Publications by authors named "Minghui Li"

363 Publications

Democracy and case fatality rate of COVID-19 at early stage of pandemic: a multicountry study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Nursing, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 874 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Many studies have evaluated factors that influence the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries. This multicountry study assessed the influence of democracy and other factors on the case fatality rate of COVID-19 during the early stage of the pandemic. We accessed the World Health Organization, World Bank, and the Democracy Index 2019 databases for data from the 148 countries. Multiple analyses were conducted to examine the association between the Democracy Index and case fatality rate of COVID-19. Within 148 countries, the percentage of the population aged 65 years and above (p = 0.0193), and health expenditure as a percentage of GDP (p = 0.0237) were positively associated with countries' case fatality rates. By contrast, hospital beds per capita helped to reduce the case fatality rates. In particular, the Democracy Index was positively associated with case fatality rates in a subgroup of 47 high-income countries. This study suggests that enhancing the health system with increased hospital beds and healthcare workforce per capita should reduce case fatality rate. The findings suggest that a higher Democracy Index is associated with more deaths from COVID-19 at the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to the decreased ability of the government.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16250-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421237PMC
September 2021

LncRNA H19 abrogates the protective effects of curcumin on rat carotid balloon injury via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 3;910:174485. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Cardiology, Laboratory of Heart Center, Guangdong Provincial Biomedical Engineering Technology Research Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Shock and Microcirculation, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Intimal hyperplasia-induced restenosis is a common response to vascular endothelial damage caused by mechanical force or other stimulation, and is closely linked to vascular remodeling. Curcumin, a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits potent protective effects in cardiovascular diseases; for example, it attenuates vascular remodeling. Although the suppressive effects of curcumin on diseases caused by vascular narrowing have been investigated, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various pathological processes and affect the action of drugs. In the present study, we found that the curcumin remarkably downregulated the expression of lncRNA H19 and thereby inhibited intimal hyperplasia-induced vascular restenosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of the expression of H19 by curcumin resulted in the inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Overall, we show that curcumin suppresses intimal hyperplasia via the H19/Wnt/β-catenin pathway, implying that H19 is a critical molecule in the suppression of intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury by curcumin. These insights should be useful for potential application of curcumin as a therapeutic intervention in vascular stenosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174485DOI Listing
September 2021

Correction: Furin-instructed molecular self-assembly actuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis for cancer therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 29;13(31):13558. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Cardiology, Laboratory of Heart Center, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Sino-Japanese Cooperation Platform for Translational Research in Heart Failure, Guangdong Provincial Biomedical Engineering Technology Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Guangzhou 510280, People's Republic of China.

Correction for 'Furin-instructed molecular self-assembly actuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis for cancer therapy' by Chenxing Fu et al., Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 12126-12132, DOI: .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr90152dDOI Listing
August 2021

Role of sex steroids in fish sex determination and differentiation as revealed by gene editing.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Aug 27;313:113893. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

The involvement of sex steroids in sex determination and differentiation is relatively conserved among non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in fish. Thanks to the advances in genome sequencing and genome editing, significant progresses have been made in the understanding of steroidogenic pathway and hormonal regulation of sex determination and differentiation in fish. It seems that loss of function study of single gene challenges the traditional views that estrogen is required for ovarian differentiation and androgen is needed for testicular development, but it is not so in essence. Steroidogenic enzymes can be classified into two categories based on expression and enzyme activities in fish. One type, encoded by star2, cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a, is involved in estrogen production and exclusively expressed in the gonads. Mutation of these genes results in the up-regulation of male pathway genes and sex reversal from genetic female to male. The other type, encoded by the duplicated paralogs of the above genes, including star1, cyp11a1, cyp17a2 and cyp19a1b, as well as cyp11c1 gene, is dominantly expressed both in gonads and extra-gonadal tissues. Mutation of these genes alters the steroids (androgen, DHP and cortisol) production and spermatogenesis, fertility, secondary sexual characteristics and sexual behavior, but usually does not affect the sex differentiation. For the estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a and esr2b), single mutation failed to, but double and triple mutation leads to sex reversal from female to male, indicating that at least Esr2a and Esr2b are required to mediate the role of estrogen in sex determination proved by gene editing experiments. Taken together, results from gene editing enrich our understanding of steroid synthesis pathways and further confirm the critical role of estrogen in female sex determination by antagonizing the male pathway in fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2021.113893DOI Listing
August 2021

A Review of Novel Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute or Chronic Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of Soluble ST2 (sST2), Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Procalcitonin (PCT).

