, 23 (35.9%) were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (median age, 34 years [range, 18-48 years]; median 1.2 years posttransplant), 21 (32.8%) were not receiving immunosuppression (median age, 32 years [range, 18-49 years]; median 2.5 years posttransplant), and 20 (31.3%) were healthy volunteers (median age, 32 years [range, 23-45 years]). After vaccine series completion, 18 of 23 patients receiving immunosuppression (78.3%), 20 of 21 not receiving immunosuppression (95.2%), and all 20 volunteers developed antibody responses to all quadrivalent HPV vaccine types (P = .04, comparing the 3 groups). Geometric mean antibody levels for each HPV type were higher at months 7 and 12 than at baseline in each group (all geometric mean ratios >1; P < .001) but not significantly different across groups. Antibody and neutralization titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 correlated at month 7 (Spearman ρ = 0.92; P < .001 for both). Adverse events were mild and not different across groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Treatment with the HPV vaccination was followed by strong, functionally active antibody responses against vaccine-related HPV types and no serious adverse events. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination may be safely administered to women posttransplant to potentially reduce HPV infection and related neoplasia.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01092195.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144415PMC
May 2020

Risk factors for the development of cutaneous melanoma after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Sep 22;83(3):762-772. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background: Melanoma risk is increased after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but specific risk factors are unknown.

Objective: Investigate risk factors for melanoma after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 140 melanoma cases and 557 controls (matched by age at HCT, sex, primary disease, survival time) through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Results: Melanoma risk was significantly increased among HCT survivors who received total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning (multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-3.15) or reduced-intensity conditioning containing melphalan (OR = 2.60; 95% CI = 1.13-6.02) or fludarabine (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.02-7.30) versus busulfan-based myeloablative regimens; were diagnosed with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with stage 2+ skin involvement (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.19-3.10), chronic GvHD without skin involvement (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.03-3.57), or keratinocytic carcinoma (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.16-4.83); and resided in areas with higher ambient ultraviolet radiation (ORtertile3 = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.01-2.67).

Limitations: Data on individual-level ultraviolet radiation exposure and clinical data on melanoma characteristics were lacking. Additionally, misclassification of melanoma is possible as not all pathology reports were available for review.

Conclusion: These results emphasize the importance of adherence to current surveillance guidelines (routine skin examination, photoprotection recommendations), particularly for HCT survivors at highest risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.10.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206613PMC
September 2020

A Practical Guide to Gynecologic and Reproductive Health in Women Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 5;25(11):e331-e343. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Office of the Clinical Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Optimum care of female transplant recipients requires gynecologic care at several stages through the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) process. Sex-based considerations in women post-HCT span gynecologic sequelae of transplant along with assessment and maintenance of optimal sexual and gynecologic health. Pre-HCT, managing menstruation and abnormal uterine or genital bleeding, considering fertility preservation, and assessing for sexually transmitted infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease and cervical cancer, enhance women's health. While inpatient during transplant when women are thrombocytopenic, menstrual bleeding requires suppression. Whenever graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is assessed, screening for genital GVHD merits consideration. After the first 100 days, periodic assessments include obtaining a menstrual history, assessing ovarian function, and reviewing current hormonal use and contraindications to hormonal methods. Regular assessment for primary ovarian insufficiency, dyspareunia, and intimacy guides provision of contraception and hormone replacement options. As part of ongoing screening for genital GVHD and HPV-related disease, including sexually transmitted infections, periodic pelvic examinations are performed. Once successful long-term survival is achieved, planning for fertility may be considered. This article offers a comprehensive approach to these aspects of gynecologic care of patients throughout the trajectory of HCT and beyond into survivorship. We review the effects of HCT treatment on sexual health, ovarian function, and resulting menstrual changes and fertility challenges. Identification, treatment, and prevention of subsequent malignancies, including breast cancer, are discussed, with a focus on regular assessment of genital HPV disease and GVHD in long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.038DOI Listing
November 2019

Survival outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants with EBV-positive or EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, A CIBMTR study.

Transpl Infect Dis 2019 Oct 31;21(5):e13145. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT). Although most PTLD is EBV-positive (EBV ), EBV-negative (EBV ) PTLD is reported, yet its incidence and clinical impact remain largely undefined. Furthermore, factors at the time of transplant impacting survival following PTLD are not well described.

Methods: Between 2002 and 2014, 432 cases of PTLD following alloHCT were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). After exclusions, 267 cases (EBV = 222, 83%; EBV = 45, 17%) were analyzed.

