Publications by authors named "Mingquan Li"

33 Publications

Admission Hemoglobin Is Prognostic for In-Hospital Mortality in Oldest-Old Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Gerontology 2021 Jul 29:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Neurology, Taikang Xianlin Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: Anemia is a common condition encountered in acute ischemic stroke, and only a few pieces of evidence has been produced suggesting its possible association with short-term mortality have been produced. The study sought to assess whether admission anemia status had any impact on short-term clinical outcome among oldest-old patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of Electronic Medical Recording System was performed in 2 tertiary hospitals. Data, from the oldest-old patients aged > = 80 years consecutively admitted with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019, were analyzed. Admission hemoglobin was used as indicator for anemia and severity. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare in-hospital mortality and length of in-hospital stay in different anemia statuses and normal hemoglobin patients.

Results: A total of 705 acute ischemic stroke patients were admitted, and 572 were included in the final analysis. Of included patients, 240 of them were anemic and 332 nonanemic patients. A statistical difference between the 2 groups was found in in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio value of anemia for mortality were 3.91 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.60-9.61, p = 0.003) and 7.15 (95% CI: 1.46-34.90, p = 0.015) in moderate and severely anemic patients, respectively. Similarly, length of in-hospital stay was longer in anemic patients (21.64 ± 6.17 days) than in nonanemic patients (19.08 ± 5.48 days, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Increased severity of anemia may be an independent risk factor for increased in-hospital mortality and longer length of stay in oldest-old patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514678DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of exercise on markers of inflammation and indicators of nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Nephrology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 39 Shi-er-qiao Road, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to reveal the effects of exercise training on markers of inflammation and indicators of nutrition in non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD).

Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, CNKI, WANFANE, VIP, and CBM databases, from their inception up to October 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of exercise training on inflammation and nutrition in NDD-CKD patients. A total of 16 trials, comprising 724 patients, were included in the analysis.

Results: The BMI (P = 0.005) and waist circumference (P = 0.004) decreased significantly after exercise training in NDD-CKD patients. Similarly, IL-6 (P = 0.03) decreased after exercise training in NDD-CKD patients. However, serum albumin level, body fat, CRP and hs-CRP were not different between patients who received exercise training and those who received usual care. Furthermore, BMI (P = 0.009), body weight (P = 0.009), and waist circumference (P = 0.010) were decreased in overweight patients (BMI ≧ 25 kg/m). Moreover, BMI (P = 0.003), body weight (P = 0.005), and waist circumference (P = 0.007) reduced when the length of intervention exceeded 48 weeks. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant alteration of serum albumin, body fat, CRP, or hs-CRP, when studies were divided based on BMI or intervention duration.

Conclusion: Overall, these findings suggest that exercise training may improve inflammation status in NDD-CKD patients, and enhance weight loss in obese adult CKD patients. Registration number: INPLASY2020100025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02949-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Neuronal Apoptosis Preventive Potential of Sophocarpine via Suppression of Aβ-Accumulation and Down-Regulation of Inflammatory Response.

Dokl Biochem Biophys 2021 Mar 24;497(1):116-122. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 130021, Changchun, Jilin, China.

In the current study sophocarpine was investigated in vitro for prevention of β-amyloid induced PC12 neuronal cell damage. Exposure to β-amyloid caused a dose-dependent suppression in growth of PC12 cells with maximum reduction at 10 μM. Sophocarpine pre-treatment reversed suppressive effect of β-amyloid (10 μM) on PC12 cell growth in concentration-based manner. In sophocarpine pre-treated PC12 cells the β-amyloid mediated PGE2 level elevation was attenuated significantly at 0.25-2 μM doses. Moreover, in sophocarpine pretreated PC12 cells the β-amyloid mediated promotion of COX-2 level was also inhibited. Sophocarpine pre-treatment attenuated iNOS expression in β-amyloid exposed PC12 cells at 0.25-2 μM doses. Pre-treatment of PC12 cells with sophocarpine suppressed NO-species generation induced by β-amyloid exposure. In sophocarpine pretreated PC12 cells elevation of nuclear NF-κB expression induced by β-amyloid was significantly inhibited. In summary, sophocarpine prevents reduction of PC12 cell growth induced by β-amyloid exposure via inhibition of inflammatory processes. The preventive effect of sophocarpine on β-amyloid induced PC12 cell damage is associated with inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Therefore, sophocarpine may be used for treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1607672921020186DOI Listing
March 2021

