Publications by authors named "Minoko Takanashi"

81 Publications

Combined impact of HLA-allele matching and the CD34-positive cell dose on optimal unit selection for single-unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Central Japan Cord Blood Bank, Seto, Japan.

The combined effects of HLA-allele matching at six-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) and CD34 cell dose on clinical outcomes were analyzed in 1,226 adult cases with single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation. In the six-loci analysis, low HLA-allele matches did not significantly increase the overall mortality compared to higher matches, whereas in the five-loci analysis excluding HLA-DPB1, they caused a higher overall mortality (HR 1.42,  = .002), possibly due to the graft-versus-leukemia effect of HLA-DPB1 mismatches. A lower CD34 cell dose (<.50 × 10/kg) resulted in higher mortality and lower engraftment; these inferior outcomes were offset by high HLA-allele matches (7-10/10 match), while the inferior outcomes of low HLA-allele matches were improved by increasing the CD34 cell dose. Consideration of the combined effects of the CD34 cell dose and HLA matching may expand the options for transplantable units when HLA matching or the CD34 cell dose is inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1929958DOI Listing
June 2021

Passive immune basophil activation test for the identification of allergic episodes from various adverse events elicited by haematopoietic cell transplantation: A pilot study.

Vox Sang 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Research and Development, Japanese Red Cross Kinki Block Blood Center, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) therapy tends to be associated with various complications including engraftment failure, regimen-related toxicities, and infectious diseases. In addition, HC infusion itself occasionally elicits adverse events (AEs), one of the most common AEs is an allergic reaction. As appropriate laboratory tests have not yet been established to distinguish allergy-mediated AEs from other complications, clinical responses for HCT-related AEs can only be nonspecific. In this pilot study, using passive immune basophil activation test (pi-BAT), we attempted to distinguish an HC infusion-induced allergic reaction from various HCT-related AEs.

Materials And Methods: Using pi-BAT, we examined 34 patients who underwent HCT, that is, 11 with AEs and 23 without AEs as controls.

Results: Two of the eleven AE cases were pi-BAT positive and, the rest of nine AE cases were negative, while all non-AE cases were negative. Both of the two positive cases showed erythema, tachycardia, plus cough. Because erythema is one of the representative symptom of allergy, those cases could be classified as allergic reaction cases or anaphylaxis cases if tachycardia and cough were concomitant symptoms of erythema. Among the nine AEs with pi-BAT negative result, four cases showed urticaria, four showed vomiting plus diarrhoea, and one showed cough. Urticaria case was strongly suspected of allergy, however, the AE cases were pi-BAT negative.

Conclusion: The pi-BAT may be useful as an auxiliary diagnostic tool to confirm the possible involvement of HC infusion in HCT-related AEs and identify an immunologic mechanism for HCT-related hypersensitivity reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13131DOI Listing
June 2021

An international comparison of HIV prevalence and incidence in blood donors and general population: a BEST Collaborative study.

Vox Sang 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Établissement Français du Sang, La Plaine Saint-Denis, France.

Background And Objectives: Efficiency in mitigating HIV transmission risk by transfusion may vary internationally. We compared HIV prevalence and incidence in blood donors across different jurisdictions in relation to those rates in the general population and differences in deferral practices.

Materials And Methods: Data from 2007 to 2016 were collected in Australia, Brazil (São Paulo), Canada, England, France, Italy, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain (Basque Country), USA (Vitalant) and Wales. For each country/region, the number of HIV antibody-positive donations and nucleic acid testing (NAT)-only-positive donations was broken down according to first-time or repeat donor status, along with the relevant denominators.

Results: There is a modest correlation between HIV prevalence among first-time donors and HIV prevalence in the general population. However, rates of HIV-positive donations in repeat donors, a proxy for incidence, do not correlate with incidence rates in the general population. Rates in donors from Italy and Basque Country, where deferral criteria for men having sex with men are less stringent, are higher compared with most other jurisdictions. Rates of NAT-only-positive donations are extremely low and do not differ significantly after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

Conclusion: Donor HIV rates are only weakly associated with those observed in the general population. Countries with less stringent deferral criteria have higher HIV rates in their donor population, but the rates remain very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13107DOI Listing
April 2021

