Publications by authors named "Minjeong Kim"

180 Publications

Assessment of reliability and validity of the 5-scale grading system of the point-of-care immunoassay for tear matrix metalloproteinase-9.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12394. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06973, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated the reliability and validity of the 5-scale grading system to interpret the point-of-care immunoassay for tear matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Six observers graded red bands of photographs of the readout window in MMP-9 immunoassay kit (InflammaDry) two times with 2-week interval based on the 5-scale grading system (i.e. grade 0-4). Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients. The interobserver agreements were analyzed according to the severity of tear MMP-9 expression. To validate the system, a concentration calibration curve was made using MMP-9 solutions with reference concentrations, then the distribution of MMP-9 concentrations was analyzed according to the 5-scale grading system. Both intraobserver and interobserver reliability was excellent. The readout grades were significantly correlated with the quantified colorimetric densities. The interobserver variance of readout grades had no correlation with the severity of the measured densities. The band density continued to increase up to a maximal concentration (i.e. 5000 ng/mL) according to the calibration curve. The difference of grades reflected the change of MMP-9 concentrations sensitively, especially between grade 2 and 4. Together, our data indicate that the subjective 5-scale grading system in the point-of-care MMP-9 immunoassay is an easy and reliable method with acceptable accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92020-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196078PMC
June 2021

The Protective Effects of EMF-LTE against DNA Double-Strand Break Damage In Vitro and In Vivo.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

With the rapid growth of the wireless communication industry, humans are extensively exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) comprised of radiofrequency (RF). The skin is considered the primary target of EMFs given its outermost location. Recent evidence suggests that extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF can improve the efficacy of DNA repair in human cell-lines. However, the effects of EMF-RF on DNA damage remain unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of EMF-long term evolution (LTE, 1.762 GHz, 8 W/kg) irradiation on DNA double-strand break (DSB) using the murine melanoma cell line B16 and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. EMF-LTE exposure alone did not affect cell viability or induce apoptosis or necrosis. In addition, DNA DSB damage, as determined by the neutral comet assay, was not induced by EMF-LTE irradiation. Of note, EMF-LTE exposure can attenuate the DNA DSB damage induced by physical and chemical DNA damaging agents (such as ionizing radiation (IR, 10 Gy) in HaCaT and B16 cells and bleomycin (BLM, 3 μM) in HaCaT cells and a human melanoma cell line MNT-1), suggesting that EMF-LTE promotes the repair of DNA DSB damage. The protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA damage was further confirmed by attenuation of the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX after exposure to EMF-LTE in HaCaT and B16 cells. Most importantly, irradiation of EMF-LTE (1.76 GHz, 6 W/kg, 8 h/day) on mice in vivo for 4 weeks reduced the γ-H2AX level in the skin tissue, further supporting the protective effects of EMF-LTE against DNA DSB damage. Furthermore, p53, the master tumor-suppressor gene, was commonly upregulated by EMF-LTE irradiation in B16 and HaCaT cells. This finding suggests that p53 plays a role in the protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA DSBs. Collectively, these results demonstrated that EMF-LTE might have a protective effect against DNA DSB damage in the skin, although further studies are necessary to understand its impact on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152012PMC
May 2021

Targeting Lactate Dehydrogenase A with Catechin Resensitizes SNU620/5FU Gastric Cancer Cells to 5-Fluorouracil.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea.

Resistance to anticancer therapeutics occurs in virtually every type of cancer and becomes a major difficulty in cancer treatment. Although 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is the first-line choice of anticancer therapy for gastric cancer, its effectiveness is limited owing to drug resistance. Recently, altered cancer metabolism, including the Warburg effect, a preference for glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, has been accepted as a pivotal mechanism regulating resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, we investigated the detailed mechanism and possible usefulness of antiglycolytic agents in ameliorating 5FU resistance using established gastric cancer cell lines, SNU620 and SNU620/5FU. SNU620/5FU, a gastric cancer cell harboring resistance to 5FU, showed much higher lactate production and expression of glycolysis-related enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), than those of the parent SNU620 cells. To limit glycolysis, we examined catechin and its derivatives, which are known anti-inflammatory and anticancer natural products because epigallocatechin gallate has been previously reported as a suppressor of LDHA expression. Catechin, the simplest compound among them, had the highest inhibitory effect on lactate production and LDHA activity. In addition, the combination of 5FU and catechin showed additional cytotoxicity and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in SNU620/5FU cells. Thus, based on these results, we suggest catechin as a candidate for the development of a novel adjuvant drug that reduces chemoresistance to 5FU by restricting LDHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161398PMC
May 2021

Segmentor: a tool for manual refinement of 3D microscopy annotations.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 22;22(1):260. Epub 2021 May 22.

