Publications by authors named "Minh Nguyen"

1,232 Publications

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Single-nucleus transcriptomic analysis of human dorsal root ganglion neurons.

Elife 2021 Nov 26;10. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, United States.

Somatosensory neurons with cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) project to the skin, muscles, bones, and viscera to detect touch and temperature as well as to mediate proprioception and many types of interoception. In addition, the somatosensory system conveys the clinically relevant noxious sensations of pain and itch. Here, we used single nuclear transcriptomics to characterize transcriptomic classes of human DRG neurons that detect these diverse types of stimuli. Notably, multiple types of human DRG neurons have transcriptomic features that resemble their mouse counterparts although expression of genes considered important for sensory function often differed between species. More unexpectedly, we identified several transcriptomic classes with no clear equivalent in the other species. This dataset should serve as a valuable resource for the community, for example as means of focusing translational efforts on molecules with conserved expression across species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.71752DOI Listing
November 2021

Network analysis of psychological factors related to academic pressure faced by medical students in the central and highland regions of Vietnam.

Med Educ Online 2022 Dec;27(1):2007577

Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue City, Vietnam.

Medical students experience extensive pressure during their undergraduate courses. Given the complex associations between psychological factors in association with academic pressure. We investigated the study with objectives: To examine psychological factors related to academic pressure by analysing interactions between 'study motivation', 'study environment', 'study conditions', 'teacher quality', 'training programme', 'management system', 'evaluation', and 'extracurricular activities' using a network analysis approach. A total of 878 medical students majoring in general medicine from the first, third, and fifth years of a six-year course at the largest medical university in central and highland regions of Vietnam were involved in this cross-sectional study. The approach used was convenient cluster sampling with a self-administered questionnaire by the participants. Network analysis for pairwise correlations between psychological factors was estimated . Important factors in the network analysis were calculated using centrality indices including node strength (S), closeness (C), and betweenness (B). The higher score of S, C, and B indicate the more importance of the node. The results obtained from the network analysis of eight psychological factors showed that 'teaching quality' was mostly connected with other factors overall, while the 'training programme' was seen in both genders and freshman students. 'Study conditions' and 'training programme' were mostly connected with other factors in junior and senior students, respectively. The strong pairwise correlation was confirmed: management system and evaluation activity, followed by study environment and study conditions, and teaching quality and training programme. Additionally, nodes with high centrality were shown to be 'management system' (S = 0.97, C = 0.019, B = 1), and 'training programme' (S = 0.96, C = 0.021, B = 4). Our study findings indicate that satisfaction with the training programme amongst eight psychological factors is the most important factor affecting academic pressure among medical students. The training programme is linked with teaching quality, whereas the management system is correlated with evaluation activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2021.2007577DOI Listing
December 2022

Simultaneous mechanical thrombectomy for bilateral acute internal carotid artery occlusion.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jan 10;17(1):142-146. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Stroke Center, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Acute bilateral internal carotid occlusion was a very rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Clinical case reports according to the literature showed that mechanical thrombectomy was the most optimal treatment. We reported a clinical case of successful treatment with simultaneous thrombectomy in both occluded carotid arteries. A 62-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital within three hours of stroke onset secondary to an acute simultaneously bilateral carotid artery occlusion. On admission, her NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) was 32. Non-contrast computed tomography right after that showed hyperacute infarction lesions in both hemispheres with right inferior temporal and insular cortex (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score - ASPECTS 8) and left putamen (ASPECTS 9). Her medical history included paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, prior ischemic stroke, pacemaker due to sick sinus syndrome. Her pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale score was 0 that she was fully recovered from previous stroke 4 months ago thanks to successful thrombectomy of the right internal carotid arteries (ICA). This time, the patient underwent again the simultaneous bilateral mechanical thrombectomy of both occluded ICA. The complete recanalization achieved on both sides with recanalization level of TICI-3 (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction) only in 38 mins after the groin puncture. She showed dramatic recovery and was discharged on day 28 with a Rankin Scale score of 2. Mechanical thrombectomy on bilateral ICA performed simultaneously will helps shorten the reperfusion time compared to the alternative one and thus, provides a better prognosis in acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.10.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8601968PMC
January 2022

Epicardial adipose tissue volume and myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic people living with diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Nov 24;20(1):224. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Unit of Diabetology, Jean Verdier Hospital, CRNH-IdF, CINFO, AP-HP, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bondy, France.

Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered a novel diagnostic marker for cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether EAT volume was associated with stress-induced myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic people living with diabetes-independently of confounding factors-and whether it could predict this condition.

Methods: We included asymptomatic patients with diabetes and no coronary history, who had undergone both a stress a myocardial scintigraphy to diagnose myocardial ischemia, and a computed tomography to measure their coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. EAT volume was retrospectively measured from computed tomography imaging. Determinants of EAT volume and asymptomatic myocardial ischemia were evaluated.