Adding melphalan to fludarabine and a myeloablative dose of busulfan improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a propensity score-matched cohort of hematological malignancies.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 3;56(7):1691-1699. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Hematology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Fludarabine and a myeloablative dose of busulfan (Flu/Bu4) can improve prognosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with melphalan (Mel). We investigated the prognostic impact of adding Mel to Flu/Bu4 by comparing between Flu/Bu4/Mel and Flu/Bu4 groups. This study included 846 propensity score (PS)-matched patients who received either Flu/Bu4/Mel (n = 423) or Flu/Bu4 (n = 423) from 2394 patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective registry, from January 2010 to December 2016. The primary endpoint (5-year overall survival [OS]), and the prognostic impact of adding Mel was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. The study population median age was 58 (interquartile 50-64) years and 61.0% were male. Patient characteristics were well-balanced between groups. Five-year OS was 34.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3-41.1%) and 30.1% (24.8-35.6%) in the Flu/Bu4/Mel and Flu/Bu4 groups, respectively (log-rank P = 0.019). The adjusted hazard ratio of adding Mel was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62-0.96) (P = 0.022) for the 5-year OS, and this attributed to a lower incidence of 5-year relapse (0.71, 0.56-0.90, P = 0.005) and relapse associated mortality (0.73, 0.57-0.95, P = 0.018). There was no statistical difference in 5-year non-relapse mortality between groups (log-rank P = 0.855). Flu/Bu4/Mel was associated with better 5-year OS compared to Flu/Bu4 in a PS-matched cohort after allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01217-wDOI Listing
July 2021

The risk to future pregnancies of transfusing Rh(D)-negative females of childbearing potential with Rh(D)-positive red blood cells during trauma resuscitation is dependent on their age at transfusion.

Vox Sang 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: A risk assessment model for predicting the risk of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in future pregnancies following the transfusion of Rh(D)-positive red blood cell (RBC)-containing products to females of childbearing potential (FCP) was developed, accounting for the age that the FCP is transfused in various countries.

Methods: The HDFN risk prediction model included the following inputs: risk of FCP death in trauma, Rh(D) alloimmunization rate following Rh(D)-positive RBC transfusion, expected number of live births following resuscitation, probability of carrying an Rh(D)-positive fetus, the probability of HDFN in an Rh(D)-positive fetus carried by an alloimmunized mother. The model was implemented in Microsoft R Open, and one million FCPs of each age between 18 and 49 years old were simulated. Published data from eight countries, including the United States, were utilized to generate country-specific HDFN risk estimates.

Results: The risk predictions showed similar characteristics for each country in that the overall risk of having a pregnancy affected by HDFN was higher if the FCP was younger when she received her Rh(D)-positive transfusion than if she was older. In the United States, the overall risk of HDFN if the FCP was transfused at age 18 was 3·4% (mild: 1·20%, moderate: 0·45%; severe: 1·15%; IUFD: 0·57%); the risk was approximately 0% if the FCP was 43 years or older at the time of transfusion.

Conclusion: This model can be used to predict HDFN outcomes when establishing transfusion policies as it relates to the administration of Rh(D)-positive products for massively bleeding FCPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13065DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of donor type on volume of blood transfusions required after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 3;113(4):518-529. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We reviewed blood product use in 729 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients at our center to assess the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets required after allo-HCT. The median number of bags required by day 30 was 4 for RBCs (range 0-22) and 9.5 for platelets (0-53). Multivariate analysis showed that related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) required a significantly lower RBC transfusion volume by day 30 compared to unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT). PBSCT from haplo-identical related donors and cord blood transplantation (CBT) required a significantly greater RBC transfusion volume. For platelet transfusion, related and unrelated PBSCT required a significantly lower volume than UBMT, and CBT a greater volume. Other factors independently associated with greater RBC transfusion volume were male sex, disease status other than complete remission, and major ABO mismatch. For platelet transfusion, these were male sex, disease status, and HCT-specific comorbidity index of 1. Although the burden of blood transfusions may not be the most important factor when choosing a donor type, our findings may provide a foundation for nationwide strategies to prepare blood products and inform aspects of national healthcare expenditures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03041-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell (MSC) Characteristics Vary Among Laboratories When Manufactured From the Same Source Material: A Report by the Cellular Therapy Team of the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 16;8:458. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST), Lebanon, NH, United States.

Background: Culture-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exhibit variable characteristics when manufactured using different methods and different source materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact on MSC characteristics when different laboratories propagated MSCs from cultures initiated with BM aliquots derived from the same donor source material.

Methods And Methods: Five aliquots from each of three different BM donors were distributed to five independent laboratories. Three laboratories plated whole BM and two laboratories a mononuclear BM cell fraction. Four laboratories cultured in media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and one laboratory used human platelet lysate (hPL). Initial cell seeding densities (i.e., P0) ranged from 19.7 × 10/cm-282 × 10/cm and for second seeding (i.e., P1) 0.05 × 10-5.1 × 10 cells/cm. Post-thawed MSCs from each laboratory were analyzed for cell viability, immunophenotype, tri-lineage differentiation, fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F), gene expression, and immunosuppressive activity.