UNC Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 116 Manning Drive, CB# 7250, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Recent advances in tissue clearing techniques, combined with high-speed image acquisition through light sheet microscopy, enable rapid three-dimensional (3D) imaging of biological specimens, such as whole mouse brains, in a matter of hours. Quantitative analysis of such 3D images can help us understand how changes in brain structure lead to differences in behavior or cognition, but distinguishing densely packed features of interest, such as nuclei, from background can be challenging. Recent deep learning-based nuclear segmentation algorithms show great promise for automated segmentation, but require large numbers of accurate manually labeled nuclei as training data.

Results: We present Segmentor, an open-source tool for reliable, efficient, and user-friendly manual annotation and refinement of objects (e.g., nuclei) within 3D light sheet microscopy images. Segmentor employs a hybrid 2D-3D approach for visualizing and segmenting objects and contains features for automatic region splitting, designed specifically for streamlining the process of 3D segmentation of nuclei. We show that editing simultaneously in 2D and 3D using Segmentor significantly decreases time spent on manual annotations without affecting accuracy as compared to editing the same set of images with only 2D capabilities.

Conclusions: Segmentor is a tool for increased efficiency of manual annotation and refinement of 3D objects that can be used to train deep learning segmentation algorithms, and is available at https://www.nucleininja.org/ and https://github.com/RENCI/Segmentor .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04202-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141214PMC
May 2021

Effects of education methods on self-efficacy of smoking cessation counseling among medical students.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11408. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Family Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

Background: Medical students need to receive training in providing smoking cessation counseling to provide effective smoking cessation interventions to smokers when they become doctors. This study examined the smoking cessation education curricula and factors affecting counseling self-efficacy (CSE) in smoking cessation treatment among medical students.

Methods: In a multicenter cross-sectional study, we obtained demographic information, personal history of tobacco use and intention to quit smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke in the school premises during the past week, the experience of learning about tobacco in each medical school, tobacco-related medical knowledge, and self-efficacy in smoking cessation counseling on medical students of four Korean medical schools.

Results: Among 1,416 medical students eligible, 313 (22.1%) students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Only 20.3% of the students reported positive CSE on smoking cessation. The factors affecting positive CSE were scores of ≥ 60 on tobacco-related medical knowledge, smoking experience, and blended learning ( = 0.014, 0.005, and 0.015, respectively).

Conclusion: This study shows that high scores in tobacco-related medical knowledge and blended learning are correlated with positive CSE for smoking cessation counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109004PMC
May 2021

Group-wise Hub Identification by Learning Common Graph Embeddings on Grassmannian Manifold.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 19;PP. Epub 2021 May 19.

Human brain is a complex yet economically organized system, where a small portion of critical hub regions support the majority of brain functions. The identification of common hub nodes in a population of networks is often simplified as a voting procedure on the set of identified hub nodes across individual brain networks, which ignores the intrinsic data geometry and partially lacks the reproducible findings in neuroscience. Hence, we propose a first-ever group-wise hub identification method to identify hub nodes that are common across a population of individual brain networks. Specifically, the backbone of our method is to learn common graph embedding that can represent the majority of local topological profiles. By requiring orthogonality among the graph embedding vectors, each graph embedding as a data element is residing on the Grassmannian manifold. We present a novel Grassmannian manifold optimization scheme that allows us to find the common graph embeddings, which not only identify the most reliable hub nodes in each network but also yield a population-based common hub node map. Results of the accuracy and replicability on both synthetic and real network data show that the proposed manifold learning approach outperforms all hub identification methods employed in this evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3081744DOI Listing
May 2021

Localized Delivery of Theranostic Nanoparticles and High-Energy Photons using Microneedles-on-Bioelectronics.

Adv Mater 2021 May 6:e2100425. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

The low delivery efficiency of light-responsive theranostic nanoparticles (NPs) to target tumor sites, particularly to brain tumors due to the blood-brain barrier, has been a critical issue in NP-based cancer treatments. Furthermore, high-energy photons that can effectively activate theranostic NPs are hardly delivered to the target region due to the strong scattering of such photons while penetrating surrounding tissues. Here, a localized delivery method of theranostic NPs and high-energy photons to the target tumor using microneedles-on-bioelectronics is presented. Two types of microneedles and flexible bioelectronics are integrated and mounted on the edge of surgical forceps. Bioresorbable microneedles containing theranostic NPs deliver the NPs into target tumors (e.g., glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma). Magnetic resonance imaging can locate the NPs. Then, light-guiding/spreading microneedles deliver high-energy photons from bioelectronics to the NPs. The high-energy photons activate the NPs to treat tumor tissues by photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy. The controlled thermal actuation by the bioelectronics accelerates the diffusion of chemo-drugs. The proposed method is demonstrated with mouse tumor models in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100425DOI Listing
May 2021

Negative Air Ions Alleviate Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Human Keratinocyte Cell Line HaCaT.

