Publications by authors named "Mingming Zhao"

215 Publications

Association of fetuin-A levels and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients on haemodialysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Objective: To identify the relationship between serum fetuin-A levels and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) among maintenance haemodialysis patients.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited, and fetuin-A levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Echocardiography measurements were recorded according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography. The ratio of early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity (E) to early diastolic annular velocity (E') was measured using tissue Doppler imaging and E/E' > 15 was defined as diastolic dysfunction. The association of serum fetuin-A concentrations with echocardiographic parameters was analysed by calculating the bivariate linear correlation. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the variables associated with LVDD.

Results: Compared to patients without diastolic dysfunction, patients with diastolic dysfunction were older, a higher percentage had a history of coronary artery disease, and presented with a high systolic pressure, high parathyroid hormone level, high N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, high LV mass index, high left atrium diameter, and low serum creatinine and fetuin-A levels. Serum fetuin-A levels showed a negative correlation with E/E' (r = - 0.299, P = 0.009). Fetuin-A levels were considered an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction.

Conclusion: A decrease in the serum fetuin-A level is associated with an increased risk of LVDD in patients on haemodialysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02796-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Irrational beliefs surrounding the diagnosis of breast cancer in young Chinese women: An observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e25024

College of Nursing, Huzhou University.

Abstract: An irrational belief is the direct cause of negative emotions and behavioral disorders in patients with breast cancer. Thus, this article examines these patients' irrational beliefs, which helps improve the emotions and behavioral disorders of breast cancer patients. Chinese breast cancer patients have unique irrational beliefs due to the influence of Chinese traditional culture. To understand the irrational beliefs surrounding breast cancer diagnosis in young Chinese patients, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological study.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in young Chinese breast cancer patients. According to Colaizzi method modified by Edward and Welsh, transcribed interviews were analyzed to understand patients' irrational beliefs. Based on the theoretical framework, this study adopted interpretative phenomenology. Interpretive description was used to construct participants' experiences of irrational beliefs. Thematic sufficiency was confirmed after 17 interviews.Owing to the lack of knowledge about breast cancer, all participants were more susceptible to traditional Chinese culture, empiric theory, family reassurance, and healthcare providers' behaviors, leading to patients' irrational beliefs, negative emotions, and behavioral disorders.This research confirms that irrational beliefs in young Chinese breast cancer patients are profoundly influenced by traditional Chinese culture. Chinese healthcare providers can use this information to provide targeted nursing, supportive services, and research, and help women identify their beliefs and understand how these beliefs affect their health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025024DOI Listing
March 2021

The SARS-CoV-2 induced targeted amino acid profiling in patients at hospitalized and convalescent stage.

Biosci Rep 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces an ongoing global health crisis. Here we utilized a combination of targeted amino acids and clinical biochemical profiling to analyze the plasma of COVID-19 subjects at the hospitalization stage and one-month post-infection convalescent stage, respectively, to investigate the systematic injury during COVID-19 disease progress. We found the virus-induced inflammatory status and reduced liver synthesis capacity in hospitalized patients, which manifested with increased branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, one-carbon related metabolites, and decreased methionine. Most of these disturbances during infection get recovery except for the increased levels of medium-chain acylcarnitines in the convalescent subjects, implying the existence of incomplete fatty acids oxidation during recovery periods. Our results suggested that the imbalance of the amino acid profiling in COVID-19 patients. The majority of disturbed amino acids recovered in one-month. The incomplete fatty acid oxidation products suggested it might take longer time for convalescent patients to get complete recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20204201DOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary soybean oil aggravates the adverse effects of low salinity on intestinal health in juvenile mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Feb 11;213:112004. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Fish and Shellfish Nutrition, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

Salinity is one of the important factors affecting the physiological state of crustaceans in marine environments. Lipid plays major roles in energy supply and is main sources of essential fatty acids for membrane integrity, which is critical in adaptations to changes in salinity. Here we evaluated the effects of salinity (medium, 23 ppt and low, 4 ppt) and dietary lipid source (fish oil, FO and soybean oil, SO) on intestinal health of the marine crustacean mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The results indicated that low salinity and dietary SO (LSO group) significantly affected intestinal histomorphology, with a significant decrease of intestinal fold height and width as well as down-regulation of intestinal mRNA levels of tight junction genes compared to crab reared at medium salinity and fed FO diets (MFO group). Crabs reared at low salinity and fed SO showed an increased inflammatory response in intestine, which stimulated a physiological detoxification response together with apoptosis compared to crab in the MFO group. Low salinity and SO diets also could be responsible for multiply the pathogenic bacteria of Photobacterium and inhibit the beneficial bacteria of Firmicutes and Rhodobacteraceae in intestine, and act on a crucial impact on the development of intestinal microbial barrier disorders. The results of microbial function predictive analysis also support these inferences. The findings of the present study demonstrated that soybean oil as the main dietary lipid source could exacerbate the adverse effects of low salinity on intestinal health of mud crab, and provided evidence suggesting that dietary lipid source and fatty acid composition may play vital roles in intestinal health and the process of adaptation to environmental salinity in marine crustaceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112004DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcriptomic and Functional Analyses of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Pressure Overload-Induced Right Ventricular Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 30;10(4):e017835. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology) Stanford University Palo Alto CA.