Dis Markers 2021 9;2021:6258865. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Cardiology, Nanchang University Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang, China.

While the received traditional predictors are still the mainstay in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD events, increasing studies have focused on exploring the ancillary effect of biomarkers for the aspiring of precision. Under which circumstances, soluble ST2 (sST2), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and procalcitonin (PCT) have recently emerged as promising markers in the field of both acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Existent clinical studies have demonstrated the significant associations between these markers with various CVD outcomes, which further verified the potentiality of markers in helping risk stratification and diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of patients. The current review article is aimed at illuminating the applicability of these four novels and often neglected cardiac biomarkers in common clinical scenarios, including acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and chronic heart failure, especially in the emergency department. By thorough classification, combination, and discussion of biomarkers with clinical and instrumental evaluation, we hope the current study can provide insights into biomarkers and draw more attention to their importance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6258865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371622PMC
August 2021

The association between AST/ALT ratio and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(31):e26693

Center for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, China.

Abstract: Previous studies had shown that an increased aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT ratio) was associated with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AST/ALT ratio and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension.By March 31, 2020, a cohort of 14,220 Chinese hypertensive patients was followed up. The end point was all-cause and cardiovascular death. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated for mortality associated with AST/ALT ratio, using Cox proportional hazards models and competing risk model.In an average of 1.7 years of follow-up, 1.39% (n = 198) of patients died, 55.5% (n = 110) of whom from cardiovascular disease. AST/ALT ratio was associated with increased risk of all-cause death (HR:1.37, 95% CI:1.15-1.63) and cardiovascular death (HR:1.32, 95% CI:1.03-1.68) after adjustment for other potential confounders. Compared with low AST/ALT ratio (Tertile 1), high AST/ALT ratio was associated with high cause mortality (Tertile 2: HR:1.35, 95% CI:0.86-2.10; Tertile 3: HR:2.10, 95% CI:1.37-3.21; P for trend <.001). Compared with low AST/ALT ratio (Tertile 1), a statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality was also observed (Tertile 2: HR:1.27, 95% CI:0.70-2.29; Tertile 3: HR:1.92, 95% CI:1.09-3.37; P for trend <.001). High AST/ALT ratio was also associated with high cardiovascular mortality (Tertile 2: HR:1.27, 95% CI:0.70-2.29; Tertile 3: HR:1.92, 95% CI:1.09-3.37; P for trend <.001).Present study indicated that increased AST/ALT ratio levels were predictive of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese hypertensive patients.Trial registration: CHICTR, CHiCTR1800017274. Registered 20 July 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341222PMC
August 2021

The Essential Role of Epigenetic Modifications in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Dyskinesia.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110122, People's Republic of China.