Ann Dermatol 2021 Apr 8;33(2):116-121. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter induces inflammation, oxidative stress, and several skin diseases. Experimental results have also shown that negative air ions are highly effective in removing particulate matter-induced inflammation.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether negative air ions can inhibit inflammatory responses and reduce oxidative stress in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matters.

Methods: HaCaT cells were treated with particulate matter in the presence or absence of negative air ions and the viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. The expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Negative air ions were observed to downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of particulate matter-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells. In addition, negative air ion treatment suppressed particulate matter-induced intracellular ROS generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and activator protein 1 (c-Fos and c-Jun) activation.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that negative air ions exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matter. Therefore, negative air ions can be used for the prevention and treatment of particulate matter-related inflammatory skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082002PMC
April 2021

Morin Induces Melanogenesis via Activation of MAPK Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells.

Molecules 2021 Apr 8;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Dongshin University, 185 gunjae-ro Naju, Jeonnam 58245, Korea.

Morin is a well-known flavonoid, and has been reported to have various properties, such as anti-cell death, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although studies on the biochemical and biological actions of morin have been reported, the melanin biosynthesis effects and molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we first found that morin has the effect of enhancing melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, and analyzed the molecular mechanism. In this study, we examined the effects of morin on the melanin contents and tyrosinase activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the melanogenic enzymes TRP-1, TRP-2, and microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Morin showed no cytotoxicity in the concentration range of 5-100 μM, and significantly increased the intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin contents. In mechanism analysis, morin increased the protein expression of TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF associated with melanogenesis. Furthermore, morin increased phosphorylated ERK and p38 at the early time, and decreased phosphorylated ERK after 12 h. The results suggest that morin enhances melanin synthesis through the MAPK signaling pathways in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068350PMC
April 2021

Potential of Algae-Bacteria Synergistic Effects on Vegetable Production.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:656662. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

World Vegetable Center Korea Office, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea.

Modern agriculture has become heavily dependent on chemical fertilizers, which have caused environmental pollution and the loss of soil fertility and sustainability. Microalgae and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been identified as alternatives to chemical fertilizers for improving soil fertility. This is because of their biofertilizing properties, through the production of bioactive compounds (e.g., phytohormones, amino acids, and carotenoids) and their ability to inhibit plant pathogens. Although treatment based on a single species of microalgae or bacteria is commonly used in agriculture, there is growing experimental evidence suggesting that a symbiotic relationship between microalgae and bacteria synergistically affects each other's physiological and metabolomic processes. Moreover, the co-culture/combination treatment of microalgae and bacteria is considered a promising approach in biotechnology for wastewater treatment and efficient biomass production, based on the advantage of the resulting synergistic effects. However, much remains unexplored regarding the microalgal-bacterial interactions for agricultural applications. In this review, we summarize the effects of microalgae and PGPB as biofertilizing agents on vegetable cultivation. Furthermore, we present the potential of the microalgae-PGPB co-culture/combination system for the environmentally compatible production of vegetables with improved quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.656662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072153PMC
April 2021

The Oral Administration of Extract Improves Physical Performance through LDHA Modulation.

Molecules 2021 Mar 12;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 50612, Korea.

Muscle fatigue is induced by an acute or chronic physical performance inability after excessive physical activity often associated with lactate accumulation, the end-product of glycolysis. In this study, the water-extracted roots of L., a herbal medicine traditionally used for inflammation and diarrhea, reduced the activities of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in in vitro enzyme assay myoblast C2C12 cells and murine muscle tissue. Physical performance measured by a treadmill test was improved in the -administrated group. The analysis of mouse serum and tissues showed significant changes in lactate levels. Among the proteins related to energy metabolism-related physical performance, phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) levels were enhanced, whereas the amount of LDHA was suppressed. Therefore, might be a candidate for improving physical performance via inhibiting LDHA and glycolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998416PMC
March 2021

Effect of Enhanced ADAS Camera Capability on Traffic State Estimation.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Urban Planning and Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea.