Results: Transit times from BM collection to receipt by laboratories located in the United States ranged from 16.0-30.0 h and from 41.5-71.5 h for a laboratory in Asia. Post-thaw culture derived MSCs rom BM #1, #2, and #3 exhibited viabilities that ranged from 74-92%, 61-96%, and 23-90%, respectively. CFU activity from BM #1, #2, and #3 per 200 MSCs plated averaged 45.1 ± 21.4, 49.3 ± 26.8 and 14.9 ± 13.3, respectively. No substantial differences were observed in immunophenotype, and immunosuppressive activities. Global gene expression profiles of MSCs revealed transcriptome differences due to different inter-laboratory methods and to donor source material with the center effects showing greater molecular differences than source material.

Conclusion: Functional and molecular differences exist among MSCs produced by different centers even when the same BM starting material is used to initiate cultures. These results indicated that manufacturing of MSCs by five independent centers contributed more to MSC variability than did the source material of the BM used in this study. Thus, emphasizing the importance of establishing worldwide standards to propagate MSCs for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308721PMC
June 2020

Outcome of stem cell transplantation for Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: analysis of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) Lymphoma Working Group.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jul 18;99(7):1635-1642. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

The role of stem cell transplantation (SCT) for patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) remains undetermined. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the outcome of autologous and allogeneic SCT for patients with WM using the registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Forty-six patients receiving autologous and 31 receiving allogeneic SCT were analyzed. The allogeneic SCT group included more patients with advanced disease status at transplant and received more lines of chemotherapy. The cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year were 30.0% (95% CI, 14.7-46.9%) in the allogeneic SCT and 0% in the autologous SCT group. The estimated 3-year overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival rates were 84.5% (95% CI, 66.0-93.4%) and 70.8% (95% CI, 53.0-82.9%) in the autologous SCT group, and 52.2% (95% CI, 32.5-68.6%) and 45.0% (95% CI, 26.3-62.0%) in the allogeneic SCT group. No patients died after the first 2 years following allogeneic SCT. In univariate analyses, disease status at SCT was significantly associated with PFS in autologous SCT, and with OS and PFS in allogeneic SCT. These results suggest that both autologous and allogeneic SCT have each potential role in WM. Allogeneic SCT is more curative for WM, but is associated with high NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04078-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adults with acute myeloid leukemia conducted in Japan during the past quarter century.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jun 4;99(6):1351-1360. Epub 2020 May 4.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents the most common indication for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This study aimed to address the implementation status of allogeneic HCT for adults with AML in Japan and to provide a comprehensive overview of post-transplant outcomes. For this purpose, we analyzed data of 15,186 patients undergoing allogeneic HCT between 1992 and 2016 who were consecutively reported to the Japanese nationwide transplantation registry. The constant increase in the annual number of transplantations was clearly attributable to the growth of unrelated transplantation, and umbilical cord blood transplantation currently accounts for one-third of all allogeneic HCTs. The proportion of older patients has increased steadily since 2000, approximately, in parallel with the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning. The probability of overall survival (OS) was estimated at 41% (95% confidence interval (CI), 40-42%) for the entire cohort, 56% (95% CI, 55-57%) for patients transplanted in complete remission (CR), and 22% (95% CI, 21-23%) for those transplanted in non-CR. Multivariate analysis identified age, sex, performance status, disease status, cytogenetic risk, donor type, graft source, sex mismatch between the donor and the recipient, and year of transplantation as factors significantly associated with OS. These findings represent the real-world data in Japan, showing the changes in transplantation practice and a detailed estimation of post-transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04051-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Factors Associated With Umbilical Cord Blood Collection Quality in Japan.

J Hematol 2020 Apr 23;9(1-2):9-12. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Blood Service Headquarters, Japanese Red Cross Society, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become an established alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells with marrow and postmobilization peripheral blood. The presence of a large amount of clots may lead to the deterioration of cord blood quality. To improve UCB quality as a source of hematopoietic stem cells in Japan, we examined factors associated with UCB collection methods from the viewpoint of eliminating the presence of clots.

Methods: In August 2019, we requested the directors of 74 certified facilities to provide information on UCB collection methods in Japan. A total of 46 (62.2%) of them responded with valid information on a total of 2,892 UCB collections. In this study, collected UCB without clots macroscopically was evaluated as a high-quality UCB.

Results: The 2,891 UCB collections described during the study period were divided to those with (n = 760, 26.3%) and without clots (high quality; n = 2,131, 73.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed single puncture as a factor determining high-quality UCB collection (adjusted odds ratio (ORs): 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3 - 5.4, P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Single puncture is an independent effective factor determining high-quality manual UCB collection in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jh628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188375PMC
April 2020

Trends in platelet distributions from 2008 to 2017: a survey of twelve national and regional blood collectors.

