Publications by authors named "Mingyang Liu Gray"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Masseteric-zygomatic nerve transfer for the management of eye closure-smile excursion synkinesis.

Am J Otolaryngol 2020 Jul - Aug;41(4):102479. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York, Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, United States of America.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to illustrate the efficacy of masseteric-to-zygomatic nerve transfer to address eye closure-smile excursion synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis.

Background: Synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis represents a wide range of facial movement disability. One manifestation is involuntary smiling with eye closure and a concomitant reduction of oral commissure movement with attempted smile ("frozen smile") - arising as a result of aberrant fibers populating the zygomatic branch-muscle complex. This is a particularly difficult area to treat with conservative management. We propose a single-stage procedure to sever the dysfunctional zygomatic nerve and perform a masseteric-zygomatic nerve coaptation to recover a voluntary smile.

Methods: We present a case series of eight patients with eye closure/smile excursion synkinesis who underwent single-stage masseteric-zygomatic nerve transfer by a single surgeon. The surgical technique and indications for surgery were reviewed. Patients underwent facial movement analysis using Emotrics.

Results: We analyzed the pre- and post- surgical photographic images of 8 patients with synkinesis (7 female, 1 male). Masseteric-facial nerve transfer was performed from 18 months to 22 years after the initial facial paralysis. Eyelid and brow positioning were more symmetric after surgery, with discrepancy between affected and unaffected side decreasing from 2.1 to 1.0 mm (p < .05) and 1.74 to 1.29 mm (p < .05), respectively. Symmetry of smile excursion postoperatively was also improved with commissure excursion discrepancy decreasing from 8.8 to 3.78 mm (p < .05). Discrepancy in the smile angle when comparing affected to unaffected side improved postoperatively from 10.3 to 5.2 degrees (p < .05). Improvement in oral commissure height was noted, but not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The masseteric-zygomatic nerve transfer is a useful technique for the treatment of eye closure/smile excursion synkinesis after failure of chemodenervation and/or physical therapy.
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August 2020

Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) Inhibitors and Ototoxicity: A Systematic Review.

Otol Neurotol 2019 03;40(3):276-283

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Objective: This study explores the current literature regarding associations between phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and ototoxicity and provides a detailed summary and discussion of the findings.

Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for studies published from database inception through March 21, 2018.

Study Selection: Basic science articles, epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case reports, reviews, meta-analyses, press releases, and newsletters were included. The PRISMA search strategy was used to select papers. Search terms are included in the appendix (

Results: Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Among case reports, there were a total of nine patients, all male, with an average age of 57.4 years (37-79 years, SD = 13.87 years). Of the cases of hearing loss, 25% (2/8 cases) were bilateral and 75% (6/8) were unilateral; 22% (2/9) were associated with tinnitus; and 33% (3/9) had accompanying vestibular symptoms (including vertigo and dizziness). Among multipatient studies, all prospective studies failed to find a significant association between ototoxicity and PDE-5 inhibitor use. Results of the retrospective studies were also heterogeneous. Many key molecules in the PDE-5 inhibition pathway have been demonstrated to exist in the cochlea. However, mirroring the clinical studies, the basic science mechanisms have suggested both ototoxic and otoprotective effects.

Conclusions: Currently, the literature is inconclusive regarding the interaction between PDE-5 inhibitor use and ototoxicity. Future study such as a double-blinded placebo controlled randomized trial with audiometric assessment would provide more sound evidence. Similarly, a unified molecular model is necessary.
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March 2019

Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis.

Ochsner J 2016 ;16(2):150-3

Department of Otolaryngology, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA ; The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Ochsner Clinical School, New Orleans, LA.

Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction.

Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique.

Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis.
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June 2016