Background In complex congenital heart disease patients such as those with tetralogy of Fallot, the right ventricle (RV) is subject to pressure overload, leading to RV hypertrophy and eventually RV failure. The mechanisms that promote the transition from stable RV hypertrophy to RV failure are unknown. We evaluated the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the development of RV failure. Methods and Results We created a murine model of RV pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding and compared with sham-operated controls. Gene expression by RNA-sequencing, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiration, dynamics, and structure were assessed in pressure overload-induced RV failure. RV failure was characterized by decreased expression of electron transport chain genes and mitochondrial antioxidant genes (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and superoxide dismutase 2) and increased expression of oxidant stress markers (heme oxygenase, 4-hydroxynonenal). The activities of all electron transport chain complexes decreased with RV hypertrophy and further with RV failure (oxidative phosphorylation: sham 552.3±43.07 versus RV hypertrophy 334.3±30.65 versus RV failure 165.4±36.72 pmol/(s×mL), <0.0001). Mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 (dynamin 1-like) trended toward an increase, while MFF (mitochondrial fission factor) decreased and fusion protein OPA1 (mitochondrial dynamin like GTPase) decreased. In contrast, transcription of electron transport chain genes increased in the left ventricle of RV failure. Conclusions Pressure overload-induced RV failure is characterized by decreased transcription and activity of electron transport chain complexes and increased oxidative stress which are associated with decreased energy generation. An improved understanding of the complex processes of energy generation could aid in developing novel therapies to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction and delay the onset of RV failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017835DOI Listing
February 2021

The Roles of Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Autoimmune Diseases.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Dermatology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of plasma membrane receptors in nature and mediate the effects of a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormone, neurotransmitter, odor, and light signals. Due to their involvement in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes and their accessibility, GPCRs are widely used as pharmacological targets of treatment. Orphan G protein-coupled receptors (oGPCRs) are GPCRs for which no natural ligands have been found, and they not only play important roles in various physiological functions, such as sensory perception, reproduction, development, growth, metabolism, and responsiveness, but are also closely related to many major diseases, such as central nervous system (CNS) diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Recently, many studies have reported that oGPCRs play increasingly important roles as key factors in the occurrence and progression of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, oGPCRs are likely to become potential therapeutic targets and may provide a breakthrough in the study of autoimmune diseases. In this article, we focus on reviewing the recent research progress and clinical treatment effects of oGPCRs in three common autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), shedding light on novel strategies for treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-020-08829-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Objective and subjective evaluation of a new airplane seat with an optimally pre-shaped foam support.

Work 2021 ;68(s1):S257-S271

SAFRAN Seats Innovation, ISSOUDUN, France.

Background: Aircraft seat manufacturers are making efforts to reduce seat weight while continuously increasing seating comfort.

Objectives: To verify if seats with an optimally pre-shaped foam support could improve seating comfort while reducing seat weight.

Methods: The optimally pre-shaped surface was obtained from a synthesis of 95% of individually optimized compressed seat pan surfaces of a target population. Two new seats were proposed with two different cushions, one slightly softer and the other harder. Nineteen differently sized volunteers tested the two new seats and an existing seat randomly. After an assessment of initial discomfort, participants were instructed to watch a TV series for 50 minutes. A same questionnaire was used to assess both initial and longer-term discomfort. Contact forces and pressure distribution were analysed as well in-chair movements (ICM) during sitting.

Results: The two new seats exhibited lower shear, lower peak pressure and larger contact area on the seat pan as well lower number of ICM during the 50 minutes sitting. They also had lower initial overall discomfort, though significant differences between the seats were not found after the long sitting.

Conclusions: Properly pre-shaped surface could be used as foam support to reduce the amount of foam while reducing seating discomfort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-208024DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-COVID-19 drug screening: Frontier concepts and core technologies.

Chin Med 2020 Oct 28;15(1):115. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Room 8008, Building N22, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao SAR, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has recently evolved into a global pandemic. Up to July 2020, almost every country has confirmed COVID-19 cases reported worldwide. Many leading experts have predicted that the epidemic will persist for relatively a long period of time. Thus far, there have been no remedies proven effective against the disease. As the nation where COVID-19 broke out first, China has adopted a combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine to fight against the disease, and has achieved significant clinical result. Up to now, the COVID-19 pandemic has been effectively controlled in China. However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water. This paper thoroughly summarizes interdisciplinary notions and techniques, including disease model, biochip, network pharmacology, and molecular docking technology, etc., providing a reference for researchers in the screening of drugs for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. These methodologies may facilitate researchers to screen out more potential drugs for treating COVID-19 pneumonia and to tackle this global crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00393-zDOI Listing
October 2020