Vox Sang 2020 Nov 13;115(8):703-711. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Vitalant, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: This multi-national study evaluated changes in platelet (PLT) unit distributions at 12 national or regional blood collectors over a 10-year period.

Methods: Data on the total number of PLT distributions, the collection method, that is apheresis vs whole blood-derived (WBD), the PLT unit characteristics and post-collection modifications were obtained from 12 national or regional blood collectors from 2008 through 2017. Individual WBD PLT units were converted to apheresis equivalent units (i.e. a dose of PLTs) by dividing by 4, the typical pool size; WBD units that were pooled before distribution were counted as a single dose.

Results: Overall at these 12 blood collectors, the total number of PLTs distributed in 2008 was 1 373 200, which rose by 10·2% to 1 513 803 in 2017. The Japanese Red Cross, which distributes only apheresis PLTs, had a 13·4% increase in the number of distributions between the years 2008 and 2017, while the other 11 blood collectors combined demonstrated a 6·8% increase in distributions between these two years. Between the years 2008 and 2017, the changes in the proportion of apheresis, platelet-rich plasma and buffy coat PLT distributions were -29·9%, -70·7% and 80·0%, respectively.

Conclusion: The number of PLT distributions increased during the 10-year study period despite prophylactic PLT transfusion thresholds having remained fairly consistent over the last decade. Perhaps this increase is in part driven by increased administration of platelets to patients with massive haemorrhage or an increase in stem cell transplantation. The use of buffy coat PLTs is increasing at these collectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12917DOI Listing
November 2020

Variations in novel cellular therapy products manufacturing.

Cytotherapy 2020 06 27;22(6):337-342. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST); University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Background Aims: At the frontier of transfusion medicine and transplantation, the field of cellular therapy is emerging. Most novel cellular therapy products are produced under investigational protocols with no clear standardization across cell processing centers. Thus, the purpose of this study was to uncover any variations in manufacturing practices for similar cellular therapy products across different cell processing laboratories worldwide.

Methods: An exploratory survey that was designed to identify variations in manufacturing practices in novel cellular therapy products was sent to cell processing laboratory directors worldwide. The questionnaire focused on the manufacturing life cycle of different cell therapies (i.e., collection, purification, in vitro expansion, freezing and storage, and thawing and washing), as well as the level of regulations followed to process each product type.

Results: The majority of the centers processed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from peripheral blood (n = 18), bone marrow (n = 16) or cord blood (n = 19), making HPCs the most commonly processed cells. The next most commonly produced cellular therapies were lymphocytes (n = 19) followed by mesenchymal stromal cells (n = 14), dendritic cells (n = 9) and natural killer (NK) cells (n = 9). A minority of centers (<5) processed pancreatic islet cells (n = 4), neural cells (n = 3) and induced-pluripotent stem cells (n = 3). Thirty-two laboratories processed products under an investigational status, for either phase I/II (n = 27) or phase III (n = 17) clinical trials. If purification methods were used, these varied for the type of product processed and by institution. Environmental monitoring methods also varied by product type and institution.

Conclusion: This exploratory survey shows a wide variation in cellular therapy manufacturing practices across different cell processing laboratories. A better understanding of the effect of these variations on the quality of these cell-based therapies will be important to assess for further process evaluation and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.01.012DOI Listing
June 2020

Implications of HLA diversity among regions for bone marrow donor searches in Japan.

HLA 2020 07 12;96(1):24-42. Epub 2020 May 12.

Blood Service Headquarters, Japanese Red Cross Society, Tokyo, Japan.

Japan is an island country, and the Japanese people have had minimal genetic exchange with other ethnolinguistic groups. Consequently, the population is highly uniform and has limited HLA diversity relative to people from other countries. However, Japan has three ethnolinguistic groups, and HLA distributions differ depending on geographic region. To collect an HLA-rich variety of bone marrow bank donor registrants, it is essential to know the precise distribution of HLA in Japan. We analyzed HLA alleles and haplotypes based on HLA information of 177 041 bone marrow donor registrants. Registrants were grouped depending on the prefecture and region (a group of prefectures) as commonly used in Japan. The prefectures did not show the same distributions, but the tendency was similar for each region. We found that Okinawa Prefecture and the mainland can be clearly divided as haplotypes: [A*24:02-C*01:02-B*54:01-DRB1*04:05] and [A*24:02-C*01:02-B*59:01-DRB1*04:05] were typically found in Okinawa (P = .02, P < .001). Moreover, these types were found almost exclusively in Japan and Korea. Donor registration centers of the Japan Marrow Donor Program are currently located in all prefectures. It is essential to deploy registration centers to collect registrants with a large variety of HLA types covering all of Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.13881DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of the outcomes after haploidentical and cord blood salvage transplantations for graft failure following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 09 12;55(9):1784-1795. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Hematology, Oita University Hospital, Yufu, Japan.