Results: Two hundred and eight patients (78%) received in vivo T-cell depletion (TCD) with either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab. Incidence of PTLD was highest using umbilical cord donors (UCB, 1.60%) and lowest using matched related donors (MRD, 0.40%). Clinical features and histology did not significantly differ among EBV or EBV PTLD cases except that absolute lymphocyte count recovery was slower, and CMV reactivation was later in EBV PTLD [EBV 32 (5-95) days versus EBV 47 (10-70) days, P = .016]. There was no impact on survival by EBV status in multivariable analysis [EBV RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.94-2.15, P = .097].

Conclusions: There is no difference in survival outcomes for patients with EBV or EBV PTLD occurring following alloHCT and 1-year survival is poor. Features of conditioning and use of serotherapy remain important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239317PMC
October 2019

Prognostic Score and Cytogenetic Risk Classification for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients: Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Report.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 08 28;25(16):5143-5155. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: To develop a prognostic model and cytogenetic risk classification for previously treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Experimental Design: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 606 patients with CLL who underwent RIC allogeneic HCT between 2008 and 2014 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Results: On the basis of multivariable models, disease status, comorbidity index, lymphocyte count, and white blood cell count at HCT were selected for the development of prognostic model. Using the prognostic score, we stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, high-, and very-high-risk [4-year progression-free survival (PFS) 58%, 42%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, < 0.0001; 4-year overall survival (OS) 70%, 57%, 54%, and 38%, respectively, < 0.0001]. We also evaluated karyotypic abnormalities together with del(17p) and found that del(17p) or ≥5 abnormalities showed inferior PFS. Using a multivariable model, we classified cytogenetic risk into low, intermediate, and high ( < 0.0001). When the prognostic score and cytogenetic risk were combined, patients with low prognostic score and low cytogenetic risk had prolonged PFS (61% at 4 years) and OS (75% at 4 years).

Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with previously treated CLL who underwent RIC HCT, we developed a robust prognostic scoring system of HCT outcomes and a novel cytogenetic-based risk stratification system. These prognostic models can be used for counseling patients, comparing data across studies, and providing a benchmark for future interventions. For future study, we will further validate these models for patients receiving targeted therapies prior to HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697588PMC
August 2019

Outcomes of haploidentical vs matched sibling transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission.

Blood Adv 2019 06;3(12):1826-1836

The Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Northside Hospital, Atlanta, GA.

HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (Haplo-HCT) using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has improved donor availability. However, a matched sibling donor (MSD) is still considered the optimal donor. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we compared outcomes after Haplo-HCT vs MSD in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Data from 1205 adult CR1 AML patients (2008-2015) were analyzed. A total of 336 patients underwent PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT and 869 underwent MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The Haplo-HCT group included more reduced-intensity conditioning (65% vs 30%) and bone marrow grafts (62% vs 7%), consistent with current practice. In multivariable analysis, Haplo-HCT and MSD groups were not different with regard to overall survival ( = .15), leukemia-free survival ( = .50), nonrelapse mortality ( = .16), relapse ( = .90), or grade II-IV acute GVHD ( = .98). However, the Haplo-HCT group had a significantly lower rate of chronic GVHD (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.48; < .001). Results of subgroup analyses by conditioning intensity and graft source suggested that the reduced incidence of chronic GVHD in Haplo-HCT is not limited to a specific graft source or conditioning intensity. Center effect and minimal residual disease-donor type interaction were not predictors of outcome. Our results indicate a lower rate of chronic GVHD after PT-Cy-based Haplo-HCT vs MSD using calcineurin inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis, but similar other outcomes, in patients with AML in CR1. Haplo-HCT is a viable alternative to MSD in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595262PMC
June 2019

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation provides effective salvage despite refractory disease or failed prior autologous transplant in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a CIBMTR analysis.

J Hematol Oncol 2019 01 10;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd. PO Box 26509, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of data on the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). Using the CIBMTR registry, we report here the outcomes of AITL patients undergoing an allo-HCT.

Methods: We evaluated 249 adult AITL patients who received their first allo-HCT during 2000-2016.

Results: The median patient age was 56 years (range = 21-77). Majority of the patients were Caucasians (86%), with a male predominance (60%). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was predominantly calcineurin inhibitor-based approaches while the most common graft source was peripheral blood (97%). Median follow-up of survivors was 49 months (range = 4-170 months). The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 acute GVHD at day 180 were 36% (95% CI = 30-42) and 12 (95% CI = 8-17), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 1 year was 49% (95%CI 43-56). The 1-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 19% (95% CI = 14-24), while the 4-year relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 21% (95% CI = 16-27), 49% (95% CI = 42-56), and 56% (95% CI = 49-63), respectively. On multivariate analysis, chemoresistant status at the time of allo-HCT was associated with a significantly higher risk for therapy failure (inverse of PFS) (RR = 1.73 95% CI = 1.08-2.77), while KPS < 90% was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (inverse of OS) (RR = 3.46 95% CI = 1.75-6.87).