Traffic flow data, such as flow, density and speed, are crucial for transportation planning and traffic system operation. Recently, a novel traffic state estimating method was proposed using the distance to a leading vehicle measured by an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) camera. This study examined the effect of an ADAS camera with enhanced capabilities on traffic state estimation using image-based vehicle identification technology. Considering the realistic distance error of the ADAS camera from the field experiment, a microscopic simulation model, VISSIM, was employed with multiple underlying parameters such as the number of lanes, traffic demand, the penetration rate of ADAS vehicles and the spatiotemporal range of the estimation area. Although the enhanced functions of the ADAS camera did not affect the accuracy of the traffic state estimates significantly, the ADAS camera can be used for traffic state estimation. Furthermore, the vehicle identification distance of the ADAS camera and traffic conditions with more lanes did not always ensure better accuracy of the estimates. Instead, it is recommended that transportation planners and traffic engineering practitioners carefully select the relevant parameters and their range to ensure a certain level of accuracy for traffic state estimates that suit their purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21061996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000564PMC
March 2021

Synergistic Effect of Growth Factor Releasing Polymeric Nanoparticles and Ultrasound Stimulation on Osteogenic Differentiation.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 27;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 197 Injero, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 50834, Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used in the tissue regeneration therapy. Ex vivo therapy with well-differentiated osteogenic cells is known as an efficient treatment for musculoskeletal diseases, including rheumatoid diseases. However, along with its high cost, the current therapy has limitations in terms of restoring bone regeneration procedures. An efficient process for the cell differentiation to obtain a large number of functionalized osteogenic cells is necessary. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop strategies to produce sufficient numbers of well-differentiated osteogenic cells from the MSCs. In general, differentiation media with growth factors have been used to facilitate cell differentiation. In the present study, the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating the growth factors were included in the media, resulting in releasing growth factors (dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate) in the media in the controlled manner. Stable growth and early differentiation of osteogenic cells were achieved by the PLGA-based growth factor releasing system. Moreover, low intensity pulsed ultrasound was applied to this system to induce cell differentiation process. The results revealed that, as a biomarker at early stage of osteogenic cell differentiation, Lamin A/C nuclear protein was efficiently expressed in the cells growing in the presence of PLGA-based growth factor reservoirs and ultrasound. In conclusion, our results showed that the ultrasound stimulation combined with polymeric nanoparticles releasing growth factors could potentially induce osteogenic cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066944PMC
March 2021

Study on Characteristics of Particulate Matter Resuspension in School Classroom through Experiments Using a Simulation Chamber: Influence of Humidity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 11;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Transportation Environmental Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang 16105, Korea.

Resuspension of particulate matter (PM) in classrooms, which increases the risk of negative impact on student health from exposure to PM, is influenced by humidity level in the indoor environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the properties of PM resuspension in accordance with relative humidity through classroom test chamber experiments. In actual classrooms, it is challenging to control factors influencing resuspension. Therefore, the classroom chamber that reflects the environment of elementary school classroom (e.g., structure, floor material) is used in this study. The humidity of the classroom chamber is adjusted to 35%, 55%, 75%, and 85% by placing it inside a real-size environmental chamber, which allows artificial control of climatic conditions. At the respective humidity conditions, PM resuspension concentration and resuspension factor caused by occupant walking across the classroom chamber are analyzed. The results show that both of the resuspension concentration and resuspension factor reveal a linear negative correlation to humidity increase. Furthermore, coefficient of determination (R) indicating goodness-of-fit of the linear regression model between the resuspension concentration and humidity is 0.88 for PM and 0.93 for PM. It implies that accuracy of the regression model for estimating PM and PM resuspension concentrations is 88% and 93%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000034PMC
March 2021

Prediction of antibiotic-resistance genes occurrence at a recreational beach with deep learning models.

Water Res 2021 May 3;196:117001. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50, UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 44919 South Korea. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been reported to threaten the public health of beachgoers worldwide. Although ARG monitoring and beach guidelines are necessary, substantial efforts are required for ARG sampling and analysis. Accordingly, in this study, we predicted ARGs occurrence that are primarily found on the coast after rainfall using a conventional long short-term memory (LSTM), LSTM-convolutional neural network (CNN) hybrid model, and input attention (IA)-LSTM. To develop the models, 10 categories of environmental data collected at 30-min intervals and concentration data of 4 types of major ARGs (i.e., aac(6'-Ib-cr), bla, sul1, and tetX) obtained at the Gwangalli Beach in South Korea, between 2018 and 2019 were used. When individually predicting ARGs occurrence, the conventional LSTM and IA-LSTM exhibited poor R values during training and testing. In contrast, the LSTM-CNN exhibited a 2-6-times improvement in accuracy over those of the conventional LSTM and IA-LSTM. However, when predicting all ARGs occurrence simultaneously, the IA-LSTM model exhibited a superior performance overall compared to that of LSTM-CNN. Additionally, the influence of environmental variables on prediction was investigated using the IA-LSTM model, and the ranges of input variables that affect each ARG were identified. Consequently, this study demonstrated the possibility of predicting the occurrence and distribution of major ARGs at the beach based on various environmental variables, and the results are expected to contribute to management of ARG occurrence at a recreational beach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117001DOI Listing
May 2021