Graft failure (GF) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Although salvage SCTs can be performed with haploidentical donor (HID) or cord blood (CB), no study has compared the performances of these two sources. Using nationwide registration data, we compared the transplant outcomes of patients who developed GF and underwent salvage transplantation from HID (n = 129) and CB (n = 570) from 2007 to 2016. The HID group demonstrated better neutrophil recovery (79.7 vs. 52.5% at 30 days, P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 3 years, both groups demonstrated similar overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM; 1-year OS, 33.1 vs. 34.6% and 1-year NRM, 45.1 vs. 49.8% for the HID and CB groups). After adjustments for other covariates, OS did not differ in both groups. However, HID was associated with a lower NRM (hazard ratio, 0.71; P = 0.038) than CB. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related deaths was significantly higher in the HID group, although infection-related deaths were observed more frequently in the CB group. HID may be a promising salvage SCT option after GF due to its faster engraftment and low NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0821-9DOI Listing
September 2020

The effect of serum pretreatment regimens for the detection of HLA class I antibodies in platelet-refractory patients.

Transfusion 2020 03 17;60(3):488-497. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Single antigen bead (SAB) assays are used to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in patients with platelet refractoriness due to HLA Class I alloimmunization. Some laboratories use serum pretreatment regimens to eliminate interference from immunoglobulin M antibodies and complement. These modifications may contribute to interlaboratory variability, which is a recognized problem with the SAB assay.

Study Design And Methods: Five patients' sera were overnight shipped to 12 laboratories in the United States and internationally. Recipients used their lab's SAB procedure to identify HLA Class I antibodies. The resultant mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) data were compared by instrumentation, bead lot, and pretreatment regimens. Laboratory-specific cutoffs for positive antibodies were applied to the results.

Results: Interlaboratory variability for MFI values appears to be associated with different pretreatment regimens. The coefficient of variation (CV) of MFI from samples pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, dithiothreitol, or heat inactivation (EDHI) were similar, ranging from 14% to 56% (mean, 22%). For samples with no pretreatment, the CVs were significantly higher than EDHI-treated samples, ranging from 25% to 74% (mean, 39%; 95% confidence interval, 12.10-21.90; p < 0.0001). An intralaboratory comparison of pretreatment regimens confirmed these findings. Some positive antibody specificities present in EDHI-treated samples were negative in corresponding samples with no pretreatment when laboratory-specific cutoffs for positive antibodies were applied.

Conclusion: Our results show that greater interlaboratory precision can be achieved when samples are pretreated with EDHI as opposed to no pretreatment, likely because these pretreatments eliminate interference from inhibitors. Inhibitors may mask antibodies, leading to missed (or uncalled) specificities when no pretreatment is used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15666DOI Listing
March 2020

Improvement of early mortality in single-unit cord blood transplantation for Japanese adults from 1998 to 2017.

Am J Hematol 2020 04 2;95(4):343-353. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Division of Hematology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

The major limitation of cord blood transplantation (CBT) for adults remains the delayed hematopoietic recovery and higher incidence of graft failure, which result in a higher risk of early mortality in CBT. We evaluated early overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), neutrophil engraftment, acute graft-vs-host disease, and cause of early death among 9678 adult patients who received single-unit CBT in Japan between 1998 and 2017. The probability of OS at 100 days was 64.4%, 71.7%, and 78.9% for the periods 1998 to 2007, 2008 to 2012, and 2013 to 2017, respectively (P < .001). The cumulative incidences of NRM at 100 days during the same period were 28.3%, 20.8%, and 14.6%, respectively (P < .001). The cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment were also improved during the same period (P < .001). The most common cause of death within 100 days after CBT was bacterial infection in 1998 to 2007 and primary disease in the latter two time periods. Across the three time periods, the proportions of deaths from bacterial and fungal infection, graft failure, hemorrhage, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, and organ failure decreased in a stepwise fashion. Landmark analysis of OS and NRM after 100 days showed that OS did not change over time in the multivariate analysis. Our registry-based data demonstrated a significant improvement of early OS after CBT for adults over the past 20 years. The landmark analysis suggested that improvement of early mortality could lead to an improvement of long-term OS after CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25705DOI Listing
April 2020

The impact of age and sex on first-time donor return behavior.

Transfusion 2020 01 14;60(1):84-93. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

New York Blood Center, New York, New York.

Background: This study examined the impact of age and sex of first-time donors who had not experienced an adverse event or deferral on their likelihood of and time to return.