Results: The study population comprised 274 individuals, including 153 men. Mean (± standard deviation) age was 62 ± 9 years, and 243, 23 and 8 had type 2, type 1, or another type of diabetes, respectively. Mean body mass index was 30 ± 6 kg/m, and mean EAT volume 96 ± 36 cm. Myocardial ischemia was detected in 32 patients (11.7%). EAT volume was positively correlated with age, body mass index and triglyceridemia, but negatively correlated with HbA1c, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. Furthermore, EAT volume was lower in people with retinopathy, but higher in men, in current smokers, in patients with nephropathy, those with a CAC score > 100 Agatston units, and finally in individuals with myocardial ischemia (110 ± 37 cm vs 94 ± 37 cm in those without myocardial ischemia, p < 0.05). The association between EAT volume and myocardial ischemia remained significant after adjustment for gender, diabetes duration, peripheral macrovascular disease and CAC score. We also found that area under the ROC curve analysis showed that EAT volume (AROC: 0.771 [95% confidence interval 0.683-0.858]) did not provide improved discrimination of myocardial ischemia over the following classic factors: gender, diabetes duration, peripheral macrovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, smoking, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and CAC score (AROC 0.773 [0.683-0.862]).

Conclusions: EAT may play a role in coronary atherosclerosis and coronary circulation in patients with diabetes. However, considering EAT volume is not a better marker for discriminating the risk of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia than classic clinical data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01420-5DOI Listing
November 2021

Theoretical Aspects of Nonconventional Hydrogen Bonds in the Complexes of Aldehydes and Hydrogen Chalcogenides.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Modelling (LCCM), Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quy Nhon University, Quy Nhon 55100, Vietnam.

Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) in the complexes between aldehydes and hydrogen chalcogenides, XCHO...HZ with X = H, F, Cl, Br, and CH, Z = O, S, Se, and Te, and = 1,2, were investigated using high-level ab initio calculations. The C-H...O H-bonds are found to be about twice as strong as the C-H...S/Se/Te counterparts. Remarkably, the S/Se/Te-H...S/Se/Te H-bonds are 4.5 times as weak as the O-H...O ones. The addition of the second HZ molecule into binary systems induces stronger complexes and causes a positive cooperative effect in ternary complexes. The blue shift of C-H stretching frequency involving the C-H...Z H-bond sharply increases when replacing one H atom in HCHO by a CH group. In contrast, when one H atom in HCHO is substituted with a halogen, the magnitude of blue-shifting of the C-H...Z H-bond becomes smaller. The largest blue shift up to 92 cm of C-H stretching frequency in C-H...O H-bond in CHCHO...2HO has rarely been observed and is much greater than that in the cases of the C-H...S/Se/Te ones. The C-H blue shift of C-H...Z bonds in the halogenated aldehydes is converted into a red shift when HO is replaced by a heavier analogue, such as HS, HSe, or HTe. The stability and classification of nonconventional H-bonds including C-H...Se/Te, Te-H...Te, and Se/Te-H...O have been established for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.1c06708DOI Listing
November 2021

Small Bowel Volvulus as Delayed Presentation of Undiagnosed Crohn's Disease: A Case Report.

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2021 Nov;5(4):455-458

University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Rochester, New York.

Introduction: Emergency department (ED) visits related to flare-ups of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are becoming more prevalent. There are many potentially dangerous complications and sequelae of uncontrolled IBD.

Case Report: We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with a few hours of severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Given her hemodynamic instability, she was sent urgently for computed tomography, which showed an incomplete small bowel malrotation, mesenteric volvulus, and high-grade small bowel obstruction with evolving ischemia. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy to resect most of her small intestines. Biopsies later revealed active Crohn's disease.

Conclusion: Patients with flare-ups of IBD are common in the ED, but very few present with a midgut volvulus later in life. Our case is unique and adds to the literature due to the dramatic consequences of undiagnosed Crohn's disease in a patient with intermittent symptoms and extensive workup spanning over two decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/cpcem.2021.8.53524DOI Listing
November 2021

Secondary metabolites from with their anti-inflammatory activity.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Nov 23:1-10. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sunchon National University, Suncheon-si, Korea.

is hired as multiple remedies for treatment of insomnia, blood and circulatory disorders, asthma, dry cough, jaundice, seminal weakness, cardiac debility, and skin diseases in Vietnam. Our research discovered the phytochemical investigation of constituents from this herbal medicine resulted in the isolation of two new compounds (jatamansides A () and B ()) together with 16 known ones from the whole plant. Their structures were established by using spectroscopic techniques (multinuclear and multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet-visible), mass spectrometry, hydrolysis analysis, or comparing their NMR data to those reported in the literature. In addition, all the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against TNF- production in LPS-stimulated on RAW264.7 cells with significant inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.2004600DOI Listing
November 2021

The genus Ophiogomphus Lieftinck, 1964 in Vietnam, with descriptions of the female of O. minimus Karube, 2014 and O. phantoani sp. nov. (Odonata: Gomphidae).

Zootaxa 2021 Nov 3;5061(1):134-144. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Institue of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, No. 06 Tran Van On, Phu Hoa Ward, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong province, Vietnam. .

Description of Ophiogomphus phantoani sp. nov. (Holotype ♂: Dak Re Commune, Song Thanh National Park, Quang Nam Province, central Vietnam, 15.5080 N, 107.4720 E, altitude 1105 m) is based on both sexes. Three other species of Ophiogomphus in Vietnam are recorded with description of the female O. minimus Karube, 2014 for the first time. Keys to males and females of four species from Vietnam are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5061.1.6DOI Listing
November 2021

The case for prioritizing implementation strategy fidelity measurement: benefits and challenges.