Conclusion: Our analysis shows that allo-HCT provides durable disease control even in AITL patients who failed a prior auto-HCT and in those subjects with refractory disease at the time of allografting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-018-0696-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329157PMC
January 2019

Non-GVHD ocular complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation: expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 27;54(5):648-661. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Utah Blood and Marrow Transplant Program Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utaah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Non-graft-vs.-host disease (non-GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Complications discussed in this review include cataracts, glaucoma, ocular infections, ocular involvement with malignancy, ischemic microvascular retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and ocular toxicities associated with medications. We have summarized incidence, risk factors, screening, prevention and treatment of individual complicastions and generated evidence-based recommendations. Baseline ocular evaluation before HCT should be considered in all patients who undergo HCT. Follow-up evaluations should be considered according to clinical symptoms, signs and risk factors. Better preventive strategies and treatments remain to be investigated for individual ocular complications after HCT. Both transplant physicians and ophthalmologists should be knowledgeable of non-GVHD ocular complications and provide comprehensive collaborative team care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0339-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497536PMC
May 2019

Ocular graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation: Expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 7;54(5):662-673. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity, which affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD, regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed in this review. Ocular GVHD has at least three biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have found several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling that can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Many studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. Efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important for all health professionals taking care of HCT recipients to have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD for optimal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0340-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Non-Graft-versus-Host Disease Ocular Complications after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Expert Review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 05 3;25(5):e145-e154. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Non-graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplantation physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Complications discussed in this review include cataracts, glaucoma, ocular infections, ocular involvement with malignancy, ischemic microvascular retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, retinal detachment and ocular toxicities associated with medications. We summarize the incidence, risk factors, screening, prevention, and treatment of individual complications and generate evidence-based recommendations. Baseline ocular evaluation before HCT should be considered in all patients who undergo HCT. Follow-up evaluations should be considered according to clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors. Better preventive strategies and treatments remain to be investigated for individual ocular complications after HCT. Both transplantation physicians and ophthalmologists should be knowledgeable about non-GVHD ocular complications and provide comprehensive collaborative team care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511311PMC
May 2019

Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Expert Review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 24;25(2):e46-e54. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than one-half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity that affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplantation physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed. Ocular GVHD involves at least 3 biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have identified several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including the renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, which can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Numerous studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. The efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important that all health professionals caring for HCT recipients have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD to provide optimal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362842PMC
February 2019

Effect of Conditioning Regimen Dose Reduction in Obese Patients Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 10;25(3):480-487. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Data are limited on whether to adjust high-dose chemotherapy before autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) in obese patients. This study explores the effects of dose adjustment on the outcomes of obese patients, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m. Dose adjustment was defined as a reduction in standard dosing ≥20%, based on ideal, reported dosing and actual weights. We included 2 groups of US patients who had received autoHCT between 2008 and 2014. Specifically, we included patients with multiple myeloma (MM, n = 1696) treated with high-dose melphalan and patients with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphomas (n = 781) who received carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan conditioning. Chemotherapy dose was adjusted in 1324 patients (78%) with MM and 608 patients (78%) with lymphoma. Age, sex, BMI, race, performance score, comorbidity index, and disease features (stage at diagnosis, disease status, and time to transplant) were similar between dose groups. In multivariate analyses for MM, adjusting for melphalan dose and for center effect had no impact on overall survival (P = .894) and treatment-related mortality (TRM) (P = .62), progression (P = .12), and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .178). In multivariate analyses for lymphoma, adjusting chemotherapy doses did not affect survival (P = .176), TRM (P = .802), relapse (P = .633), or PFS (P = .812). No center effect was observed in lymphoma. This study demonstrates that adjusting chemotherapy dose before autoHCT in obese patients with MM and lymphoma does not influence mortality. These results do not support adjusting chemotherapy dose in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445718PMC
March 2019