Inhibition of miR-103-3p Preserves Neurovascular Integrity Through Caveolin-1 in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Neuroscience 2021 05 17;461:91-101. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a constitutive structural protein of caveolae in the plasma membrane. It plays an important role in maintaining blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity. In this study, we identified that miR-103-3p, a hypoxia-responsive miRNA, could interact with Cav-1. In endothelial cells, miR-103-3p mimic diminished the expression of Cav-1 and tight junction proteins, which were rescued by the inhibition of miR-103-3p. We found a substantial increase of miR-103-3p and decease of Cav-1 in the rat subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. Pre-SAH intracerebroventricularly injection of miR-103-3p antagomir relieved Cav-1 loss, sequentially reduced BBB permeability and improved neurological function. Finally, we demonstrated that the salutary effects of miR-103-3p antagomir were abolished in Cav-1 knock-out mice, suggesting that Cav-1 was required for the miR-103-3p inhibition-induced neurovascular protection. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhibition of miR-103-3p could exert neuroprotective effects through preservation of Cav-1 and BBB integrity, making miR-103-3p a novel therapeutic target for SAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.03.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Shenshuaikang Enema, a Chinese Herbal Remedy, Inhibited Hypoxia and Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting Oxidative Damage-Dependent JNK/Caspase-3 Signaling Pathways Using Network Pharmacology.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 17;2020:9457101. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinically critical illness with serious consequences for the patients. Shenshuaikang enema (SE) is a Chinese herbal compound that is used to treat AKI in clinical practice. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of SE and explore the molecular mechanisms using network pharmacology and in vitro experiments.

Materials And Methods: The herb-component-target network was constructed based on network pharmacology. The predicted targets and pathways were validated using in vitro experiments. A renal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2 cells) was exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) using air-tight conditions for five hours and treated with different concentrations of SE (25%, 50%, and 75%) to assess cell viability and apoptosis and determine the optimal experimental dose. Subsequently, H/R-injured HK-2 cells were pretreated with the optimal SE dose and then randomly divided into three groups, the SE, SE-SP600125 (inhibitor of JNK), and SE-NAC (antioxidant) groups. The cell vitality, apoptosis, and death were evaluated using the cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester/propidium iodide (CFSF/PI) staining. The apoptosis-related protein JNK and Caspase-3 were assessed by Western blot. Expression of JNK and Caspase-3 genes was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

Results: 123 active components and 226 targets were identified from four herbs that composed the herb-compound-target network based on transcriptomics and network pharmacology analyses. The KEGG pathway analyses revealed that the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was involved in the therapeutic AKI effects of SE. Cell vitality of H/R-induced HK-2 cells was obviously increased when treating them with SE, and the apoptosis was significantly inhibited, especially in the SE (50%) group at 4 and 12 h after modeling. Pretreatment with antioxidant NAC obviously prevented cell death compared to the SE (50%) group, while no obvious reduction of apoptosis was observed in the SP600125 group. JNK expression level was significantly increased in the SE (50%) group compared to the SP600125 ( < 0.01) and the NAC group ( < 0.05). Caspase-3 was downregulated in the SE (50%) group compared to the SP600125 ( < 0.01) and NAC group ( < 0.05). Caspase-3 activation in the SP600125 group was higher than that in the NAC group ( < 0.05). Moreover, the oxidative damage-dependent JNK/Caspase-3 pathway was identified in the H/R-injured HK-2 cells by inhibiting the JNK activation and oxidative damage.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the H/R-triggered apoptosis in HK-2 cells was abrogated by SE by upregulating the oxidative damage-dependent JNK to trigger suppression of Caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9457101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685836PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicinal enemas for treatment of chronic renal failure: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(44):e23002

Department of Nephrology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China.

Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a common kidney disease characterized by a slow and progressive decline in kidney function. Clinical practice suggests that traditional Chinese medicinal enemas have a therapeutic effect on CRF. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicinal enemas in treating CRF, we created a protocol for a systematic review to inform future clinical applications.

Methods: We completed a literature search of all clinical randomized controlled trials evaluating traditional Chinese medicinal enemas on CRF in the following five English and four Chinese databases completed before August 2020: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Library database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WANFANE Database, Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). The primary outcomes evaluated blood urea nitrogen levels, uric acid levels, endogenous creatinine clearance rate, and serum creatinine, and the secondary outcomes included clinical efficacy and adverse effects of treatment. Two independent researchers performed data extraction and quality assessment. RevMan5.3 software was used to assess data quality and bias. This protocol was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) statement.

Results: This study will provide a rational synthesis of current evidence for traditional Chinese medicinal enemas for the treatment of CRF.

Conclusion: This study presents evidence on whether traditional Chinese medicinal enemas are an effective and safe intervention for CRF patients.

Registration Number: INPLASY202080052.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598863PMC
October 2020

[Establishment of animal model of ischemic acute kidney injury].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2020 Sep;32(9):1149-1152

Second Department of Nephrology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610072, Sichuan, China. Corresponding author: Li Mingquan, Email:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical critical illness, and ischemic kidney injury is the main type. The mortality rate of ischemic kidney injury is high, because the efficacy of treatment is limited due to symptomatic and supportive treatment. Establishing a reliable animal model of ischemic AKI is an important prerequisite for conducting research on physiological, pathological and pharmacological researches, so as to explore effective prevention methods and strategies. In recent years, the establishment methods of animal models of ischemic AKI have been continuously improved. The article summarizes the common methods and model characteristics of animal models of ischemic AKI in order to provide a reference for researchers to choose a reasonable modeling method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200417-00309DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical characteristics of moderate COVID-19 patients aggravation in Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital: A 571 cases of retrospective cohort study.