Transl Behav Med 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Implementation strategies are systematic approaches to improve the uptake and sustainability of evidence-based interventions. They frequently focus on changing provider behavior through the provision of interventions such as training, coaching, and audit-and-feedback. Implementation strategies often impact intermediate behavioral outcomes like provider guideline adherence, in turn improving patient outcomes. Fidelity of implementation strategy delivery is defined as the extent to which an implementation strategy is carried out as it was designed. Implementation strategy fidelity measurement is under-developed and under-reported, with the quality of reporting decreasing over time. Benefits of fidelity measurement include the exploration of the extent to which observed effects are moderated by fidelity, and critical information about Type-III research errors, or the likelihood that null findings result from implementation strategy fidelity failure. Reviews of implementation strategy efficacy often report wide variation across studies, commonly calling for increased implementation strategy fidelity measurement to help explain variations. Despite the methodological benefits of rigorous fidelity measurement, implementation researchers face multi-level challenges and complexities. Challenges include the measurement of a complex variable, multiple data collection modalities with varying precision and costs, and the need for fidelity measurement to change in-step with adaptations. In this position paper, we weigh these costs and benefits and ultimately contend that implementation strategy fidelity measurement and reporting should be improved in trials of implementation strategies. We offer pragmatic solutions for researchers to make immediate improvements like the use of mixed methods or innovative data collection and analysis techniques, the inclusion of implementation strategy fidelity assessment in reporting guidelines, and the staged development of fidelity tools across the evolution of an implementation strategy. We also call for additional research into the barriers and facilitators of implementation strategy fidelity measurement to further clarify the best path forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibab138DOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of classical swine fever virus envelope protein genes E2 and E circulating in Vietnam from 2017 to 2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Nov 12:105140. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Research Center for Genetics and Reproductive Health, School of Medicine, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an RNA virus that incurs severe economic costs to swine industries worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity among CSFV strains circulating in Vietnam, with a focus on their genetic variants relative to four vaccine strains. Samples from clinical cases were collected from different provinces of Central and Southern Vietnam from 2017 to 2019. 21 CSFV-positive samples were selected for amplification and sequencing of the full-length E and E2 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these two genes showed that most CSFV strains circulating in Central and Southern Vietnam from 2017 to 2019 belong to subgroup 2.1c, whereas the remaining strains cluster into subgroup 2.2. All CSFV field strains in this study were genetically distant from group 1 strains. Analysis of the E2 and E genes indicated that all CSFV field strains have low sequence identity with the vaccine strains (80-83.5% and 82.3-86% sequence identity for E2 and E, respectively). Likewise, amino acid-level sequence analysis showed 87.3-91.1% and 87.6-91.6% sequence identity for E2 and E, respectively. Together, our findings indicate that CSFV strains circulating in Vietnam belong to subtypes 2.2 and 2.1c, and we also provide novel insights into the epidemiology, molecular characteristics, genetic diversity, and evolution of these circulating CSFV strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105140DOI Listing
November 2021

Medical Students' Creation of Original Poetry, Comics, and Masks to Explore Professional Identity Formation.

J Med Humanit 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Introduction: This study examines differences in students' perceived value of three artmaking modalities (poetry, comics, masks) and whether the resulting creative projects offer similar or different insights into medical students' professional identity formation.

Methods: Mixed-methods design using a student survey, student narrative comments and qualitative analysis of students' original work.

Results: Poetry and comics stimulated insight, but masks were more enjoyable and stress-reducing. All three art modalities expressed tension between personal and professional identities.

Discussion: Regardless of type of artmaking, students express concern about encroachments of training on personal identity but hoped that personal and professional selves could be integrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10912-021-09713-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Precise visuomotor transformations underlying collective behavior in larval zebrafish.

Nat Commun 2021 Nov 12;12(1):6578. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 02138, USA.

Complex schooling behaviors result from local interactions among individuals. Yet, how sensory signals from neighbors are analyzed in the visuomotor stream of animals is poorly understood. Here, we studied aggregation behavior in larval zebrafish and found that over development larvae transition from overdispersed groups to tight shoals. Using a virtual reality assay, we characterized the algorithms fish use to transform visual inputs from neighbors into movement decisions. We found that young larvae turn away from virtual neighbors by integrating and averaging retina-wide visual occupancy within each eye, and by using a winner-take-all strategy for binocular integration. As fish mature, their responses expand to include attraction to virtual neighbors, which is based on similar algorithms of visual integration. Using model simulations, we show that the observed algorithms accurately predict group structure over development. These findings allow us to make testable predictions regarding the neuronal circuits underlying collective behavior in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590009PMC
November 2021

Relaxor-Ferroelectric Films for Dielectric Tunable Applications: Effect of Film Thickness and Applied Electric Field.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 27;14(21). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

The dielectric properties, tunability and figure-of-merit () of relaxor PbLa(ZrTi)O (PLZT) films have been investigated. Dielectric measurements indicated that the dielectric constant (at zero-bias field), tunability and are enhanced as the film thickness increases, which are mainly attributed to the presence of an interfacial layer near the film-electrode interface. Experimental results illustrated that a slight reduction is observed in both dielectric constant and tunability (-2%) in a wide-frequency range (10 kHz-1 MHz); meanwhile, the value decreases significantly (-17%) with increasing frequency, arising from the higher dielectric loss value. The 1000-nm PLZT film shows the largest tunability of 94.6% at a maximum electric-field of 1450 kV/cm, while the highest factor is 37.6 at 1000 kV/cm, due to the combination of medium tunability (88.7%) and low dielectric loss (0.0236). All these excellent results indicated that the relaxor PLZT films are promising candidates for specific applications in microwave devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14216448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585368PMC
October 2021