Study Design And Methods: On behalf of the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative, international blood collection agencies (BCAs) were invited to provide data on first-time whole blood donors in 2014, including initial presentation date, collection site type, age, sex, blood type, return to donate within 24 months (yes/no), and subsequent presentation date.

Results: Eight BCAs contributed 706,789 records. The overall odds of returning to donate were slightly lower in female versus male donors, and the overall age trend was U-shaped with younger and older donors having higher odds for returning relative to middle-aged donors. However, variations by BCA were observed. Specifically, in three BCAs, women had higher odds of returning to donate than men. Further, while across seven BCAs the smallest cohort of older first-time donors returned at a higher rate and returned more quickly than middle-aged first-time donors, the behavior of younger donors varied substantially between BCAs.

Conclusion: While older first-time donors are more likely to return and return more quickly than middle-aged donors they make up only a small proportion of first-time donors, whereas the larger group of younger donors exhibits less clear patterns of return compared to middle-aged donors. Further research is needed to determine whether targeting the recruitment of older donors or bolstering retention of middle-aged donors would be most effective in maintaining the blood supply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15627DOI Listing
January 2020

Impact of HLA Allele Mismatch at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in Single Cord Blood Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 9;26(3):519-528. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The impact of allele-level HLA mismatch on outcomes of cord blood transplantation has not been well established. We retrospectively analyzed the effects of HLA allele matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. In multivariate analysis, overall survival (OS) significantly deteriorated in the 4-allele or higher mismatch in pediatric cases (hazard ratio, 1.8 for 4/8 match [reference, 6/8 match] and 2.85 for 3-1/8 match) and the 5-allele or higher mismatch in adult cases (hazard ratio, 1.23 for 3-0/8 match). Incidence of grade Ⅲ to Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease was low in the 8/8 match and 1-allele mismatch in pediatric cases (hazard ratio, 0.19 for 8/8 match and 0.41 for 7/8 match) and the 8/8 match in adult cases (hazard ratio, 0.41 for 8/8 match). On the other hand, a higher incidence of relapse was noted in the 8/8 match in adults (hazard ratio, 1.53). The incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment decreased in the 3-allele or higher mismatch in adults. In subgroup analysis of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in adult cases, a deteriorating effect on OS of HLA 5-allele or higher mismatch was more significant in cases with calcineurin inhibitor with methotrexate than with mycophenolate mofetil. These results suggest that allele-level HLA mismatch affects the outcomes of cord blood transplantation. Information on HLA allele matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 may be useful for cord blood unit selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.001DOI Listing
March 2020

Time-Varying Effects of Graft Type on Outcomes for Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 9;26(2):307-315. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to investigate time-varying effects of graft type on outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. For this purpose we analyzed 3952 patients, 720 of whom underwent matched related bone marrow transplantation (BMT), 1004 matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), 856 matched unrelated BMT, and 1372 umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) during complete remission. The 4-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 59.1%, 52.8%, 59.5%, and 50.6%, respectively. Compared with related BMT, related PBSCT, unrelated BMT, and UCBT were associated with higher risk of nonrelapse mortality and unrelated BMT and UCBT with lower risk of relapse. As a result, both RFS and overall survival were comparable between related BMT and unrelated BMT but were worse for related PBSCT and UCBT than for related BMT. Adverse impact of UCBT was observed only during the early phase of transplant, whereas that of related PBSCT continued even after 2 years post-transplant. Our findings raise concerns about the increased risk of late nonrelapse mortality with the use of PBSC grafts and suggest that related BMT is preferable to related PBSCT; matched unrelated BMT is the next choice in the absence of a matched related donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.036DOI Listing
February 2020

Prognostic factors for adult single cord blood transplantation among European and Japanese populations: the Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT and JSHCT/JDCHCT collaborative study.

Leukemia 2020 01 14;34(1):128-137. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Eurocord, Hospital Saint Louis, AP-HP, IUH University Paris VII, Paris, France.