J Med Virol 2021 02 16;93(2):1133-1140. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

To report the clinical characteristics and potential risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital in Hubei Province. A total of 571 patients of COVID-19 treated in the Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital were selected for analysis, univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with disease aggravation. The main clinical symptoms of moderate COVID-19 were fever, cough and dyspnea, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases were the main comorbidities both in transferred and stable patients. Twenty-six patients (4.55%) of mild and moderate patients had disease aggravation, and most of which occurred between 36 and 48 hours after admission. Multiple regression analysis showed increasing odds of disease aggravation associated with former smoker history, diabetes, dyspnea, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities of computed tomography scanning, lymphopenia and elevated of C-reactive protein, the time points of transferred patients mainly between 36 and 48 hours (65.38%), and the average hospital stay for stable patients was 15 days.It could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage, and provide early warning role for timely intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436609PMC
February 2021

The Mechanisms of the Herbal Components of CRSAS on HK-2 Cells in a Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Model Based on Network Pharmacology.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 13;2020:5352490. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury is a global problem, which brings a great burden to the society and family. The component of rhubarb, , , and safflower (CRSAS) has been proved as an useful agent to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in China.

Objective: To assess the effect of CRSAS on human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) after the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and investigate the potential mechanisms.

Methods: Network pharmacology was used to predict the potential pathways shared by CRSAS and AKI. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to assess the HK-2 vitality. Apoptosis of HK-2 cells was detected by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester/propidium iodide (CFSF/PI) staining. Expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-3, and Bax was detected by western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

Result: CRSAS and AKI shared the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway based on network pharmacology analysis. CRSAS increases the vitality of HK-2 cells and reduces the apoptosis of HK-2 cells induced by H/R injury. The expression of GRP78 and CHOP in CRSAS groups was lower than that of control groups.

Conclusions: H/R can induce HK-2 cell apoptosis and ERS. CRSAS can reduce HK-2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting the ERS. Therefore, CRSAS might be able to treat kidney disease due to I/R injury. Animal experiment should be done to further prove our finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5352490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174917PMC
April 2020

Admission serum cholinesterase concentration for prediction of in-hospital mortality in very elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 Dec 18;32(12):2667-2675. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, Taikang Xianlin Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210000, China.

Background: Cholinesterase as a sensitive biomarker for prognosis in a variety of conditions but it is rare in stroke studies. The very elderly (≥ 80 years of age) represent the most susceptible group of ischemic stroke. We aimed to determine whether admission serum cholinesterase concentration had any effect on clinical outcome in very elderly patients (individuals aged ≥ 80 years) with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted in two tertiary university hospitals. Elderly patients aged ≥ 80 years admitted with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke from January 1, 2014 to November 30, 2019, who had a cholinesterase concentration drawn, were included. The patients were grouped based on the inflection points of the locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplot (LOESS) curve between cholinesterase levels and in-hospital mortality (study outcome) with lower concentration as reference group.

Results: A total of 612 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, and 569 met the inclusion criteria. A threshold effect was identified using regression smoothing scatterplot (LOESS), with one cutoff point of 4.0 KU/L. There was a significant difference in-hospital mortality was observed (P < 0.001). After adjusted demographic and clinical features, the OR of cholinesterase for mortality was 0.43 (95% CI 0.34-0.54, P < 0.001), suggesting that lower admission cholinesterase level was an independent risk factors for all-cause mortality among patients with AIS.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated a significant association between admission cholinesterase concentration and in-hospital mortality in very elderly patients with AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01498-zDOI Listing
December 2020

Is there a cardiovascular protective effect of aspirin in chronic kidney disease patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2020 Feb 9;52(2):315-324. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

No. 1 Department of Nephrology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 37 Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the cardiovascular prevention effect of aspirin among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane library (up to March 2019) without language limitations. Randomized control trials (RCT) and observational studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data, and evaluated study quality using modified Jadad score for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational study. A meta-analysis was conducted in the Stata 15.0 software using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model.

Results: 1768 references were identified from literature searching. Four RCTs and four cohort studies that reported the cardiovascular prevention outcome of aspirin in CKD patients (38,341 participants) were included in this review. The pooled data revealed that aspirin had no significant prevention effect on cardiovascular events among CKD patients (RR = 0.96, 95% CI, 0.59-1.13). There was also no significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Although we found no significant increased risk in major bleeding events, there was a statistically significant increased risk of minor bleeding events (RR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.60-4.13) and renal events (RR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.02-1.65) for aspirin use.