Significant Vision Recovery from Filler-Induced Complete Blindness with Combined Intra-Arterial Injection of Hyaluronidase and Thrombolytic Agents.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Medical Imaging & Nuclear Medicine Center, Viet Duc University Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

With the increase of cosmetic injectable hyaluronic acid (HA), there have been more cases with serious complications, including skin necrosis, blindness, and cerebral embolism. Patients who have recovered from HA filler-induced total vision loss are extremely rare. We report a case of a 27-year-old female who developed severe ocular pain on the right side and total vision loss following a 1.0 ml HA filler injection in the nasal dorsum. She arrived at our hospital 4 hours later. Her visual acuity was no light perception (NLP), and she exhibited eyelid ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and frontal and nasal ecchymosis. She was promptly treated with subcutaneous and retrobulbar hyaluronidase injections, as well as intra-arterial 1500 IU hyaluronidase injections into the right ophthalmic artery with DSA assistance. Her vision improved from NLP to counting fingers at 1.0 meters. Unfortunately, 13 hours later, she felt an intense headache, and her vision again decreased to NLP. We immediately performed an injection of 1500 IU hyaluronidase combined with 8 mg alteplase for intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) into the right ophthalmic artery. Her vision improved immediately afterward. After 3 months, her visual acuity had significantly recovered from NLP (admission vision status) to 20/50 (Snellen chart with glasses). Similarly, skin, conjunctival, eye movement, and ptosis symptoms completely recovered. This case demonstrates that reversal of complete blindness due to embolism of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries could be accomplished through multidisciplinary therapies, especially IAT using fibrinolytic agents combined with hyaluronidase followed by an anticoagulant regimen.Level of evidence VThis journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine Ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02658-wDOI Listing
November 2021

Fear, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic: impacts of healthy eating behaviour and health literacy.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):2120-2131

School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing people's psychological health, especially in pregnant women. We aimed to examine associated factors of fear of COVID-19, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the pandemic where the impacts of healthy eating behaviour (HES) and health literacy (HL) were emphasized.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 31 May 2020 in 18 health centres and hospitals across Vietnam. Data of 518 pregnant women were analysed, including socio-demographics, pregnant-related factors, HES, HL, health-related behaviours, fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), anxiety (using the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)) and depression (using the patient health questionnaire with 9 items (PHQ-9)). Regression analysis was utilized to explore the associations.

Results: Pregnant women with higher scores of HES and HL had lower likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio, OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.73, 0.87;  < .001; and OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90, 0.99;  = .018) and depression (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.78, 0.91;  < .001; and OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.91, 0.99;  = .044), respectively. Pregnant women being employed had a lower FCoV-19S score (regression coefficient, , -1.46; 95%CI, -2.51, -0.40;  = .007). Besides, other significant predictors of anxiety were eating healthier during the pandemic, unchanged or more physical activity, elevated gestational age and smoking. Other significant predictors of depression were eating healthier during the pandemic, elevated gestational age and smoking.

Conclusions: Among others, HES and HL had positive impacts on protecting pregnant women against anxiety and depression. Improving HES and HL should be addressed as a strategic approach to improve reproductive health during the pandemic.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic influences antenatal mental disorders with the higher level as opposed to that before the pandemic.Healthy eating behaviour and better health literacy (HL) had critical roles in lowering prenatal anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 crisis.Strategic approaches for improving healthy eating and HL should be recommended for protecting pregnant women from mental health problems during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.2001044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8592601PMC
December 2021

Digital inequality in communication during a time of physical distancing: The case of COVID-19.

Comput Human Behav 2021 Jul 25;120:106717. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Communication and Media Research (IKMZ), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

In times of physical distancing, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, people are likely to turn to digital communication to replace in-person interactions. Yet, persisting digital inequality suggests that not everyone will be equally able or disposed to increasing digital communication during a public health crisis. Using survey data from a national sample of U.S. participants ( = 2,925) that we collected during the early months of the pandemic, we analyzed how sociodemographics, living arrangements, and Internet experiences and skills relate to increases and decreases in various digital communication methods. We find that people privileged in their socioeconomic status, their Internet skills and online experiences are more likely to increase and less likely to decrease digital communication during the pandemic. The findings illustrate how digital inequalities can put already disadvantaged groups at greater risk of diminished social contact during a public health crisis. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings for digital inequality research, the practical implications for inclusive crisis responses, and directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8565917PMC
July 2021

Generation and reactivity of an elusive base-stabilised phosphinidene.

Dalton Trans 2021 Nov 23;50(45):16613-16619. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Chemistry, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada.

Reduction of phosphorus dichloride 6, supported by the diaryloxyphenyl group (OCO) featuring two bulky phenoxy wingtips, by PMe, generates a reactive intermediate that behaves as a base-stabilized phosphinidene (OCO)P (5). Warming up a solution of this species in toluene to room temperature results in trimerization to give the isolable cyclic triphosphine [(OCO)P], whereas trapping with 2,3-dimethylbutadiene-1,3 afforded a 3,4-dimethylphospholene-3. Investigation of the reduction of 6 by the phosphine PMe by NMR led to the observation of a persistent species between -10 °C and 10 °C. A DFT study of this process suggests that this compound cannot be the proposed phosphinidene 5, and is more likely the diphosphine (OCO)ClP-PCl(OCO) (12). Attempted reduction of 5 by the bulky carbene IPr resulted in unusual electrophilic substitution in the carbene olefin backbone by the chlorophosphinyl group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt03181cDOI Listing
November 2021

Positive effects of amphiregulin on human oocyte maturation and its molecular drivers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

IVFMD, My Duc Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Study Question: Does use of medium containing amphiregulin improve meiotic maturation efficiency in oocytes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro maturation (IVM) preceded by a capacitation culture step capacitation IVM (CAPA-IVM)?