The Application of Single-Cell RNA Sequencing in Studies of Autoimmune Diseases: a Comprehensive Review.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Feb 25;60(1):68-86. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Dermatology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 410011, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Complex composition is one of the most important features of the immune system, involving many types of organs, tissues, cells, and molecules that perform immune functions. The normal function of each component of the immune system is the guarantee for maintaining the relatively stable immune function of the body. When the self-immune tolerance mechanism of the body is unregulated or destroyed, the immune system reacts to autoantigens, resulting in damage to self-tissues and organs or an immunopathological state with abnormal functions. Autoimmune diseases are diverse, and their pathogenesis is complicated. Various immune cells and their interactions play significant roles in the occurrence and development of diseases. The solution to heterogeneity of immune cells is the basic science and translational understanding of how genes and the environment interact to induce disease so that we can develop personalized medicine, a goal that has to this point eluded scientists. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) refers to a new technique allowing high-throughput sequencing analysis of the whole transcriptome to reveal the gene expression status of individual cells. It has emerged as an indispensable tool in the field of life science research, and can help identify the complex mechanism of cell heterogeneity, discover new cell subsets, and help uncover the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, the evolution of disorders, and drug resistance. This information can provide us with new strategies for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, as well as monitoring treatment responses. In this review, we summarize the crucial experimental procedures used for single-cell RNA sequencing, and the current applications of this technique to study autoimmune diseases are described in detail. This technique will be widely used in more in-depth studies of autoimmune diseases and will contribute to the diagnosis and therapies of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-020-08813-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Interfacial Engineering-Triggered Bifunctionality of CoS /MoS Nanocubes/Nanosheet Arrays for High-Efficiency Overall Water Splitting.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jan 17;14(2):699-708. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Centre of Biomedical Functional Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

Searching for high-efficiency nonprecious bifunctional electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is paramount for the advancement of water electrolysis technologies and the associated renewable energy devices. Modulation of electronic structure of an electrocatalyst via heterointerface engineering represents an efficient strategy to improve its electrocatalytic performance. Herein, a feasible hydrothermal synthesis of a novel heterostructured catalyst was demonstrated, comprising CoS nanocubes and vertically aligned MoS nanosheet arrays directly grown on flexible and conductive carbon cloth (CC) substrate (denoted as CoS /MoS @CC). Thanks to the elaborate interface engineering and vertically aligned nanosheet arrayed architecture, the resultant self-supported CoS /MoS @CC electrode possessed enriched exposed active sites, modulated electronic configuration, multidimensional mass transport channels, and outstanding mechanical strength, thereby affording exceptional electrocatalytic performances towards the HER and OER in alkaline electrolyte with overpotentials of 71 and 274 mV at 10 mA cm , respectively. In addition, a two-electrode electrolyzer assembled by CoS /MoS @CC required a cell voltage of 1.59 V at 10 mA cm with nearly 100 % faradaic efficiency and remarkable durability, showing great potential for scalable and economical water electrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002338DOI Listing
January 2021

p38α in macrophages aggravates arterial endothelium injury by releasing IL-6 through phosphorylating megakaryocytic leukemia 1.

Redox Biol 2021 Jan 1;38:101775. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, NHC Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China; Beijing Tiantan Hospital, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, The Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Background: Macrophages regulate the inflammatory response and affect re-endothelialization. Inflammation and macrophages play important roles in promoting tissue repair, but p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase's role in re-endothelialization is unknown.

Methods And Results: Wire injuries of carotid arteries and Evans blue staining were performed in macrophage-specific p38α-knockout (p38αLysMCre) mice and control mice (p38α). Re-endothelialization of the carotid arteries at 3, 5 and 7 days was significantly promoted in p38αLysMCre mice. In vitro experiments indicated that both the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells were enhanced in conditioned medium from peritoneal macrophages of p38αLysMCre mice. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level was decreased significantly in macrophages of p38αLysMCre mice and an IL-6-neutralizing antibody promoted endothelial cell migration in vitro and re-endothelialization in p38α mice in vivo. Phosphoproteomics revealed that the phosphorylation level of S544/T545/S549 sites in megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) was decreased in p38αLysMCre mice. The mutation of either S544/S549 or T545/S549 sites could reduce the expression of IL-6 and the inhibition of MKL1 reduced the expression of IL-6 in vitro and promoted re-endothelialization in vivo.

Conclusion: p38α in macrophages aggravates injury of arteries by phosphorylating MKL1, and increasing IL-6 expression after vascular injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658717PMC
January 2021

Noncanonical WNT Activation in Human Right Ventricular Heart Failure.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 7;7:582407. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

No medical therapies exist to treat right ventricular (RV) remodeling and RV failure (RVF), in large part because molecular pathways that are specifically activated in pathologic human RV remodeling remain poorly defined. Murine models have suggested involvement of Wnt signaling, but this has not been well-defined in human RVF. Using a candidate gene approach, we sought to identify genes specifically expressed in human pathologic RV remodeling by assessing the expression of 28 WNT-related genes in the RVs of three groups: explanted nonfailing donors (NF, = 29), explanted dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathy, obtained at the time of cardiac transplantation, either with preserved RV function (pRV, = 78) or with RVF ( = 35). We identified the noncanonical WNT receptor ROR2 as transcriptionally strongly upregulated in RVF compared to pRV and NF (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted < 0.05). ROR2 protein expression correlated linearly to mRNA expression ( = 0.41, = 8.1 × 10) among all RVs, and to higher right atrial to pulmonary capillary wedge ratio in RVF ( = 0.40 = 3.0 × 10). Utilizing Masson's trichrome and ROR2 immunohistochemistry, we identified preferential ROR2 protein expression in fibrotic regions by both cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes. We compared RVF with high and low ROR2 expression, and found that high ROR2 expression was associated with increased expression of the WNT5A/ROR2/Ca responsive protease calpain-μ, cleavage of its target FLNA, and FLNA phosphorylation, another marker of activation downstream of ROR2. ROR2 protein expression as a continuous variable, correlated strongly to expression of calpain-μ ( = 0.25), total FLNA ( = 0.67), calpain cleaved FLNA ( = 0.32) and FLNA phosphorylation ( = 0.62, < 0.05 for all). We demonstrate robust reactivation of a fetal WNT gene program, specifically its noncanonical arm, in human RVF characterized by activation of ROR2/calpain mediated cytoskeleton protein cleavage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.582407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575695PMC
October 2020