Conclusion: Our review indicated that aspirin use in CKD patients had no prevention effect on cardiovascular events and no statistically significant reduction in risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, with a significant increased risk of minor bleeding and renal events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02350-8DOI Listing
February 2020

Theoretical design of novel high energy metal complexes based on two complementary oxygen-rich mixed ligands of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diol and 1,1'-dinitramino-5,5'-bistetrazole.

J Mol Model 2019 Nov 12;25(11):340. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.

In this study, 16 new energetic metal complexes [M(DNABT)(ATDO), M=Cu, Ni] were designed using the mixed complex construct strategy, which was based on two complementary oxygen-rich high-energy ligands of 1,1'-dinitramino-5,5'-bistetrazole (DNABT) and 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diol (ATDO), then combined with metals Cu and Ni, and further adjusted by the introduction of NO and NH. The molecular and electronic structures, heat of formation (HOF), density, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and sensitivity were investigated by the density functional theory method. The results showed that in metals, the position and amount of NO/NH have great effects on the structure and property of metal complexes, and these effects coupled with each other. N-NO bond is the relatively weak bond, and its max length is related with the sensitivity closely. The designed metal complexes all have high HOF (673~868 kJ mol), high density (2.06~2.14 g cm), and ideal oxygen balance (- 19.2~- 6.7%), which further make them have higher detonation velocity (8.76~9.84 km s) and detonation pressure (37.4~46.6 GPa) than three famous high-energy compounds 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX); 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX); or even 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). At the same time, they are less sensitive than RDX, HMX, and CL-20, making them potential candidates for high-energy density compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-019-4246-6DOI Listing
November 2019

[Fecal microbiota transplantation regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in cerebral cortex of septic rats through intestinal microbiota].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2019 Sep;31(9):1102-1107

Department of General Medicine, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on septic gut flora and the cortex cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in rats.

Methods: Sixty clean grade male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal saline (NS) control group, sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group by random number table, with 20 rats in each group. The rat model of sepsis was reproduced by injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via tail vein, the rats in the NS control group was given the same amount of NS. The rats in the fecal microbiota transplantation group received nasogastric infusion of feces from healthy donor on the 1st day, 2 mL each time, for 3 times a day, the other two groups were given equal dose of NS by gavage. Fecal samples were collected on the 7th day after modeling, the levels of intestinal microbiota composition was determined using the 16SrDNA gene sequencing technology. The brain function was evaluated by electroencephalogram (EEG), and the proportion of each waveform in EEG was calculated. After sacrifice of rats, the brain tissues were harvested, the levels of protein expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined by Western Blot, and positive cells of Iba-1 in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry method. The levels of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Seven days after the reproduction of the model, all rats in the NS control group survived, while 10 rats and 8 rats died in the sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group, respectively, with mortality rates of 50% and 40% respectively. Finally, there were 20 rats in the NS control group, 10 in the sepsis model group and 12 in the fecal microbiota transplantation group. Compared with the NS control group, the diversity and composition of intestinal flora were changed, the incidence of abnormal EEG increased significantly, the expression of α7nAchR in the cortex decreased significantly, and the levels of Iba-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased in the model group, suggested that the intestinal flora was dysbiosis, and severe inflammatory reaction occurred in the cerebral cortex, and brain function was impaired. Compared with the model group, the diversity of intestinal flora in the fecal microbiota transplantation group was significantly increased (species index: 510.24±58.76 vs. 282.50±47.42, Chao1 index: 852.75±25.24 vs. 705.50±46.50, both P < 0.05), the dysbiosis of intestinal flora at phylum, family, genus level induced by LPS were also significantly reversed, and with the improvement of intestinal flora, the incidence of abnormal EEG waveforms was lower in the fecal microbiota transplantation group compared with that in the model group [25.0% (3/12) vs. 80.0% (8/10), P < 0.05], and the expression of α7nAChR protein in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased (α7nAChR/β-actin: 1.56±0.05 vs. 0.82±0.07, P < 0.05), immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Iba-1 positive expression of microglia decreased significantly, and cerebral cortex TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β levels were significantly decreased [TNF-α (ng/L): 6.28±0.61 vs. 12.02±0.54, IL-6 (ng/L): 28.26±3.15 vs. 60.58±4.62, IL-1β (ng/L): 33.63±3.48 vs. 72.56±2.25, all P < 0.05].