Summary Answer: Use of medium containing amphiregulin significantly increased the maturation rate from oocytes retrieved from follicles with diameters <6 or ≥6 mm pre-cultured in capacitation medium.

What Is Known Already: Amphiregulin concentration in follicular fluid is correlated with human oocyte developmental competence. Amphiregulin added to the meiotic trigger has been shown to improve outcomes of IVM in a range of mammalian species.

Study Design, Size, Duration: This prospective, randomized cohort study included 30 patients and was conducted at an academic infertility centre in Vietnam from April to December 2019. Patients with PCOS were included.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: In the first stage, sibling oocytes from each patient (671 in total) were allocated in equal numbers to maturation in medium with (CAPA-AREG) or without (CAPA-Control) amphiregulin 100 ng/ml. After a maturation check and fertilization using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), all good quality Day 3 embryos were vitrified. Cumulus cells (CCs) from both groups were collected at the moment of ICSI denudation and underwent a molecular analysis to quantify key transcripts of oocyte maturation and to relate these to early embryo development. On return for frozen embryo transfer (second stage), patients were randomized to have either CAPA-AREG or CAPA-Control embryo(s) implanted. Where no embryo(s) from the randomized group were available, embryo(s) from the other group were transferred. The primary endpoint of the study was meiotic maturation efficiency (proportion of metaphase II [MII] oocytes; maturation rate).

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: In the per-patient analysis, the number of MII oocytes was significantly higher in the CAPA-AREG group versus the CAPA-Control group (median [interquartile range] 7.0 [5.3, 8.0] versus 6.0 [4.0, 7.0]; P = 0.01). When each oocyte was evaluated, the maturation rate was also significantly higher in the CAPA-AREG group versus the CAPA-Control group (67.6% versus 55.2%; relative risk [RR] 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.38]; P = 0.001). No other IVM or embryology outcomes differed significantly between the two groups. Rates of clinical pregnancy (66.7% versus 42.9%; RR 1.56 [95% CI 0.77-3.14]), ongoing pregnancy (53.3% versus 28.6%; RR 1.87 [95% CI 0.72-4.85]) and live birth (46.7% versus 28.6%; RR 1.63 [95% CI 0.61-4.39]) were numerically higher in the patients who had CAPA-AREG versus CAPA-Control embryos implanted, but each fertility and obstetric outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. In the CAPA-AREG group, there were significant shifts in CC expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis (STAR, 3BHSD), the ovulatory cascade (DUSP16, EGFR, HAS2, PTGR2, PTGS2, RPS6KA2), redox and glucose metabolism (CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SLC2A1, LDHA) and transcription (NRF2). The expression of three genes (TRPM7, VCAN and JUN) in CCs showed a significant correlation with embryo quality.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: This study included only Vietnamese women with PCOS, limiting the generalizability. Although 100 ng/ml amphiregulin addition to the maturation culture step significantly improved the MII rate, the sample size in this study was small, meaning that these findings should be considered as exploratory. Therefore, a larger patient cohort is needed to confirm whether the positive effects of amphiregulin translate into improved fertility outcomes in patients undergoing IVM.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Data from this study confirm the beneficial effects of amphiregulin during IVM with respect to the trigger of oocyte maturation. The gene expression findings in cumulus indicate that multiple pathways might contribute to these beneficial effects and confirm the key role of the epidermal growth factor system in the stepwise acquisition of human oocyte competence.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): This work was funded by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED; grant number FWO.106-YS.2017.02) and by the Fund for Research Flanders (FWO; grant number G.OD97.18N). L.N.V. has received speaker and conference fees from Merck, grants, speaker and conference fees from Merck Sharpe and Dohme, and speaker, conference and scientific board fees from Ferring. T.M.H. has received speaker fees from Merck, Merck Sharp and Dohme and Ferring. J.S. reports speaker fees from Ferring Pharmaceuticals and Biomérieux Diagnostics and grants from FWO Flanders, is co-inventor on granted patents on CAPA-IVM methodologies in USA (US10392601B2), Europe (EP3234112B1) and Japan (JP 6806683 registered 08-12-2020) and is a co-shareholder of Lavima Fertility Inc., a spin-off company of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB, Brussels, Belgium). NA, TDP, AHL, MNHN, SR, FS, EA and UDTH report no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years, and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03915054.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab237DOI Listing
November 2021