Chloride-Mediated Enhancement in Heat-Induced Activation of Peroxymonosulfate: New Reaction Pathways for Oxidizing Radical Production.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 18;55(8):5382-5392. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

This study is the first to demonstrate the capability of Cl to markedly accelerate organic oxidation using thermally activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under acidic conditions. The treatment efficiency gain allowed heat-activated PMS to surpass heat-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS). During thermal PMS activation at excess Cl, accelerated oxidation of 4-chlorophenol (susceptible to oxidation by hypochlorous acid (HOCl)) was observed along with significant degradation of benzoic acid and ClO occurrence, which involved oxidants with low substrate specificity. This indicated that heat facilitated HOCl formation via nucleophilic Cl addition to PMS and enabled free chlorine conversion into less selective oxidizing radicals. HOCl acted as a key intermediate in the major oxidant transition based on temperature-dependent variation in HOCl concentration profiles, kinetically retarded organic oxidation upon NH addition, and enabled rapid organic oxidation in heated PMS/HOCl mixtures. Chlorine atom that formed via the one-electron oxidation of Cl by the sulfate radical served as the primary oxidant and was involved in hydroxyl radical production. This was corroborated by the quenching effects of alcohols and bicarbonates, reactivity toward multiple organics, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral features. PMS outperformed PDS in degrading benzoic acid during thermal activation operated in reverse osmosis concentrate, which was in conflict with the well-established superiority of heat-activated PDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07964DOI Listing
April 2021

Neuropsychiatric disease classification using functional connectomics - results of the connectomics in neuroimaging transfer learning challenge.

Med Image Anal 2021 05 28;70:101972. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, USA. Electronic address:

Large, open-source datasets, such as the Human Connectome Project and the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, have spurred the development of new and increasingly powerful machine learning approaches for brain connectomics. However, one key question remains: are we capturing biologically relevant and generalizable information about the brain, or are we simply overfitting to the data? To answer this, we organized a scientific challenge, the Connectomics in NeuroImaging Transfer Learning Challenge (CNI-TLC), held in conjunction with MICCAI 2019. CNI-TLC included two classification tasks: (1) diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within a pre-adolescent cohort; and (2) transference of the ADHD model to a related cohort of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients with an ADHD comorbidity. In total, 240 resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) time series averaged according to three standard parcellation atlases, along with clinical diagnosis, were released for training and validation (120 neurotypical controls and 120 ADHD). We also provided Challenge participants with demographic information of age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The second set of 100 subjects (50 neurotypical controls, 25 ADHD, and 25 ASD with ADHD comorbidity) was used for testing. Classification methodologies were submitted in a standardized format as containerized Docker images through ChRIS, an open-source image analysis platform. Utilizing an inclusive approach, we ranked the methods based on 16 metrics: accuracy, area under the curve, F1-score, false discovery rate, false negative rate, false omission rate, false positive rate, geometric mean, informedness, markedness, Matthew's correlation coefficient, negative predictive value, optimized precision, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. The final rank was calculated using the rank product for each participant across all measures. Furthermore, we assessed the calibration curves of each methodology. Five participants submitted their method for evaluation, with one outperforming all other methods in both ADHD and ASD classification. However, further improvements are still needed to reach the clinical translation of functional connectomics. We have kept the CNI-TLC open as a publicly available resource for developing and validating new classification methodologies in the field of connectomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.101972DOI Listing
May 2021

Bridging Policy and Service Performance of Hospital-Based Nutrition Support by Healthcare Information Technology.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 11;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gumi-ro 173, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13620, Korea.