Conclusions: The results reveal that fecal microbiota transplantation has remarkably modulated the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and activated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and ameliorate the brain dysfunction in septic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2019.09.009DOI Listing
September 2019

Isorhamnetin inhibited migration and invasion via suppression of Akt/ERK-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

Biosci Rep 2019 09 20;39(9). Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130021, China

In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of Isorhamnetin on the growth and metastasis of A549 human lung cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. Treatment with Isorhamnetin exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on A549 cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cell adhesion and Transwell assay showed that treatment with Isorhamnetin (2.5, 5, and 10 μM) for 48 h resulted in a significant inhibition effect on cell adhesion, invasion and migration of A549 cells, depending on concentration, which was associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity and protein expression. Moreover, Isorhamnetin effectively suppressed the expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, as evidenced by the down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and snail, as well as up-regulation of E-cadherin protein expression. Additionally, these inhibitions were mediated by interrupting AKT/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, the results of the current study demonstrated that Isorhamnetin may become a good anti-metastastic agent against lung cancer A549 cell line by the suppression of EMT via interrupting Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753323PMC
September 2019

Inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in PC12 cells by a polysaccharide (CCP) from Coptis chinensis against Amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Aug 6;134:565-574. Epub 2019 May 6.

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin 13011, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we investigated the protective effect and possible mechanism of a polysaccharide (CCP) from Coptis chinensis against Amyloid-β protein (Aβ)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed pretreatment with CCP significantly protected PC12 cells from Aβ induced cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, nuclear fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Furthermore, CCP (100 μg/ml) significantly inhibited Aβ induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, but not influence signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway, and interestingly, the promoting effect of CCP on PC12 cell survival was only blocked by pre-treatment with a SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). In addition, Aβ-induced increase of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, as well as decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression was markedly reversed by CCP or SP600125. Thus, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effect of CCP is associated with JNK-dependent apoptotic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.041DOI Listing
August 2019

Development and validation of a prediction rule for estimating gastric cancer risk in the Chinese high-risk population: a nationwide multicentre study.

Gut 2019 09 29;68(9):1576-1587. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To develop a gastric cancer (GC) risk prediction rule as an initial prescreening tool to identify individuals with a high risk prior to gastroscopy.

Design: This was a nationwide multicentre cross-sectional study. Individuals aged 40-80 years who went to hospitals for a GC screening gastroscopy were recruited. Serum pepsinogen (PG) I, PG II, gastrin-17 (G-17) and anti- IgG antibody concentrations were tested prior to endoscopy. Eligible participants (n=14 929) were randomly assigned into the derivation and validation cohorts, with a ratio of 2:1. Risk factors for GC were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses and an optimal prediction rule was then settled.

Results: The novel GC risk prediction rule comprised seven variables (age, sex, PG I/II ratio, G-17 level, infection, pickled food and fried food), with scores ranging from 0 to 25. The observed prevalence rates of GC in the derivation cohort at low-risk (≤11), medium-risk (12-16) or high-risk (17-25) group were 1.2%, 4.4% and 12.3%, respectively (p<0.001).When gastroscopy was used for individuals with medium risk and high risk, 70.8% of total GC cases and 70.3% of early GC cases were detected. While endoscopy requirements could be reduced by 66.7% according to the low-risk proportion. The prediction rule owns a good discrimination, with an area under curve of 0.76, or calibration (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The developed and validated prediction rule showed good performance on identifying individuals at a higher risk in a Chinese high-risk population. Future studies are needed to validate its efficacy in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6709770PMC
September 2019

Effect of daprodustat on anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 Dec 2;50(12):2201-2206. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

The Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: The efficacy of daprodustat for the treatment of anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains controversial. The aim of the study is to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat for anemic patients with chronic kidney disease.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trial Registries for randomized controlled trials comparing daprodustat with placebo for anemic patients with CKD.

Results: Four studies were included. Compared with placebo groups, daprodustat groups significantly increased hemoglobin (WMD 1.29 g/dL; 95% CI 0.96-1.62, p < 0.00001), transferrin (WMD 0.67 g/dL; 95% CI 0.45-0.89, p < 0.00001), and total iron binding capacity (WMD 9.97 g/dL; 95% CI 6.07-13.8, p < 0.00001). Daprodustat groups significantly decreased hepcidin (WMD - 76.1 μg/L; 95% CI - 91.8 to - 60.3, p < 0.00001) and ferritin (WMD - 63.6 μg/L; 95% CI - 96.6 to - 30.7, p = 0.0002) compared with that of placebo groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups.

Conclusion: Daprodustat could improve hemoglobin without increasing adverse events in the short term. Daprodustat may be another valuable choice for anemic patients with chronic kidney disease in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-1940-8DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuroprotective effects of Coptis chinensis Franch polysaccharide on amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Jul 7;113:991-995. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Pudong Hopstital, Fudan University Pudong Medical Center, Shanghai 201399, China; Chuangchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin 130117, China. Electronic address:

This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Coptis chinensis Franch polysaccharide (CCP) on Aβ transgenic CL4176 Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as its mechanism of action. The results in life span experiment showed that CCP could significantly increase the lifespan of C. elegans and the effect is in the descending order of 100mg/L>500mg/L>200mg/L. The behavioral experiments also demonstrated that CCP at the concentration of 100mg/L could delay the paralysis rate of C. elegans, which was significantly different from the control group. In terms of Aβ toxicity in C. elegans, morphological observation using Thioflavin S staining method indicated that the deposition of Aβ protein in the head area of the untreated C. elegans was much more than those in the CCP (100mg/L)-treated CL4176. In line with this finding, fluorogenic quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the transcriptional levels of HSP16.2 (Y46H3A.D) and HSP16.41 (Y46H3A.E) in C. elegans was 21 times and 79 times higher than those in untreated control. Thus, these data demonstrate that CCP could reduce Aβ-induced toxicity by delaying the aging, decreasing the rate of paralysis, inhibiting the deposition of Aβ, and increasing the expression levels of HSP genes in transgenic C. elegans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.035DOI Listing
July 2018

A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of PA21 versus sevelamer in dialysis patients.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 May 2;50(5):905-909. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PA21 versus sevelamer in dialysis patients.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trial Registries for randomized controlled trials comparing PA21 and sevelamer in dialysis patients.

Results: Four studies were included. Compared with sevelamer group, PA21 needed fewer mean daily number of tablets (WMD, - 7.97 pill; 95% CI, - 11.28 to - 4.65, p < 0.00001), developed fewer all adverse events (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.11, p = 0.05), and developed fewer gastrointestinal adverse events (RR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.53, p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in serum phosphorus between two groups (WMD, - 0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI, - 0.15 to 0.02, p = 0.12). As for serum calcium, there was also no significant difference between two groups (WMD, 0.27 mmol/L; 95% CI, - 0.63 to 1.17, p = 0.55).

Conclusion: PA21 can effectively control serum phosphorus with lower pill burden and less side effects than sevelamer. PA21 might be another valuable choice for dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia when patients are unable to tolerate sevelamer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-017-1774-9DOI Listing
May 2018

Traditional Chinese medicine Yisui Tongjing relieved neural severity in experimental autoimmune neuritis rat model.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2016 29;12:2481-2487. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University.

Objective: To study the effect of Yisui Tongjing (YSTJ) prescription on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and microstructure of the sciatic nerve in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) rats, the Guillain-Barré syndrome classic animal models.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we established an EAN model in Lewis rats by immunization. We evaluated the potential clinical application of a traditional Chinese medicine YSTJ by intragastric administration and compared its effect with immunoglobulin. The sciatic MNCV was measured by electrophysiology experiment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscope analysis were used to determine the pathologically morphological changes before and after YSTJ application.

Results: We found that application of YSTJ could significantly alleviate the clinical signs in EAN rats. The treatment also increased MNCV in the sciatic nerve compared to that in the untreated nerve. Demyelination in the sciatic nerve in EAN rats was significantly ameliorated, and newly generated myelinated nerve fibers were observed with treatment of high dose of YSTJ.

Conclusion: This study showed that the traditional Chinese medicine YSTJ was likely to serve as a therapeutic medicine in autoimmune neuropathies, providing an effective and economic means to the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S110813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5047740PMC
September 2016

Expression of miRNA-26a in platelets is associated with clopidogrel resistance following coronary stenting.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Jul 20;12(1):518-524. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between platelet microRNA (miRNA)-26a expression and clopidogrel resistance in patients who underwent coronary stenting. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 43 patients with coronary heart disease underwent percutaneous coronary intervention at Heibei General Hospital (Shijiazhuang, China). In the same period, 20 healthy volunteers without any history of cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the present study as the control group. Flow cytometry was used to measure the phosphorylation levels of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and to calculate the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel was defined as PRI ≥50% on day 7 following clopidogrel administration. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression of VASP and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of mRNA and miRNAs. Bioinformatics tools were employed to predict that miR-26a, miR-199 and miR-23a may target VASP mRNA. The results of the present study demonstrated that the activity of platelets in patients with low or high clopidogrel response was increased, as compared with healthy subjects. No differences in platelet VASP protein expression levels were detected between patients with high clopidogrel response and healthy subjects; whereas VASP protein expression was elevated in patients with low clopidogrel response. Furthermore VASP gene transcription was maintained at low levels in healthy subjects and patients with high clopidogrel response, whereas patients with low clopidogrel response exhibited increased VASP mRNA expression levels. Platelet expression of miRNA-26a, but not miRNA-199 or miRNA-23a, was associated with high platelet reactivity. Serum miRNA-26a, miRNA-199 and miRNA-23a were not demonstrated to be involved in clopidogrel resistance. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that platelet miRNA-26a has an important role in clopidogrel resistance. Combined miRNA and VASP PRI tests may aid the early diagnosis and prediction of clopidogrel resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4907078PMC
July 2016

Evaluation of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging in a Rat Acute Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Model.

Turk Neurosurg 2016 ;26(2):246-52

Zhengzhou People's Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, China.

Aim: This study aims to apply computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) technology under in vivo conditions in order to explore its reliability and accuracy in evaluating the rat acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model (RACIRM).

Material And Methods: The thread embolism method was used in 48 rats to create the RACIRM. Rats were divided into 2 groups as ischemia group and ischemia-reperfusion group. We then compared and evaluated the results of CTPI, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of both groups.