Anti-COVID-19 drug screening: Frontier concepts and core technologies.

Chin Med 2020 28;15:115. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Room 8008, Building N22, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao SAR China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has recently evolved into a global pandemic. Up to July 2020, almost every country has confirmed COVID-19 cases reported worldwide. Many leading experts have predicted that the epidemic will persist for relatively a long period of time. Thus far, there have been no remedies proven effective against the disease. As the nation where COVID-19 broke out first, China has adopted a combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine to fight against the disease, and has achieved significant clinical result. Up to now, the COVID-19 pandemic has been effectively controlled in China. However, the rest of the world (except for a limited number of countries and regions) is still in deep water. This paper thoroughly summarizes interdisciplinary notions and techniques, including disease model, biochip, network pharmacology, and molecular docking technology, etc., providing a reference for researchers in the screening of drugs for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. These methodologies may facilitate researchers to screen out more potential drugs for treating COVID-19 pneumonia and to tackle this global crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00393-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592451PMC
October 2020

Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Profiling of a Genetically Modified Mouse Model of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

Proteomics 2020 Sep 23:e2000050. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and is becoming the principal cause of death globally. The reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a major protection mechanism against atherosclerosis. To investigate the metabolome changes and to find potential biomarkers involved in RCT, nontargeted metabolomics and nontargeted lipidomics are applied to SR-BI knockout mice that are fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. SR-BI knockout mice and controls are told apart using multidimensional statistical analysis, and potential biomarkers are found and identified. The pathophysiological meaning of the biomarkers and the perturbed metabolic pathways are also addressed, which could provide new evidence for atherosclerosis studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.202000050DOI Listing
September 2020

Characterization of the binding ability of the odorant binding protein BminOBP9 of Bactrocera minax to citrus volatiles.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 21;77(3):1214-1225. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

National Center for Citrus Improvement (Changsha), Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bactrocera minax, one of the most important citrus pests, oviposits exclusively on citrus fruit. In the insect olfactory system, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) facilitate the initial recognition role of host odor molecules. The aim of this study was to characterize the functional OBPs of B. minax and identify specific volatile organic compounds in the Citrus genus as OBP targets.

Results: BminOBP9 (BminGOBP99a), a closely related homolog of BdorGOBP99a, which reduces the egg-laying behavior of Bactrocera dorsalis through silencing technology, was cloned, expressed, and purified. The binding ability of BminOBP9 to 11 citrus volatiles was then examined using fluorescence competition binding assays (FCBA). The results demonstrated that BminOBP9 could bind to all tested citrus volatiles, as could BdorGOBP99a, ZcucGOBP99a, and ZtauGOBP99a. Interestingly, the binding ability of BminOBP9 was the strongest among the four, suggesting that BminOBP9 may have a function in the specific recognition of citrus volatiles. Furthermore, we aligned the above four proteins and found nine distinctive amino acid sites in BminOBP9. To identify the unique binding sites of BminOBP9, we produced the nine mutants using site-directed mutagenesis. Further FCBA showed that the binding ability of the nine mutants to citrus volatiles significantly reduced, and six of them (substitutes S24P, L36F, E53K, N68D, D112A, and S118R) had the weakest binding ability.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated that BminOBP9 was the specific protein involved in the perception of citrus host volatiles by B. minax. Moreover, BminOBP9 could prove efficient in screening the candidate odors for pest management. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6132DOI Listing
March 2021

L. Extract Alleviated the Collagen Type II-Induced Arthritis Through Inhibiting Multi-Target-Mediated Synovial Hyperplasia and Inflammation.

Front Pharmacol 2020 28;11:547913. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Excessive proliferation and inflammation of synovial fibroblasts accelerate and decorate the pathological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). L. (SO) is one of the main plant sources for Sigesbeckiae Herba (SH) which has been used traditionally in treating various forms of arthritis and rheumatic pain. However, the anti-arthritic mechanisms of SO are still not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of SO against collagen type II (C II)-induced RA in rats as well as the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced human synovial SW982 and MH7A cells. For the studies, thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly arranged to six groups based on the body weight, and then C II-induced to RA model for 15 days, followed by treatment with the 50% ethanolic extract of SO (SOE, 0.16, 0.78, and 1.56 g/kg) for 35 days. The results suggested that SOE significantly inhibited the formation of pannus (synovial hyperplasia to the articular cavity) and attenuated the cartilage damaging and bone erosion in the CIA-induced rats' hind paw joints. Moreover, SOE decreased the production of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum and the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β in the joint muscles, as well as recovered the decreased regulatory T lymphocytes. The results obtained from the studies showed that SOE (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml) not only inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human synovial SW982 cells but also decreased the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 both in SW982 and MH7A cells. Besides, SOE reduced the expression of COX-2, NLRP3, and MMP9, and increased the expression of MMP2 in the IL-1β-induced SW982 cells. Furthermore, SOE blocked the activation of NF-κB and reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the expression of AP-1. In conclusion, SOE attenuated the C II-induced RA through inhibiting of MAPKs/NF-κB/AP-1-mediated synovial hyperplasia and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.547913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485472PMC
August 2020

Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Profiling of a Genetically Modified Mouse Model of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SR-BI).