The binary boron lithium clusters BLi with = 1-14: in search for hydrogen storage materials.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Nov 10;23(43):24866-24877. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Institute for Computational Science and Technology (ICST), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Molecular structures and properties of the binary clusters containing twelve boron atoms mixed with lithium atoms, BLi with = 1-14, were investigated using density functional theory with the TPSSh functional and the 6-311+G(d) basis set. Energetic parameters including relative energies, average binding energies and second-order energies of the entire series were predicted using the coupled-cluster theory (U)CCSD(T) in conjunction with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Several lowest-lying isomers were determined for each size BLi whose energies differ from each other by <3 kcal mol, except for = 1, 2 and 4 (≤5 kcal mol), and particularly = 8 (∼13 kcal mol). Electronic structure and chemical bonding in some specific sizes such as BLi, BLi and BLi were analyzed in detail. We established the electron shells of some magic clusters such as the BLi cone for which we proposed a mixed cone-disk electron shell model. Thanks to both the phenomenological shell and Clemenger-Nilsson models, BLi which contains a specific set of shells of 44 valence electrons is a high stability species. The arrangement of Li atoms around a fullerene B framework shows that the mixed BLi emerges as the most suitable of this cluster series to adsorb molecular hydrogen. Up to 32 H molecules can strongly be attached to the BLi cluster which is thus predicted to be a realistic candidate for hydrogen storage material with gravimetric density reaching up to a theoritical limit of 26 wt%. Attachment of the fifth H molecule to each Li atom of BLi results in weaker average bonds but can give rise to a total of 40 H molecules, corresponding to 30 wt% of hydrogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03682cDOI Listing
November 2021

Bartonella endocarditis in patients with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit: 2 case reports and literature review.

IDCases 2021 11;26:e01306. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, 1000 Oakland Dr, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.

species are Gram-negative bacilli and fastidious bacteria that can cause a number of clinical syndromes, including blood culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). The two most commonly isolated species in humans are the agent of trench fever, and mostly known for causing cat scratch disease (Edouard et al., 2015 [1]; Edouard and Raoult, 2010 [2]). Both species also cause bacillary angiomatosis, primarily in immunocompromised patients (Edouard et al., 2015 [1]; Fournier et al., 2001 [3]). The risk of IE is increased in patients with cardiac valvular disease and congenital heart disease (CHD) (Edouard and Raoult, 2010 [2]; Das et al., 2009 [4]; Abandeh et al., 2012 [5]; Ouellette et al., 2016 [6]; Hoffman et al., 2007 [7]; Georgievskaya et al., 2014 [8]). In this article, we detail two cases of IE in patients with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits who presented to our institution. We also perform a literature review on IE in patients with a history of RV-PA conduit or pulmonary valve replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2021.e01306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536538PMC
October 2021

Analysis of trophic networks: an optimisation approach.

J Math Biol 2021 10 28;83(5):53. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

UNICAEN, Laboratoire Biologie des ORganismes et Ecosystémes Aquatiques, UMR-8067 BOREA (MNHN, UPMC, UCBN, CNRS, IRD-207) CS 14032, Normandie Université, Caen, 14000, France.

We introduce a methodology to study the possible matter flows of an ecosystem defined by observational biomass data and realistic biological constraints. The flows belong to a polyhedron in a multi dimensional space that may make statistical exploration difficult in practice; instead, we propose to solve a convex optimization problem. Seven criteria based on ecological network indices have been selected to be used as convex goal functions. Numerical results show that the method is fast and can be used for large systems. Minimum flow solutions are analyzed using flow decomposition in paths and circuits. Their consistency is also tested by introducing a system of differential equations for the biomasses and examining the stability of the biomass fixed point. The method is illustrated and explained throughout the text on an ecosystem toy model. It is also applied to realistic food models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00285-021-01682-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Patient Experiences with Telemedicine for HIV Care during the first COVID-19 Wave in Atlanta, Georgia.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Emory University School of Medicine, 12239, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

We explored experiences with telemedicine among persons with HIV (PWH) during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A convenience sample of adults (>18 years) receiving care in an urban clinic in Atlanta were invited to participate. Patients completed a structured survey that assessed the usefulness, quality, satisfaction, and concerns with telemedicine services (telephone calls) received during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-May 2020). Demographic, plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ T-cell count data were obtained via medical chart abstraction. Bootstrapped t-tests and Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in patient experiences by age, sex and race. Of 406 PWH contacted, 101 completed the survey (median age 55 years, 84% male, 77% Black, 98% virally-suppressed, median CD4 count 572 cells/µL). The main HIV care disruptions experienced were delays in follow-up visits (40%), difficulty getting viral load measured (35%), and difficulty accessing antiretroviral therapy (21%). Participant ratings for quality (median score 6.5/7), usefulness (median score 6.0/7), and satisfaction (median score 6.3/7) with telemedicine were high. However, 28% of patients expressed concerns about providers' ability to examine them and about the lack of laboratory tests. More women had concerns about providers' ability to examine them (92% vs. 50%, p = 0.005) and about the safety of their personal information (69% vs. 23%, p = 0.002) compared to men. No age or race differences were observed. While PWH are generally satisfied with telephone-based telemedicine, concerns with its use were notable, particularly among women. Future HIV telemedicine models should address these.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2021.0109DOI Listing
October 2021

Highly Porous Hydroxyapatite/Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Beads as an Efficient Adsorbent for Dyes and Heavy Metal Ions Removal.

Molecules 2021 Oct 11;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Faculty of Food Technology, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang 650000, Vietnam.

Dye and heavy metal contaminants are mainly aquatic pollutants. Although many materials and methods have been developed to remove these pollutants from water, effective and cheap materials and methods are still challenging. In this study, highly porous hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan beads (HGC) were prepared by a facile one-step method and investigated as efficient adsorbents. The prepared beads showed a high porosity and low bulk density. SEM images indicated that the hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were well dispersed on the CTS matrix. FT-IR spectra confirmed good incorporation of the three components. The adsorption behavior of the obtained beads to methylene blue (MB) and copper ions was investigated, including the effect of the contact time, pH medium, dye/metal ion initial concentration, and recycle ability. The HGC beads showed rapid adsorption, high capacity, and easy separation and reused due to the porous characteristics of GO sheets and HA nanoparticles as well as the rich negative charges of the chitosan (CTS) matrix. The maximum sorption capacities of the HGC beads were 99.00 and 256.41 mg g for MB and copper ions removal, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538019PMC
October 2021

Unattended automated office blood pressure in living donor kidney transplant recipients.