Results: There were no significant differences in the volumes of hypoperfusion regions in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of each group at each CTPI time point and these volumes were not significantly different from the corresponding findings on the TTC-stained infarct regions. The mean transit time (MTT) did show a significant difference, as did the volumes observed in both the MTT ischemic region and TTC-stained infarct region. The CTPI parameters exhibited correlation with the infarct volumes calculated in TTC staining, among which CBV exhibited the highest correlation.

Conclusion: CTPI could rapidly, accurately, and non-invasively evaluate the site, size, and hemodynamic changes in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion animal model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.12938-14.2DOI Listing
October 2016

Influence of surface cracks on laser-induced damage resistance of brittle KH₂PO₄ crystal.

Opt Express 2014 Nov;22(23):28740-55

Single point diamond turning (SPDT) currently is the leading finishing method for achieving ultra-smooth surface on brittle KH(2)PO(4) crystal. In this work, the light intensification modulated by surface cracks introduced by SPDT cutting is numerically simulated using finite-difference time-domain algorithm. The results indicate that the light intensification caused by surface cracks is wavelength, crack geometry and position dependent. Under the irradiation of 355 nm laser, lateral cracks on front surfaces and conical cracks on both front and rear surfaces can produce light intensification as high as hundreds of times, which is sufficient to trigger avalanche ionization and finally lower the laser damage resistance of crystal components. Furthermore, we experimentally tested the laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) on both crack-free and flawed crystal surfaces. The results imply that brittle fracture with a series of surface cracks is the dominant source of laser damage initiation in crystal components. Due to the negative effect of surface cracks, the LIDT on KDP crystal surface could be sharply reduced from 7.85J/cm(2) to 2.33J/cm(2) (355 nm, 6.4 ns). In addition, the experiment of laser-induced damage growth is performed and the damage growth behavior agrees well with the simulation results of light intensification caused by surface cracks with increasing crack depths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.028740DOI Listing
November 2014

Fabrication of spherical mitigation pit on KH2PO4 crystal by micro-milling and modeling of its induced light intensification.

Opt Express 2013 Jul;21(14):16799-813

Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

Micro-machining is the most promising method for KH(2)PO(4) crystal to mitigate the surface damage growth in high power laser system. In this work, spherical mitigation pit is fabricated by micro-milling with an efficient machining procedure. The light intensification caused by rear surface features before and after mitigation is numerically modeled based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the occurrence of total internal reflections should be responsible for the largest light intensification inside the crystal. For spherical pits after mitigation, the light intensification can be greatly alleviated by preventing the occurrence of total internal reflections. The light intensification caused by spherical mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the width-depth ratio and it is suggested that the width-depth ratio of spherical mitigation pit must be devised to be larger than 5.0 to achieve the minimal light intensification for the mitigation of surface damage growth. Laser damage tests for KH(2)PO(4) crystal validate that the laser damage resistance of initially damaged surface can be retrieved to near the level of ideal surface by replacing initial damage site with predesigned mitigation pit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.016799DOI Listing
July 2013

Two important mechanisms damaging KH2PO4 crystal processed by ultraprecision fly cutting and their relationships with cutting parameters.

Appl Opt 2013 May;52(15):3451-60

Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

Mid-frequency waviness and subsurface crack are two fundamental factors that damage KH(2)PO(4) (KDP) crystal processed by ultraprecise fly cutting. In this paper, the motif theory and the Fourier model method are used to analyze the influence of the two factors on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of KDP. Research results indicate that the modulation degrees increase nearly linearly when the waviness amplitude and subsurface crack depth increase, and, meanwhile, the LIDT tends to decrease. The two factors have different effects during different stages of KDP failure. The mean amplitudes of waviness and subsurface damage depth have similar changing regulations with different feeds. From the machining perspective, we need not necessarily know which is more dangerous, because when one factor is controlled, the other one will also be restrained at the same time. In general, smaller feed and cutting depth are benefits for improving the LIDT of KDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.52.003451DOI Listing
May 2013

Pattern of cerebrovascular atherosclerotic stenosis in older Chinese patients with stroke.

J Clin Neurosci 2013 Jul 16;20(7):979-83. Epub 2013 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province, China.

The clinical pattern and angiographic distribution of cerebral atherosclerosis varies among different ethnic groups. This study was designed to identify the clinical background for intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in older eastern Chinese patients using digital subtraction angiography. We retrospectively reviewed the data collected from the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program, from January 2004 to March 2011. The analysis focused on the intracranial or extracranial location of stenosis in the anterior and posterior circulations. In total, records of 1041 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 19.88% had intracranial carotid stenosis, 18.73% had stenosis in the extracranial vessels, and 33.33% had concurrent stenoses. A total of 2002 stenotic sites were detected in 749 patients. Among those patients with stenosis, a single stenosis was found in 170 (16.33%) and multiple stenoses were found in 579 (55.62%). The prevalence of intracranial stenosis in the single-stenosis group was 54.12%, while in the multiple-stenosis group it was 47.87% (p=0.127). A higher incidence of severe stenosis (70-99% blockage) and occlusion was found in the intracranial vessels than in the extracranial vessels (p=0.018). Older Chinese patients with atherosclerotic stenosis tend to have more intracranial stenoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2012.09.017DOI Listing
July 2013

Down-regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia.