Large differences in patient and transplant backgrounds make it difficult to identify consistent prognostic factors of unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) among different populations. Thus, we performed a collaborative study between Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT and JSHCT/JDCHCT. Adults with acute leukaemia who underwent a single UCBT were eligible. In total, 3764 and 1027 patients of the JSHCT/JDCHCT and Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT registries, respectively, were included. The median ages of the Japanese and European cohorts were 51 and 38 years, respectively. Three or more HLA mismatches were more frequently observed in the Japanese cohort. The median total nucleated cell (TNC) counts were 2.58 and 3.51 × 10/kg in the Japanese and European cohorts, respectively. Anti-thymocyte globulin was used in only 2% of the Japanese cohort compared with 65% of the European cohort. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 41% in JSHCT/JDCHCT and 33% in Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT. In the multivariate analysis, TNC dose and HLA matching had no significant effect on OS in either cohort, whereas year of transplantation, age, and refined disease risk index affected OS in both cohorts. Despite considerable differences in characteristics between the Japanese and European cohorts, we observed similar prognostic factors affecting UCBT outcomes in adult patients with acute leukaemia in both registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0534-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Impact of High-Frequency HLA Haplotypes on Clinical Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 7;25(12):2482-2489. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Some studies support the hypothesis that HLA genes and haplotypes evolved by natural selection through their protective abilities against specific infectious pathogens. However, very little is known regarding the impact of high-frequency HLA haplotypes on the risk of relevant infectious diseases among a given ethnic group. We evaluated the impact of high-frequency HLA haplotypes on cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a Japanese population as a model of infectious disease that has coexisted with humans. A total of 21,127 donor-patient pairs were analyzed. HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were estimated using the maximum probability algorithm. Seven haplotypes with >1% frequency were defined as high-frequency haplotypes (HfHPs). Homozygotes of HfHP and heterozygotes had significantly lower risk of CMV reactivation and infection (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, P = .009 and HR = 0.93, P = .003, respectively) than homozygotes of low-frequency HLA haplotypes (LfHPs). In subgroup analyses of a different donor source, these associations were statistically significant in unrelated donor transplants. Finally, CMV risk for homozygotes and heterozygotes of each HfHP was compared with that of homozygotes of LfHPs. The 2 most predominant HfHP groups (A*24:02-B*52:01-DRB1*15:02 group and A*24:02-B*07:02-DRB1*01:01 group) had a significantly lower risk of CMV reactivation and infection (HR = 0.86, P < .001 and HR = 0.91, P = .033, respectively). Our findings suggest that HfHPs may be protective against CMV reactivation and infection and that increased care regarding CMV reactivation and infection may be necessary for patients with LfHP after allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.042DOI Listing
December 2019

Unit selection for umbilical cord blood transplantation for adults with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission: a Japanese experience.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 8;54(11):1789-1798. Epub 2019 May 8.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

To investigate optimal unit selection for umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), we conducted a registry-based study of 1355 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first or second complete remission who underwent single-unit UCBT. To be eligible for analysis, UCB units had to contain a total nucleated cell (TNC) dose of 2.0 × 10/kg or higher and present at least a 4/6-match for HLA-A, -B, and -DR antigens in line with clinical practice in Japan, both of which are less stringent criteria than those used in Western countries. Neither TNC dose nor the degree of HLA matching affected survival (P = 0.138 and P = 0.696, respectively). As for HLA-A, -B antigens and -DRB1 allele, better HLA matching was associated with lower non-relapse mortality (P = 0.011) but higher relapse (P = 0.046), resulting in no improvement in survival (P = 0.680). Taking the allele level for each HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 into consideration was less useful for predicting non-relapse mortality (P = 0.198). These findings suggest that the less stringent criteria for UCB unit selection are acceptable for Japanese patient population and perhaps even more beneficial in terms of providing a better chance to find a suitable UCB unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0539-8DOI Listing
November 2019

Increased opportunity for prolonged survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients aged 60-69 years with myelodysplastic syndrome.

Ann Hematol 2019 Jun 11;98(6):1367-1381. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Hematology, Nagasaki University Hospital, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan.

We conducted a nationwide retrospective study to evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in 651 patients aged 60-69 years with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We divided patients into two groups: 152 and 499 patients with an early and advanced disease status, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an early disease status was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.0 to 54.2%). A multivariate analysis revealed five adverse factors for OS: performance status (PS) 2-4 (hazard ratio [HR] 4.48; P < .001), poor cytogenetic risk group (HR 1.83; P = .041), male recipient (HR 2.58; P = .003), use of HLA-mismatched related grafts (HR 4.75; P = .003), and unrelated cord blood (HR 2.47; P = .023). The 3-year OS rate of patients with an advanced disease status was 37.2% (95% CI 32.4 to 41.9%). Five factors correlated with worse OS: PS 2-4 (HR 1.72; P = .003), poor cytogenetic risk group (HR 1.49; P = .003), use of HLA-mismatched related grafts (HR 1.96; P = .015), unrelated cord blood (HR 2.05; P < .001), and the high number of red blood cell transfusions before transplantation (HR 1.85; P = .018). The present results revealed the more frequent utilization of allo-HSCT for MDS patients aged 60-69 years, which increases the curative potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03653-7DOI Listing
June 2019