Although the healthcare policy was implemented to incentivize the multidisciplinary services of hospital-based nutrition support team (NST) in South Korea, timely completion of the services has been challenging in the hospitals. We enhanced NST healthcare information technology (NST-HIT) to bridge the gap between policy implementation and seamless execution of the policy in the hospital system. A 48 month pre-test-post-test study was performed, including a 12 month pre-intervention period, a six month intervention period, and a 30 month post-intervention period. The enhanced NST-HIT provided sufficient patient data and streamlined communication processes among end-users. A Student's -test showed that the timely completion rate of NST consultations, the reimbursement rate of NST consultations, average response times of NST physicians and nurses, and length of hospital stay significantly improved during the post-intervention period. A segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series showed that the average response times of NST physicians had sustained after the interventions. We believe that well-structured, multi-pronged initiatives with leadership support from the hospital improved service performance of hospital NST in response to national-level healthcare policy changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916952PMC
February 2021

Expression of Caspases in the Pig Endometrium Throughout the Estrous Cycle and at the Maternal-Conceptus Interface During Pregnancy and Regulation by Steroid Hormones and Cytokines.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:641916. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, South Korea.

Caspases, a family of cysteine protease enzymes, are a critical component of apoptotic cell death, but they are also involved in cellular differentiation. The expression of caspases during apoptotic processes in reproductive tissues has been shown in some species; however, the expression and regulation of caspases in the endometrium and placental tissues of pigs has not been fully understood. Therefore, we determined the expression of caspases , and in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. During the estrous cycle, the expression of all caspases and during pregnancy, the expression of , and in the endometrium changed in a stage-specific manner. Conceptus and chorioallantoic tissues also expressed caspases during pregnancy. CASP3, cleaved-CASP3, and CASP7 proteins were localized to endometrial cells, with increased levels in luminal and glandular epithelial cells during early pregnancy, whereas apoptotic cells in the endometrium were limited to some scattered stromal cells with increased numbers on Day 15 of pregnancy. In endometrial explant cultures, the expression of some caspases was affected by steroid hormones (estradiol-17β and/or progesterone), and the cytokines interleukin-1β and interferon-γ induced the expression of and , respectively. These results indicate that caspases are dynamically expressed in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and at the maternal-conceptus interface during pregnancy in response to steroid hormones and conceptus signals. Thus, caspase action could be important in regulating endometrial and placental function and epithelial cell function during the implantation period in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.641916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907442PMC
February 2021

Learning dynamic graph embeddings for accurate detection of cognitive state changes in functional brain networks.

Neuroimage 2021 04 2;230:117791. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Mounting evidence shows that brain functions and cognitive states are dynamically changing even in the resting state rather than remaining at a single constant state. Due to the relatively small changes in BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) signals across tasks, it is difficult to detect the change of cognitive status without requiring prior knowledge of the experimental design. To address this challenge, we present a dynamic graph learning approach to generate an ensemble of subject-specific dynamic graph embeddings, which allows us to use brain networks to disentangle cognitive events more accurately than using raw BOLD signals. The backbone of our method is essentially a representation learning process for projecting BOLD signals into a latent vertex-temporal domain with the greater biological underpinning of brain activities. Specifically, the learned representation domain is jointly formed by (1) a set of harmonic waves that govern the topology of whole-brain functional connectivities and (2) a set of Fourier bases that characterize the temporal dynamics of functional changes. In this regard, our dynamic graph embeddings provide a new methodology to investigate how these self-organized functional fluctuation patterns oscillate along with the evolving cognitive status. We have evaluated our proposed method on both simulated data and working memory task-based fMRI datasets, where our dynamic graph embeddings achieve higher accuracy in detecting multiple cognitive states than other state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091140PMC
April 2021

synthesis of copper-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles on laser-induced graphene as a peroxidase mimic.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb;57(15):1947-1950

Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea.

A new type of disposable flexible sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was developed by in situ synthesis of copper-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles on a laser-induced graphene surface (Cu-Ru/LIG). The approach produced Cu-Ru/LIG via a solid phase transfer mechanism which loaded the metal precursor onto LIG, followed by laser scribing without demanding chemical vapor deposition or solution-based reactions. Cu-Ru/LIG showed a high electrocatalytic response toward H2O2 reduction at -0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The sensor also showed good selectivity and reproducibility. This method provides an alternative route to easily synthesize various catalysts on conductive substrates for sensor applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07518cDOI Listing
February 2021

Discrimination of and Based on Metabolite Analysis and Hepatoprotective Activity.