Blood Press 2021 Oct 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Renal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Purpose: Hypertension is common in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). For the evaluation of blood pressure (BP), 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) are considered superior to usual office measurements but are also resource demanding and troublesome to many patients. We therefore evaluated the use of unattended automated office BP (AOBP) during the first year following living donor kidney transplantation and compared AOBP with ABPM as obtained 12 months after transplantation.

Materials And Methods: Data were retrieved from a cohort of 57 KTRs (mean age 45 ± 14 years, 75% males) who all received kidneys from living donors and had a good graft function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 52 ± 16 ml/min/1.73 m at 12 months). Unattended AOBP was measured at each visit to the outpatient clinic using the BpTru® device, while ABPM was obtained by Spacelabs® equipment before and 12 months after transplantation.

Results: AOBP remained stable from month 2 (130.2 ± 10.8/82.2 ± 7.8 mmHg) to month 12 (129.0 ± 12.8/83.1 ± 9.6 mmHg) post-transplantation. At 12 months follow-up, ambulatory daytime systolic BP was slightly higher than AOBP (132.7 ± 10.7 129.4 ± 12.2 mmHg,  = 0.04), while diastolic BP was similar (82.7 ± 7.7 82.0 ± 10.2 mmHg). Using Bland-Altman plots, 95% limits of agreements were -17.9 to 24.5 mmHg for systolic and -16.5 to 15.1 mmHg for diastolic BP. When considering a target BP of ≤130/<80 mmHg, 62% had sustained hypertension, 9% white coat hypertension and 11% masked hypertension. Using multiple linear regression analysis, only urine albumin-creatinine ratio tended to predict a higher systolic AOBP ( = 0.07).

Conclusion: In a cohort of stable living donor KTRs, mean values of unattended AOBP using BpTru® are comparable to daytime ABPM with a misclassification rate of approximately 20%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08037051.2021.1991778DOI Listing
October 2021

Covid-19 need not spell the death of public transport: Learning from Hanoi's safety measures.

J Transp Health 2021 Dec 11;23:101279. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Objectives: In contrast to other cities worldwide, the pandemic has not decimated bus ridership in Hanoi. Notably, the Vietnamese capital has mostly relied on the use of face masks and hand sanitizer during travel, instead of requiring physical distancing on buses. This study examines public bus passengers' levels of compliance with Covid-19 safety measures, and the factors that affect compliance.

Methods: Face-to-face surveys were administered between 7 September and 3 October 2020, right after the end of the third wave of Covid-19 in Hanoi on 51 bus routes. Exploratory Factor Analysis was carried out to extract factors from attitudinal statements. The extracted factors, passengers' socio-demographic traits, and their bus use patterns were modelled to determine which variables lead to more compliance with Covid-19 safety measures.

Results: We found that 100% of passengers wore face masks (which were mandated), albeit 11% did so incorrectly, while only 28% of passengers used the hand sanitizer provided by bus operators (which was recommended but not required). In addition, 38% of passengers carried their own bottles of hand sanitizer while travelling, despite a relatively low risk of contracting the virus. Women, older passengers, and urbanites were less likely to sanitise their hands. Frequent bus travellers behaved like the population at large with regard to protective measures against Covid-19.

Conclusions: Hanoi's overall measures - full use of face masks and partial use of hand sanitizer - were sufficient to contain three relatively minor Covid-19 waves while still maintaining regular bus operations most of the time. If other cities were able to reach these levels of compliance, most would be in much better position vis-à-vis public transport use during the pandemic (or an epidemic). Our findings suggest that mandates work much better than awareness raising campaigns, although the latter have a role to play.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2021.101279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502697PMC
December 2021

An observational study of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infections among vaccinated healthcare workers in Vietnam.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Nov 30;41:101143. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Hospital for Tropical Diseaes, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Data on breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infections in vaccinated individuals are limited.

Methods: We studied breakthrough infections among Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccinated healthcare workers in an infectious diseases hospital in Vietnam. We collected demographic and clinical data alongside serial PCR testing, measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and viral whole-genome sequencing.

Findings: Between 11-25 June 2021 (7-8 weeks after the second dose), 69 staff tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 62 participated in the study. Most were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and all recovered. Twenty-two complete-genome sequences were obtained; all were Delta variant and were phylogenetically distinct from contemporary viruses obtained from the community or from hospital patients admitted prior to the outbreak. Viral loads inferred from Ct values were 251 times higher than in cases infected with the original strain in March/April 2020. Median time from diagnosis to negative PCR was 21 days (range 8-33). Neutralizing antibodies (expressed as percentage of inhibition) measured after the second vaccine dose, or at diagnosis, were lower in cases than in uninfected, fully vaccinated controls (median (IQR): 69.4 (50.7-89.1) vs. 91.3 (79.6-94.9), p=0.005 and 59.4 (32.5-73.1) vs. 91.1 (77.3-94.2), p=0.002). There was no correlation between vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody levels and peak viral loads or the development of symptoms.