Proteomics 2020 Sep 23:e2000050. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and is becoming the principal cause of death globally. The reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) mediated by Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a major protection mechanism against atherosclerosis. To investigate the metabolome changes and to find potential biomarkers involved in RCT, we applied nontargeted metabolomics and nontargeted lipidomics to SR-BI knockout mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. SR-BI knockout mice and controls were told apart using multidimensional statistical analysis, and potential biomarkers were found and identified. The pathophysiological meaning of the biomarkers and the perturbed metabolic pathways were also addressed, which could provide new evidence for atherosclerosis studies. Statement of significance: We investigated the differences in plasma metabolome and lipidome in SR-BI knockout mice, for the first time, using liquid-liquid extraction method combined with nontargeted metabolomic and lipidomic approaches by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. SR-BI knockout mice and controls were told apart using multidimensional statistical analysis. Metabolites with significant changes and pathways disturbed such as protein biosynthesis and vitamin B6 were addressed. Among the differentiated metabolites, gamma resorcylic acid was validated by authentic standard and appeared to be a predominant feature in SR-B1 knockout mice and may be used as a potential biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Decreased resorcylic acid may induce atherosclerosis with lower cholesterol efflux ability. After 8 weeks' high fat and high cholesterol diet, betaine level was decreased in SR-BI knockout mice, and valine and 2-Aminoadipic acid were increased in the knockout mice. These data indicated SR-BI may play multiple roles in atherosclerosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.202000050DOI Listing
September 2020

Changes in the concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Sci Rep 2020 09 16;10(1):15198. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

To compare the plasma concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, their spouses and healthy controls and to find associations between gut microbiota metabolites and ALS. ALS patients were recruited at Peking University Third Hospital from January 2015 to December 2018. Information was collected from their spouses at the same time. Age and gender matched healthy controls were recruited from individuals who visited the physical examination center for health checkups. Blood samples were collected after at least 4 h of fasting. Concentrations of the metabolites were quantified using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Group differences were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests, as appropriate. In this study, 160 patients with ALS were recruited. In these patients, 63 were compared with their spouses, 148 were compared with age and gender matched controls, and 60 were compared with both their spouses and heathy controls in the same time. The carnitine concentration was significantly higher in patients than in their spouses, while there were no significant differences in the concentrations of other metabolites. The carnitine and betaine concentrations were higher, while the choline, TMAO and butyrobetaine concentrations were lower in ALS than in healthy controls. The concentrations of the metabolites in the spouses were more similar to the ALS patients rather than to the healthy controls. In the ALS group, the plasma concentrations of carnitine, betaine, choline and TMAO were inversely related to the severity of upper motor neuron impairment. The TMAO metabolic pathway of the gut microbiota is disturbed in both ALS patients and their spouses, which might suggest that the changes in the gut microbiota occurred before disease onset. The negative correlations between the involvement of UMNs and the concentrations of the metabolites might suggest that the inhibition of this metabolic pathway might lead to a better prognosis in ALS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72184-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495434PMC
September 2020

An enhanced antibacterial nanoflowers AgPW@PDA@Nisin constructed from polyoxometalate and nisin.

J Inorg Biochem 2020 Nov 7;212:111212. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, PR China. Electronic address:

A new composite, AgPW@PDA@Nisin, with shell-core structure was successfully synthesized by a polydopamine (PDA) surfaced conjugated nisin (an antibacterial 34 amino acid polycyclic peptide) as shell and polyoxometalates (AgPWO = AgPW) as core. The composite was characterized by the zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The AgPW@PDA@Nisin showed flower hierarchical structure and potential antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC29213. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of it were 4 and 32 μg/mL. AgPW@PDA@Nisin nanoflowers-induced bacterial death bears the characteristic of cell morphology, membrane integrity and permeability changing, nucleotide leakage. It indicated that the AgPW@PDA@Nisin interfere with the cell membrane, resulting in antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the nanoflowers was low on HDF-a (human dermal fibroblasts) cells. A new class of hybrid inorganic-organic nanoflowers based on polyoxometalates and nisin with enhanced antibacterial properties can be developed for food preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2020.111212DOI Listing
November 2020

Makino extract attenuated the collagen-induced arthritis through inhibiting the synovial hyperplasia and inflammation.

Chin Med 2020 27;15:91. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Room 8008, Building N22, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao, SAR China.