Molecules 2020 Dec 10;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

Lycii Fructus is a traditional medicine used to prevent liver and kidney diseases, which commonly derives from and . Here, the extracts and ethyl acetate-soluble fractions of fruits exhibited better hepatoprotective effects than those of , which was likely due to differences in their composition. Therefore, GC-MS and HPLC analyses were conducted to characterize the metabolite differences between and . Based on amino acid (AA) and phenolic acid (PA) profiling, 24 AAs and 9 PAs were identified in the two species. Moreover, each species exhibited unique and readily distinguishable AA and PA star graphic patterns. HPLC analysis elucidated composition differences between the ethyl acetate-soluble layers of the two compounds. Further, NMR analysis identified their chemical structures as 4-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrol-1-yl)butanoic acid and -coumaric acid. The higher content of 4-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrol-1-yl)butanoic acid was detected in , whereas the content of -coumaric acid was higher in . Therefore, the differences in the relative contents of these two secondary metabolites in the ethyl acetate-soluble layer of Lycii Fructus could be a good marker to discriminate between and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764731PMC
December 2020

Transfer learning driven sequential forecasting and ventilation control of PM associated health risk levels in underground public facilities.

J Hazard Mater 2021 03 3;406:124753. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Integrated Engineering, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM) has become a major public concern in closed indoor environments, such as subway stations. Forecasting platform PM concentrations is significant in developing early warning systems, and regulating ventilation systems to ensure commuter health. However, the performance of existing forecasting approaches relies on a considerable amount of historical sensor data, which is usually not available in practical situations due to hostile monitoring environments or newly installed equipment. Transfer learning (TL) provides a solution to the scant data problem, as it leverages the knowledge learned from well-measured subway stations to facilitate predictions on others. This paper presents a TL-based residual neural network framework for sequential forecast of health risk levels traced by subway platform PM levels. Experiments are conducted to investigate the potential of the proposed methodology under different data availability scenarios. The TL-framework outperforms the RNN structures with a determination coefficient (R) improvement of 42.84%, and in comparison, to stand-alone models the prediction errors (RMSE) are reduced up to 40%. Additionally, the forecasted data by TL-framework under limited data scenario allowed the ventilation system to maintain IAQ at healthy levels, and reduced PM concentrations by 29.21% as compared to stand-alone network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124753DOI Listing
March 2021

Designing a marine outfall to reduce microbial risk on a recreational beach: Field experiment and modeling.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 14;409:124587. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A marine outfall can be a wastewater management system that discharges sewage and stormwater into the sea; hence, it is a source of microbial pollution on recreational beaches, including antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs), which lead to an increase in untreatable diseases. In this regard, a marine outfall must be efficiently located to mitigate these risks. This study aimed to 1) investigate the spatiotemporal variability of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and ARGs on a recreational beach and 2) design marine outfalls to reduce microbial risks. For this purpose, E. coli and ARGs with influential environmental variables were intensively monitored on Gwangalli beach, South Korea in this study. Environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) was used and calibrated using the monitoring data, and 12 outfall extension scenarios were explored (6 locations at 2 depths). The results revealed that repositioning the marine outfall can significantly reduce the concentrations of E. coli and ARGs on the beach by 46-99%. Offshore extended outfalls at the bottom of the sea reduced concentrations of E. coli and ARGs on the beach more effectively than onshore outfalls at the sea surface. These findings could be helpful in establishing microbial pollution management plans at recreational beaches in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124587DOI Listing
May 2021

40  W, 780  nm laser system with compensated dual beam splitters for atom interferometry.

Opt Lett 2020 Dec;45(23):6555-6558

We demonstrate a narrow-linewidth 780 nm laser system with up to 40 power and a frequency modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. Efficient overlap on nonlinear optical elements combines two pairs of phase-locked frequency components into a single beam. Serrodyne modulation with a high-quality sawtooth waveform is used to perform frequency shifts with >96.5 efficiency over tens of megahertz. This system enables next-generation atom interferometry by delivering simultaneous, Stark-shift-compensated dual beam splitters while minimizing spontaneous emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.404430DOI Listing
December 2020

Atom-Interferometric Test of the Equivalence Principle at the 10^{-12} Level.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Nov;125(19):191101

Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

We use a dual-species atom interferometer with 2 s of free-fall time to measure the relative acceleration between ^{85}Rb and ^{87}Rb wave packets in the Earth's gravitational field. Systematic errors arising from kinematic differences between the isotopes are suppressed by calibrating the angles and frequencies of the interferometry beams. We find an Eötvös parameter of η=[1.6±1.8(stat)±3.4(syst)]×10^{-12}, consistent with zero violation of the equivalence principle. With a resolution of up to 1.4×10^{-11}  g per shot, we demonstrate a sensitivity to η of 5.4×10^{-11}/sqrt[Hz].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.191101DOI Listing
November 2020

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new bivalent quinazoline analogues as IAP antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 02 6;34:127676. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Environmental & Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 84, Heukseok-gu, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We recently reported the biological evaluations of monovalent IAP antagonist 7 with good potency (MDA-MB-231, IC = 19 nM). In an effort to increase cellular activity and improve favorable drug-like properties, we newly designed and synthesized bivalent analogues based on quinazoline structure of 7. Optimization of cellular potency and CYP inhibition led to the identification of 27, which showed dramatic increase of over 100-fold (IC = 0.14 nM) and caused substantial tumor regressions in MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. These results strongly support 27 as a promising bivalent antagonist for the development of an effective anti-tumor approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127676DOI Listing
February 2021

A cryogenic setup for multifunctional characterization of luminescence and scintillation properties of single crystals.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Oct;91(10):103108

Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea.