Interpretation: Breakthrough Delta variant infections following Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination may cause asymptomatic or mild disease, but are associated with high viral loads, prolonged PCR positivity and low levels of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Epidemiological and sequence data suggested ongoing transmission had occurred between fully vaccinated individuals.

Funding: Wellcome and NIH/NIAID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481205PMC
November 2021

Enhanced Emission from Interlayer Excitons Coupled to Plasmonic Gap Cavities.

Small 2021 Nov 3;17(45):e2103994. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, 2007, Australia.

The emergence of interlayer excitons (IEs) from atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) heterostructures has drawn tremendous attention due to their unique and exotic optoelectronic properties. Coupling the IEs into optical cavities provides distinctive electromagnetic environments which plays an important role in controlling multiple optical processes such as optical nonlinear generation or photoluminescence enhancement. Here, the integration of IEs in TMDCs into plasmonic nanocavities based on a nanocube on a metallic mirror is reported. Spectroscopic studies reveal an order of magnitude enhancement of the IE at room temperature and a 5-time enhancement in fluorescence at cryogenic temperatures. Cavity modeling reveals that the enhancement of the emission is attributed to both increased excitation efficiency and Purcell effect from the cavity. The results show a novel method to control the excitonic processes in TMDC heterostructures to build high performance photonics and optoelectronics devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103994DOI Listing
November 2021

A scalable, secure, and interoperable platform for deep data-driven health management.

Nat Commun 2021 10 1;12(1):5757. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

The large amount of biomedical data derived from wearable sensors, electronic health records, and molecular profiling (e.g., genomics data) is rapidly transforming our healthcare systems. The increasing scale and scope of biomedical data not only is generating enormous opportunities for improving health outcomes but also raises new challenges ranging from data acquisition and storage to data analysis and utilization. To meet these challenges, we developed the Personal Health Dashboard (PHD), which utilizes state-of-the-art security and scalability technologies to provide an end-to-end solution for big biomedical data analytics. The PHD platform is an open-source software framework that can be easily configured and deployed to any big data health project to store, organize, and process complex biomedical data sets, support real-time data analysis at both the individual level and the cohort level, and ensure participant privacy at every step. In addition to presenting the system, we illustrate the use of the PHD framework for large-scale applications in emerging multi-omics disease studies, such as collecting and visualization of diverse data types (wearable, clinical, omics) at a personal level, investigation of insulin resistance, and an infrastructure for the detection of presymptomatic COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26040-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486823PMC
October 2021

Predictors of Intention to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine of Health Science Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 24;14:4023-4030. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Vaccination is one of the interventions that can be employed to control coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study is to identify factors that affect vaccination intention among health science students, by using the health belief model (HBM) as a theoretical framework.

Methods: This study was undertaken in April 2021 using a convenience sample strategy among health science students in Tra Vinh University, which is a university in South Vietnam. Participants were required to complete the self-report questionnaire. All data were calculated by using STATA 14 software, to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, along with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: A total of 412 eligible participants were taken part in the study, with a questionnaire response rate of 48.2%, reporting that 77.7% of participants intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccination when available. An overall score of knowledge was 7.8 ± 1.5 (range 0-10), a positive attitude toward vaccination including perceived susceptibility and severity (3.1 ± 0.7), perceived benefits (3.1 ± 0.7) and cues to action (4.0 ± 0.6). Determinants of willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccination included their field of education, knowledge and factors in HBM model including perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived benefits and cues to action (all p < 0.05). In contrast, perceived barriers had a negative association with the probability of vaccine acceptance (p < 0.05). The study did indicate a number of participants not willing to receive a vaccination due to, mainly, safety (67.4%), development issues (58.7%) and side effects (79.3%).

Conclusion: The theoretical framework recognized factors that influence vaccine acceptance. These are considered evidence for the development of planning strategies to optimize the vaccination uptake and offer success in vaccination campaigns for both health science students and the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S328665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478496PMC
September 2021

Inflammatory conversion of quiescent osteoblasts by metastatic breast cancer cells through pERK1/2 aggravates cancer-induced bone destruction.

Bone Res 2021 Sep 29;9(1):43. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Orthopædics & Rehabilitation, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Disruption of bone homeostasis caused by metastatic osteolytic breast cancer cells increases inflammatory osteolysis and decreases bone formation, thereby predisposing patients to pathological fracture and cancer growth. Alteration of osteoblast function induces skeletal diseases due to the disruption of bone homeostasis. We observed increased activation of pERK1/2 in osteolytic breast cancer cells and osteoblasts in human pathological specimens with aggressive osteolytic breast cancer metastases. We confirmed that osteolytic breast cancers with high expression of pERK1/2 disrupt bone homeostasis via osteoblastic ERK1/2 activation at the bone-breast cancer interface. The process of inflammatory osteolysis modulates ERK1/2 activation in osteoblasts and breast cancer cells through dominant-negative MEK1 expression and constitutively active MEK1 expression to promote cancer growth within bone. Trametinib, an FDA-approved MEK inhibitor, not only reduced breast cancer-induced bone destruction but also dramatically reduced cancer growth in bone by inhibiting the inflammatory skeletal microenvironment. Taken together, these findings suggest that ERK1/2 activation in both breast cancer cells and osteoblasts is required for osteolytic breast cancer-induced inflammatory osteolysis and that ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors may represent a promising adjuvant therapy for patients with aggressive osteolytic breast cancers by altering the shared cancer and bone microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00158-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481290PMC
September 2021
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