Background: Makino (SG) has been traditionally used for rheumatism and joint protection. However, the anti-arthritic effects and underling mechanisms of SG have not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the anti-arthritic effects and mechanisms of SG extract (SGE) on collagen-induced arthritic rats and interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human synovial SW982 cells.

Methods: Rats were induced to arthritis by collagen for 15 days and then received SGE treatment for 35 days. The body weight and arthritis severity score of the rats were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment, the radiographic and histological changes of rats' hind paw were obtained; the serum C-reactive protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the expression levels of interleukin (IL)- 1β, IL6 and IL-10 in the joint muscles were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining; and the level of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen was detected using flow cytometry. In addition, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scratch wound healing assay were used to evaluate the proliferation of SW982 synovial cells. ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of SGE on IL-1β-induced SW982 cells and joint muscles of CIA rats.

Results: SGE attenuated the collagen-induced hind paw swelling, cartilage damage and bone erosion. SGE inhibited the synovial hyperplasia to the articular cavity in the toe joint and ankle. Moreover, SGE decreased the production of C-reactive protein in serum and the expression of IL-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in the joint muscles. SGE also recovered the decreased Tregs. Results from the in vitro experiments showed that SGE not only inhibited the proliferation and migration of human synovial cell but also inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Similarly, SGE inhibited the activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2.

Conclusions: SGE attenuated the collagen-induced arthritis through inhibiting the synovial hyperplasia and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00372-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457260PMC
August 2020

Altered 3D chromatin structure permits inversional recombination at the locus.

Sci Adv 2020 Aug 14;6(33):eaaz8850. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Immunoglobulin heavy chain () genes are assembled by two sequential DNA rearrangement events that are initiated by recombination activating gene products (RAG) 1 and 2. Diversity (D) gene segments rearrange first, followed by variable (V) gene rearrangements. Here, we provide evidence that each rearrangement step is guided by different rules of engagement between rearranging gene segments. D gene segments, which recombine by deletion of intervening DNA, must be located within a RAG1/2 scanning domain for efficient recombination. In the absence of intergenic control region 1, a regulatory sequence that delineates the RAG scanning domain on wild-type alleles, V and D gene segments can recombine with each other by both deletion and inversion of intervening DNA. We propose that V gene segments find their targets by distinct mechanisms from those that apply to D gene segments. These distinctions may underlie differential allelic choice associated with each step of gene assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz8850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428332PMC
August 2020

4HNE Impairs Myocardial Bioenergetics in Congenital Heart Disease-Induced Right Ventricular Failure.

Circulation 2020 Oct 18;142(17):1667-1683. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology) (HT.V.H., N.S., S.L.P., S. Ranjbarvairi, D-Q.H., M.Z., G.F., D.B., S. Reddy), Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Background: In patients with complex congenital heart disease, such as those with tetralogy of Fallot, the right ventricle (RV) is subject to pressure overload stress, leading to RV hypertrophy and eventually RV failure. The role of lipid peroxidation, a potent form of oxidative stress, in mediating RV hypertrophy and failure in congenital heart disease is unknown.

Methods: Lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function and structure were assessed in right ventricle (RV) myocardium collected from patients with RV hypertrophy with normal RV systolic function (RV fractional area change, 47.3±3.8%) and in patients with RV failure showing decreased RV systolic function (RV fractional area change, 26.6±3.1%). The mechanism of the effect of lipid peroxidation, mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal ([4HNE] a byproduct of lipid peroxidation) on mitochondrial function and structure was assessed in HL1 murine cardiomyocytes and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

Results: RV failure was characterized by an increase in 4HNE adduction of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins (16 of 27 identified proteins), in particular electron transport chain proteins. Sarcomeric (myosin) and cytoskeletal proteins (desmin, tubulin) also underwent 4HNE adduction. RV failure showed lower oxidative phosphorylation (moderate RV hypertrophy, 287.6±19.75 versus RV failure, 137.8±11.57 pmol/[sec×mL]; =0.0004), and mitochondrial structural damage. Using a cell model, we show that 4HNE decreases cell number and oxidative phosphorylation (control, 388.1±23.54 versus 4HNE, 143.7±11.64 pmol/[sec×mL]; <0.0001). Carvedilol, a known antioxidant did not decrease 4HNE adduction of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins and did not improve oxidative phosphorylation.

Conclusions: Metabolic, mitochondrial, sarcomeric, and cytoskeletal proteins are susceptible to 4HNE-adduction in patients with RV failure. 4HNE decreases mitochondrial oxygen consumption by inhibiting electron transport chain complexes. Carvedilol did not improve the 4HNE-mediated decrease in oxygen consumption. Strategies to decrease lipid peroxidation could improve mitochondrial energy generation and cardiomyocyte survival and improve RV failure in patients with congenital heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.045470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606813PMC
October 2020

Targeted MRI and chemotherapy of ovarian cancer with clinic available nano-drug based nanoprobe.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Oct 6;130:110585. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221006, China; School of Medical Imaging, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, China. Electronic address:

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, and chemotherapy, as its main treatment, has side effects in clinical application due to lack of targeting selectivity to tumor tissues. Theranostic nanomaterials have shown wonderful functions for the diagnosis and therapy of disease benefitting from the controllability of nanomaterials. However, there is still little available for clinical transformation due to the uncertain biocompatibility. It is urgent to develop nanoprobes possessing bright transformation potentials. This study reports a facile biomineralization route to synthesize the theranostic nanoprobe using the clinic available nano-drug (trademark Abraxane). Further profiting from the binding ability of albumin to metal cations, we successfully prepared biocompatible nanoprobe, BSA-GdO/PTX@Anti-HE4 mAb, for the targeted magnetic resonance imaging and chemotherapy of ovarian carcinoma. The obtained nanoprobe has the advantages of uniform particle size, good dispersibility and favorable stability. In vivo and in vitro experiment results showed that the nanoprobe can realize targeted magnetic resonance imaging and chemotherapy of ovarian carcinoma. Such a novel multifunctional nanoprobe based on clinic nano-drug might be promising for clinic transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110585DOI Listing
October 2020

PK-PD Correlation of Erigeron Breviscapus Injection in the Treatment of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model Rats.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Feb 5;71(2):302-324. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, Sichuan, China.

By measuring the cerebral infarction rate and neurological behavioral score of rats in a sham operation group, an MCAO model control group and an Erigeron breviscapus injection treatment group, we explored the therapeutic effects of Erigeron breviscapus injection on brain tissue and neuroethological injury in rats. Plasma samples were collected at 18 time points after intravenous injection of Erigeron breviscapus. The levels of scutellarin, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid B in rat plasma at the various time points were determined by an HPLC method, and drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Finally, a PK-PD combined model was used to analyze the relationship between the blood concentration, time and therapeutic effects of the seven active components. The results of the pharmacodynamics studies showed that the cerebral infarction rate of rats in the Erigeron breviscapus injection group decreased significantly at 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 6 h, 8 h, 18 h, 24 h, 32 h, 40 h and 48 h after cerebral ischemia. Abnormal neurological behavior scores were significantly reduced after 4 h of cerebral ischemia. The pharmacokinetics results showed that the seven chemical constituents in Erigeron breviscapus injection reached their highest detection value after 5 min of cerebral ischemia. The lowest detection values of scutellarin and isochlorogenic acid B appeared after 6 h of cerebral ischemia but could not be detected after 8 h. The lowest detection values of 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found in the third hour of cerebral ischemia but not after 4 h. The lowest detection values of 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid were found during the second hour of cerebral ischemia but not at the third hour. However, at 18 h, 24 h, 32 h and 40 h of cerebral ischemia, the cerebral infarction rates of rats in the Erigeron breviscapus injection group were significantly reduced, with decreased values of 6.22%, 11.71%, 6.92% and 4.96%, respectively, and the effects were stronger than those after 5-20 min of cerebral ischemia. The decreased values reached their highest value after 24 h of cerebral ischemia. Our results show that the effects of Erigeron breviscapus injection on reducing the cerebral infarct rate in MCAO model rats are characterized by a fast onset and long maintenance time. The 5-min blood concentration in cerebral ischemia was the highest test value, and after this time, the cerebral infarction rate of MCAO rats began to decrease. However, the peak value of the effects lagged behind that of the plasma concentration. The maximum effective time for Erigeron breviscapus injection appeared 24 h after cerebral ischemia, which provides a reference for the screening of specific drugs for ischemic stroke, optimal dosing regimens and rational clinical drug use. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01651-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Expert consensus on protocol of rehabilitation for COVID-19 patients using framework and approaches of WHO International Family Classifications.

Aging Med (Milton) 2020 Jun 6;3(2):82-94. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Guangdong People's Hospital Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences Guangzhou China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world and the numbers of patients and deaths are increasing. According to the epidemiology, virology, and clinical practice, there are varying degrees of changes in patients, involving the human body structure and function and the activity and participation. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its biopsychosocial model of functioning, we use the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FICs) framework to form an expert consensus on the COVID-19 rehabilitation program, focusing on the diagnosis and evaluation of disease and functioning, and service delivery of rehabilitation, and to establish a standard rehabilitation framework, terminology system, and evaluation and intervention systems based the WHO-FICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/agm2.12120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338700PMC
June 2020

Photo-assisted synthesis of inorganic polyoxovanadate.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jul;49(28):9662-9667

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Fujian Institute of Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P.R. China.

Photosynthesis plays a vital role on earth and photo-induced organic reactions have artificially created many valuable materials. However, the photo-induced syntheses of inorganic compounds are much less reported. Herein, we report the photo-assisted synthesis of a mixed-valence polyoxovanadate with the formula [C9H14N]6[V15O36Cl], under AM1.5 irradiation in a N2 atmosphere. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a hexagonal structure (space group P63/mmc) with cell parameters: a = 14.1100(6) Å, b = 14.1100(6) Å, c = 22.0265(10) Å, and V = 3797.8(4) Å3. UV-Vis and EPR analyses verified that the [V15O36Cl]6- cluster formed within 0.5 h; powder XRD results indicated that the crystalline phase appeared after irradiation for 9.5 h (200 mW cm-2). These findings suggested that the nucleation and crystallization processes took longer than [V15O36Cl]6- cluster formation and dominated the [C9H14N]6[V15O36Cl] crystal formation. This primary work could open the door for the syntheses of inorganic compounds using photo-assisted reactions instead of conventional thermo-driving syntheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt01945cDOI Listing
July 2020

Induced Fetal Human Muscle Stem Cells with High Therapeutic Potential in a Mouse Muscular Dystrophy Model.