Neurosci Lett 2012 Mar 10;513(1):20-4. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Department of Neurology, Jinling hospital, Nanjin University School of Medicine, 305# East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province, China.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects, but little is known concerning its role in vascular dementia (VaD). This study aimed to evaluate expression of IGF-1 signaling in hippocampus in rat model of VaD, and probe the underlying mechanisms. Permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2-VO) was used as VaD model. Learning and memory functions were declined significantly in 2-VO rats, and these impairments were further deteriorated with the prolongation of 2-VO treatment. IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) were all measured at 1, 2 and 4 months following 2-VO injury. Compared with controls, IGF-1, IGF-1 mRNA and p-Akt expression were significantly decreased in hippocampus of 2-VO rats. However, changes of IGF-1R and total Akt levels were not significant. These results suggest that down-regulation of IGF-1 and p-Akt may contribute to the impairments of learning and memory functions after 2-VO. IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling system may involved in the onset and development of VaD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.01.077DOI Listing
March 2012

Study on characteristic parameters influencing laser-induced damage threshold of KH(2)PO(4) crystal surface machined by single point diamond turning.

J Appl Phys 2011 Dec 5;110(11):113103-1131037. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

It has fundamental meaning to find the elements influencing the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of KH(2)PO(4) (KDP) crystal and to provide suitable characterization parameters for these factors in order to improve the LIDT of KDP. Using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) to process the KDP crystal, the machined surface quality has important effects on its LIDT. However, there are still not suitable characteristic parameters of surface quality of KDP to correspond with the LIDT nowadays. In this paper, guided by the Fourier model theory, we study deeply the relationship between the relevant characteristic parameters of surface topography of KDP crystal and the experimental LIDT. Research results indicate that the waviness rather than the roughness is the leading topography element on the KDP surface machined by the SPDT method when the LIDT is considered and the amplitude of micro-waviness has greater influence on the light intensity inside the KDP crystal within the scope of dangerous frequencies between (180 μm)(-1) and (90 μm)(-1); with suitable testing equipment, the characteristic parameters of waviness amplitude, such as the arithmetical mean deviation of three-dimensional profile S(a) or root mean square deviation of three-dimensional contour S(q), are able to be considered as suitable parameters to reflect the optical quality of the machined surface in order to judge approximately the LIDT of the KDP surface and guide the machining course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3664692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253746PMC
December 2011

The expression, function and regulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase under biotic stresses.

Mol Plant Pathol 2010 May;11(3):429-40

College of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

To survive, plants possess elaborate defence mechanisms to protect themselves against virus or pathogen invasion. Recent studies have suggested that plant mitochondria may play an important role in host defence responses to biotic stresses. In contrast with animal mitochondria, plant mitochondria possess a unique respiratory pathway, the cyanide-insensitive alternative pathway, which is catalysed by the alternative oxidase (AOX). Much work has revealed that the genes encoding AOX, AOX protein and the alternative respiratory pathway are frequently induced during plant-pathogen (or virus) interaction. This raises the possibility that AOX is involved in host defence responses to biotic stresses. Thus, a key to the understanding of the role of mitochondrial respiration under biotic stresses is to learn the function and regulation of AOX. In this article, we focus on the theoretical and experimental progress made in the current understanding of the function and regulation of AOX under biotic stresses. We also address some speculative aspects to aid further research in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00615.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6640418PMC
May 2010

Immunological adjuvant effect of Japanese ginseng saponins (JGS) on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin and its haemolytic activities.

Vaccine 2008 Nov 16;26(47):5911-7. Epub 2008 Sep 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China.

In this study, the saponins (JGS) extracted from the rhizoma of Japanese ginseng were evaluated for their haemolytic activities and their potential ability as adjuvants on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. The haemolytic activity of JGS was determined using 0.5% rabbit red blood cell, with its HD(50) value being 177.78+/-6.77microg/mL. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100microg alone or with OVA 100microg dissolved in saline containing Alum (200microg), QuilA (10 and 20microg) or JGS (50, 100 or 200microg) on Days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (Day 28), concanavalin A (ConA)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibodies in serum were measured. JGS significantly enhanced the ConA-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice especially at a dose of 100microg (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were also significantly enhanced by JGS compared with OVA control group (P<0.01). The results suggest that JGS showed a slight haemolytic effect and enhanced significantly a specific antibody and cellular response against OVA in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.047DOI Listing
November 2008
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