This article reports on a cryogenic setup that can be used for multifunctional experimental purposes. The temperature of the setup can be set from 10 K to 300 K. Different kinds of experiments were carried out in this experimental setup such as (1) luminescence emission, light yield, and decay time measurement under excitation of 266 nm laser and 280 nm LED sources, (2) thermoluminescence (TL) measurement under an x-ray excitation source, (3) scintillation property measurements such as light output, energy resolution, and decay time under Cs (662 keV γ-rays) and Am (5.4 MeV α) isotope sources, and (4) scintillation measurement under a Sr beta source through the continuous single-photon counting technique. The luminescence and scintillation properties of various molybdate and tungstate crystals such as CaMoO, NaMoO, PbMoO, CdWO, and ZnWO are characterized and reported in the present work. The TL measurement of a CaMoO crystal is carried out from 10 K to 300 K, and various kinetic parameters such as order of kinetics, frequency factor, activation energy, and figure of merit are calculated for different TL peaks. As the temperature goes down from room to 10 K, the light yield of all studied crystals increases. Since the light yield of the crystal increases as temperature decreases toward 10 K, this experimental setup can be used for the characterization of luminescence and scintillation properties of a single crystal for rare event searches such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0016175DOI Listing
October 2020

Long range early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using longitudinal MR imaging data.

Med Image Anal 2021 01 14;67:101825. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

The enormous social and economic cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has driven a number of neuroimaging investigations for early detection and diagnosis. Towards this end, various computational approaches have been applied to longitudinal imaging data in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), as serial brain imaging could increase sensitivity for detecting changes from baseline, and potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker for AD. However, current state-of-the-art brain imaging diagnostic methods have limited utility in clinical practice due to the lack of robust predictive power. To address this limitation, we propose a flexible spatial-temporal solution to predict the risk of MCI conversion to AD prior to the onset of clinical symptoms by sequentially recognizing abnormal structural changes from longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) image sequences. Firstly, our model is trained to sequentially recognize different length partial MR image sequences from different stages of AD. Secondly, our method is leveraged by the inexorably progressive nature of AD. To that end, a Temporally Structured Support Vector Machine (TS-SVM) model is proposed to constrain the partial MR image sequence's detection score to increase monotonically with AD progression. Furthermore, in order to select the best morphological features for enabling classifiers, we propose a joint feature selection and classification framework. We demonstrate that our early diagnosis method using only two follow-up MR scans is able to predict conversion to AD 12 months ahead of an AD clinical diagnosis with 81.75% accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101825DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Perioperative Subglottic Secretion Drainage on Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia After Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective, Before-and-After Study.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2020 Oct 2. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although postoperative subglottic secretion drainage prevents ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) after cardiac surgery, its role during the perioperative period is unclear. For the present study, the effect of subglottic secretion drainage during and after cardiac surgery on postoperative VAP was investigated.

Design: Retrospective, single-center, before-and-after study.

Setting: Perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients in a tertiary university hospital.

Participants: Adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2013-December 2018.

Interventions: Conventional and subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes were used in the control and intervention groups before and after a change in institutional policy, respectively. In the intervention group, subglottic secretion drainage was performed continuously during surgery and intermittently after surgery.

Measurements And Main Results: The risk of postoperative VAP, identified by the National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definition algorithm, was compared by weighted logistic regression. Logistic regression analyses, with propensity score matching and inverse probability weighting, also were performed. A total of 2,576 patients were analyzed (control [n = 2108]; intervention [n = 468]). Postoperative VAP occurred less frequently in the intervention group (1/468 [0.2%]) compared with the control group (30/2,108 [1.4%]). In the multivariate weighted logistic regression analysis, the risk of VAP after cardiac surgery was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (odds ratio 0.29; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.58). Similar results were obtained in multivariate analyses after propensity score matching (odds ratio 0.04; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.14) and inverse probability weighting (odds ratio 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.42).

Conclusions: Routine perioperative subglottic secretion drainage using subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery was associated with a reduction in the risk of VAP after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.09.126DOI Listing
October 2020