Stem Cell Reports 2020 07 2;15(1):80-94. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical Application, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and fatal muscle-wasting disease caused by DYSTROPHIN deficiency. Cell therapy using muscle stem cells (MuSCs) is a potential cure. Here, we report a differentiation method to generate fetal MuSCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by monitoring MYF5 expression. Gene expression profiling indicated that MYF5-positive cells in the late stage of differentiation have fetal MuSC characteristics, while MYF5-positive cells in the early stage of differentiation have early myogenic progenitor characteristics. Moreover, late-stage MYF5-positive cells demonstrated good muscle regeneration potential and produced DYSTROPHIN in vivo after transplantation into DMD model mice, resulting in muscle function recovery. The engrafted cells also generated PAX7-positive MuSC-like cells under the basal lamina of DYSTROPHIN-positive fibers. These findings suggest that MYF5-positive fetal MuSCs induced in the late stage of iPSC differentiation have cell therapy potential for DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363940PMC
July 2020

Mechanisms of generation and exudation of Tibetan medicine Shilajit (Zhaxun).

Chin Med 2020 29;15:65. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137 China.

Background: Shilajit is a commonly used Tibetan medicine, and its water extract is mainly used for various heat-related syndrome, especially that of stomach, liver and kidney. Shilajit is found to exudate from rocks of cliff at an altitude of 2000-4000 m as a water-soluble mixture of black paste and animal feces of spp. spp. Because it is difficult to reach the exudation points so as to explain the its formation process, the source of Shilajit still remains unclear and controversial, which severely impedes its safety and efficacy in clinical application.

Methods: In this work, a series of investigations as rock flakes identification, porosity determination, rock mineral analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) have been carried out to clarify the source of Shilajit, including the storage condition and exudation process of its organic matter, and to investigate the geological structure of the exudation points as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the mother rocks.

Results: The Shilajit exudation points were mainly distributed on the steep cliffs, where there were cavities and sections that could not be eroded by rainwater. The fundamental structure of the exudation points was determined by the rock's bedding planes, joints, fracture surfaces and faults, and developed into micro-topography later. The exudation points were distributed in the Triassic strata and scattered in the Early Mesozoic granitoids. The lithologic features were mainly slate, carbonaceous slate and sandy slate etc. The background rocks were characterized by intergranular pores, dissolved pore, joint and fracture development. Organic matter was widely distributed in these pores and fissures, which had condition for storage and exudation of organic matter.

Conclusions: Shilajit mainly distributed on sunny steep slopes and cliffs with a slope of 60° or above at altitude of 2000-4000 m. The lithology character of the Shilajit exudation area were mainly various metamorphic rocks of sedimentary rocks that were rich in organic carbon. The organic matter in Shilajit was found to flow out naturally from rocks along pore, structural plane and even accumulate on the surface of rock as a result of storage environment change caused by rock tectonic action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00343-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322889PMC
June 2020

Microarray expression profile of microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma patients with the Cancer Genome Atlas and its clinical validation.

J BUON 2020 Mar-Apr;25(2):821-827

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Gaochun People's Hospital, Nanjing 211300, P.R. China.

Purpose: To mine differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) via The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Methods: The transcriptome and pathological data of LUAD patients were downloaded from TCGA. The differentially expressed genes were screened using "edgeR" package in R and analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regressions. The expression and clinic value of serum miR-548v in 50 patients with LUAD (study group) and 50 healthy individuals (control group) was detected by the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the diagnostic value of miR-548v in LUAD was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: A total of 233 differentially expressed genes were found, of which 115 were highly expressed and 118 were lowly expressed. Multivariate Cox regression showed that hsa-mir-142 and hsa-mir-548v were independent prognostic factors for patients with LUAD. The study group showed significantly higher serum miR-548v expression than the control group (p<0.001). miR-548v was related to TNM staging, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size of patients (p<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of miR-548v in diagnosing LUAD was 0.960, and that in determining TNM staging, lymph node metastasis and tumor size was 0.829, 0.851 and 0.881 respectively.

Conclusion: Differential expression of miR-548v predicts poor prognosis of patients with LUAD and is closely related to TNM staging, lymph node metastasis and tumor size. Therefore, it is expected to be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for LUAD.
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February 2021

Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets: From exfoliation preparation to biosensing and cancer therapy applications.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 Oct 31;194:111162. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221006, Jiangsu China; School of Medical Imaging, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has developed rapidly. Various nanomaterials have been gradually applied in different fields. As a kind of two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterial with a graphene-like structure, molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets have broad research prospects in the fields of tumor photothermal therapy, biosensors and other biomedical fields because of their unique band gap structure and physical, chemical and optical properties. In this paper, the latest research progress on MoS is briefly summarized. Several commonly used exfoliation methods for the preparation of MoS nanosheets are reviewed based on the studies in the past five years. Additionally, the current research status of MoS nanosheets in the field of biomedicine is introduced. At the end of this review, a brief overview of the limitations of MoS research and its future prospects in the field of biomedicine is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111162DOI Listing
October 2020