Graft-versus-MDS effect after unrelated cord blood transplantation: a retrospective analysis of 752 patients registered at the Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Blood Cancer J 2019 03 6;9(3):31. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Hematology, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the sole curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, there is concern regarding graft failure and relapse in patients who undergo cord blood transplantation (CBT). We conducted a retrospective study of the CBT outcomes in MDS patients using the Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation database. Seven hundred fifty-two de novo MDS patients of ≥18 years of age (median, 58 years) undergoing their first CBT between 2001 and 2015 were examined. Two-thirds of the patients were male, and were RAEB. The cumulative incidences of neutrophil and platelet engraftment at day 100 were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 41% and the median survival of the patients was 1.25 years. A multivariate analysis of pre-transplant variables showed that the age, gender, cytogenetic subgroups, number of RBC transfusions, HCT-CI and year of CBT significantly influenced the outcome. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 32 and 21%, respectively. A survival benefit was observed in patients who developed cGVHD, but not aGVHD. Our results suggest that CBT is an acceptable alternative graft and that a graft-versus-MDS effect can be expected, especially in patients who develop cGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0192-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403210PMC
March 2019

Clinical impact of the loss of chromosome 7q on outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 09 4;54(9):1471-1481. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Hematology, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

We conducted a nationwide retrospective study to evaluate the prognostic influence of +1, der(1;7)(q10;p10) [hereafter der(1;7)] and -7/del(7q) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In this database, 69 MDS patients with der(1;7), 75 with -7/del(7q), and 511 with normal karyotype (NK) underwent allo-HSCT at advanced disease status. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were 50.4 and 19.4% for those with der(1;7), 36.2 and 38.4% for -7/del(7q), and 51.1 and 20.7% for NK, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of -7/del(7q) correlated with a significantly shorter OS (HR [95% CI], 1.38 [1.00-1.89]; P = 0.048) and higher CIR (HR, 2.11 [1.36-3.28]; P = 0.001) than those with NK. There were 23 patients with der(1;7), 29 with -7/del(7q), and 347 with NK who underwent allo-HSCT at early disease status. The 3-year OS and CIR were as follows: 47.3 and 9.5% for the der(1;7) group, 70.5 and 13.8% for -7/del(7q), and 70.9 and 5.6% for NK, respectively. No significant differences were observed in OS and CIR among three groups. The impact of the loss of chromosome 7q on OS and CIR may differ based on its type and disease status after allo-HSCT for MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0469-5DOI Listing
September 2019

Effects of HLA mismatch on cytomegalovirus reactivation in cord blood transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 6;54(7):1004-1012. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch is often thought to be associated with a high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, it is not clear whether this process is mediated by HLA mismatch or other factors, such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Here we focused on cord blood transplantation (CBT) and examined the effects of HLA mismatch on the incidence of CMV reactivation while minimizing the effects of aGVHD. In a multivariate analysis considering aGVHD as a time-dependent covariate, a significant effect on the incidence of CMV reactivation was noted for HLA disparity (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54 for 8/8 match compared with 3-allele mismatch) and development of aGVHD (HR: 1.26). Next, in an analysis excluding cases that developed aGVHD, the incidences of CMV reactivation for 8/8 match and 1-allele mismatch were low compared with those for other mismatches. These findings were supported by the multivariate analysis (HR: 0.49 for 8/8 match and 0.64 for 1-allele mismatch compared with 3-allele mismatch). Together, these results suggested that HLA mismatch was involved in CMV reactivation and was associated with high morbidity of opportunistic infection after CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0369-0DOI Listing
July 2019

Current practices for viability testing of cryopreserved cord blood products: an international survey by the cellular therapy team of the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative.

Transfusion 2018 09;58(9):2184-2191

Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Background: Viability testing is a common practice in laboratories. The goal of this study was to ascertain current laboratory practices internationally for performing viability testing for cryopreserved cord blood (CB) products and glean information about how to standardize the method to improve interlaboratory reproducibility.

Study Design And Methods: A survey to evaluate current laboratory practices for viability testing was designed and distributed internationally. The question topics included sampling and testing methods, responses to unexpected results, and the rating of the reliability of the CB quality tests, together with expectations for standardization.

Results: There were 32 respondents to the survey, of whom 28 responded to the more detailed questionnaire about viability methods. Overall, responses indicated that various stains were used among the laboratories, and when multiple sites used the same viability stain the methods differed. The majority of the respondents were in favor of standardizing the viability testing methods. A wide variety of preferences were communicated about how to standardize the method, but a majority did advocate the use of 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) with flow cytometry.

Conclusions: The survey results revealed a variety of tests and inconsistent interlaboratory practices for performing the viability assay. Flow cytometry with a 7-AAD dye was suggested as a first step toward standardization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14777DOI Listing
September 2018
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