Cytomegalovirus Infection Incidence and Risk Factors Across Diverse Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Platforms Using a Standardized Monitoring and Treatment Approach: A Comprehensive Evaluation from a Single Institution.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 18;25(3):577-586. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Disruption of or weak reconstitution of virus-specific cellular immune function, such as with certain HCT approaches, poses significant risk for CMV-related complications. The incidence of and risk factors for CMV infection and the nature of CMV disease were evaluated retrospectively among 356 consecutive HCT recipients transplanted at the National Institutes of Health using all graft sources, including bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC), and umbilical cord blood (UCB), and a range of in vivo and ex vivo approaches for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of CMV infection was higher for CMV-seropositive recipients at 33%, regardless of donor CMV serostatus. Patients transplanted with CMV-seropositive donors had a significantly shorter duration of antiviral therapy. Among graft sources UCB was associated with the highest cumulative incidence of CMV infection at 65% and significantly longer treatment duration at a median of 36days, whereas PBSC HCT was associated with the lowest incidence at 26% and the shortest CMV treatment duration at a median of 21days. There were significant differences in the cumulative incidence of CMV infection by T cell manipulation strategy when systemic steroids were included as a risk-modifying event. Over one-third of CMV infections occurred in the setting of systemic steroid administration. CMV disease occurred in 5% of HCT recipients, with 70% of cases in the setting of treatment for GVHD. Although factors related to serostatus, graft source, and GVHD prophylaxis were associated with varied CMV infection incidence, unplanned post-HCT corticosteroid therapy contributed greatly to the incidence of both CMV infection and disease across HCT approaches, highlighting this post-HCT intervention as a key time to potentially tailor the approach to monitoring, preemptive therapy, and even prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445771PMC
March 2019

Over-expression of PD-1 Does Not Predict Leukemic Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 4;25(2):216-222. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address:

Blockade of the T-cell exhaustion marker PD-1 to re-energize the immune response is emerging as a promising cancer treatment. Relapse of hematologic malignancy after allogeneic stem cell transplantation limits the success of this approach, and PD-1 blockade may hold therapeutic promise. However, PD-1 expression and its relationship with post-transplant relapse is poorly described. Because the donor immunity is activated by alloresponses, PD-1 expression may differ from nontransplanted individuals, and PD-1 blockade could risk graft-versus-host disease. Here we analyzed T-cell exhaustion marker kinetics and their relationship with leukemia relapse in 85 patients undergoing myeloablative T-cell-depleted HLA-matched stem cell transplantation. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 35 (44%) patients relapsed. PD-1 expression in CD4 and CD8 T cells was comparably elevated in relapsed and nonrelapsed cohorts. Helios regulatory T cells and CD8 effector memory cells at day 30 emerged as independent predictors of relapse. Although leukemia antigen-specific T cells did not overexpress PD-1, single-cell analysis revealed LAG3 and TIM3 overexpression at relapse. These findings indicate that PD-1 is an unreliable marker for leukemia-specific T-cell exhaustion in relapsing patients but implies other exhaustion markers and suppressor cells as relapse biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.09.037DOI Listing
February 2019

Characteristics of Late Fatal Infections after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 2;25(2):362-368. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research Sormland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

We analyzed late fatal infections (LFIs) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. We analyzed the incidence, infection types, and risk factors contributing to LFI in 10,336 adult and 5088 pediatric subjects surviving for ≥2 years after first HCT without relapse. Among 2245 adult and 377 pediatric patients who died, infections were a primary or contributory cause of death in 687 (31%) and 110 (29%), respectively. At 12 years post-HCT, the cumulative incidence of LFIs was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8% to 7.0%) in adults, compared with 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4% to 2.3%) in pediatric subjects; P < .001). In adults, the 2 most significant risks for developing LFI were increasing age (20 to 39, 40 to 54, and ≥55 years versus 18 to 19 years) with hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.12 (95% CI, 1.33 to 7.32), 3.86 (95% CI, 1.66 to 8.95), and 5.49 (95% CI, 2.32 to 12.99) and a history of chronic graft-versus-host disease GVHD (cGVHD) with ongoing immunosuppression at 2 years post-HCT compared with no history of GVHD with (HR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.59 to 5.78). In pediatric subjects, the 3 most significant risks for developing LFI were a history of cGVHD with ongoing immunosuppression (HR, 9.49; 95% CI, 4.39 to 20.51) or without ongoing immunosuppression (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.05 to 7.43) at 2 years post-HCT compared with no history of GVHD, diagnosis of inherited abnormalities of erythrocyte function compared with diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.19 to 4.42), and age >10 years (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.2). This study emphasizes the importance of continued vigilance for late infections after HCT and institution of support strategies aimed at decreasing the risk of cGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339825PMC
February 2019

Premature coronary artery disease following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: an NHLBI Cohort Study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 02 13;54(2):320-322. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Hematology Branch, 10 Center Drive MSC, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0282-6DOI Listing
February 2019