Epigenetics play an essential role in the occurrence and improvement of many diseases. Evidence shows that epigenetic modifications are crucial to the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation is closely linked to embryonic development in mammalian. In recent years, epigenetic drugs have shown unexpected therapeutic effects on neurological diseases, leading to the study of the epigenetic mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases. Unlike genetics, epigenetics modify the genome without changing the DNA sequence. Research shows that epigenetics is involved in all aspects of neurodegenerative diseases. The study of epigenetic will provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases, which may lead to new treatments and diagnoses. This article reviews the role of epigenetic modifications neurodegenerative diseases with dyskinesia, and discusses the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drugs in neurodegenerative diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-021-01133-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Inhibition of calpain reduces cell apoptosis by suppressing mitochondrial fission in acute viral myocarditis.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Aug 8. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is critical for the development of viral myocarditis (VMC), which is one of the leading causes of cardiac sudden death in young adults. Our previous studies have demonstrated that elevated calpain activity is involved in the pathogenesis of VMC. This study aimed to further explore the underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and transgenic mice overexpressing calpastatin were infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to establish a VMC model. Apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, and western blotting. Cardiac function was measured using echocardiography. Mitochondrial function was measured using ATP assays, JC-1, and MitoSOX. Mitochondrial morphology was observed using MitoTracker staining and transmission electron microscopy. Colocalization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1) in mitochondria was examined using immunofluorescence. Phosphorylation levels of Drp-1 at Ser637 site were determined using western blotting analysis. We found that CVB3 infection impaired mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased mitochondrial ROS production, decreased ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential, induced myocardial apoptosis and damage, and decreased myocardial function. These effects of CVB3 infection were attenuated by inhibition of calpain both by PD150606 treatment and calpastatin overexpression. Furthermore, CVB3-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with the accumulation of Drp-1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria and subsequent increase in mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, calpain cleaved and activated calcineurin A, which dephosphorylated Drp-1 at Ser637 site and promoted its accumulation in the mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. In summary, calpain inhibition attenuated CVB3-induced myocarditis by reducing mitochondrial fission, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Calpain is activated by CVB3 infection. Activated calpain cleaves calcineurin A and converts it to active form which could dephosphorylate Drp-1 at Ser637 site. Then, the active Drp-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to mitochondria and triggers excessive mitochondrial fission. Eventually, the balance of mitochondrial dynamics is broken, and apoptosis occurs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09634-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Age and Gender Disparities in Adverse Events Following COVID-19 Vaccination: Real-World Evidence Based on Big Data for Risk Management.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 19;8:700014. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have received emergency use authorizations in the U.S. However, the safety of these vaccines in the real-world remains unknown. We reviewed adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination among adults in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 14, 2020, through January 22, 2021. We compared the top 10 AEs, serious AEs, along with office and emergency room (ER) visits by age (18-64 years, ≥65 years) and gender (female, male). There were age and gender disparities among adults with AEs following COVID-19 vaccination. Compared to younger adults aged between 18 and 64 years, older adults were more likely to report serious AEs, death, permanent disability, and hospitalization. Males were more likely to report serious AEs, death, and hospitalization compared to females. COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe but possible age and gender disparities in reported AEs may exist.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.700014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326508PMC
July 2021

Is the Capanna Technique a Reliable Method for Revision Surgery after Failure of Previous Limb-Salvage Surgery?

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Orthopedics, Xi Jing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: Reconstruction of a massive bone defect caused by previous failed limb-salvage surgery in patients with bone sarcoma is challenging. Many procedures have been used, but they all have their inherent disadvantages. The Capanna technique has demonstrated good functional outcomes and a low incidence of complications in primary reconstructive surgery of massive bone defect. However, few studies have focused on its usage in revision surgery after failed primary limb-salvage surgery.

Methods: Between June 2011 and January 2017, 13 patients underwent revision surgery with the Capanna technique for reconstruction of a secondary segmental bone defect caused by a previous failed surgical procedure. The demographics, operating procedures, graft union, functional outcomes, oncologic outcomes, and postoperative complications of each patient were recorded.

Results: The current study investigated 13 patients. The rate of limb salvage was 100 %. Bone union was achieved for all patients during a mean time of 8.54 ± 2.15 months (range 4-11 months) at the fibula-host bone junction and 14.92 ± 2.33 months (range 12-21 months) at the allograft-host bone junction. The postoperative complications included wound healing issues and internal fixation loosening. Allograft fracture, nonunion, and infection were not observed. All the patients achieved good functional outcomes, with a Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score of 0.86 ± 0.03 at the latest follow-up visit.

Conclusions: The Capanna technique is a reliable alternative method for revision reconstruction of a segmental bone defect caused by a previous failed surgical procedure.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10506-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Medical costs and associated racial/ethnic and sex disparities in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use: anemia management under the Medicare reimbursement policy.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Aug;27(8):1142-1152

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Before 2007, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the highest-expenditure drug in the Medicare system. In 2007, CMS issued a reimbursement policy change for ESAs used by cancer patients. However, empirical evidence is currently lacking to evaluate medical costs after the policy change, especially by sex and racial/ethnic groups. To examine the impact of the Medicare reimbursement policy change and associated racial/ethnic and sex disparities on medical costs for cancer patients who were new users of ESAs. This study was an exploratory retrospective treatment effectiveness study, which used SEER-Medicare linked data. A difference-in-difference design was used that incorporated a control group of patients with chronic kidney disease. A generalized linear model, with a log link and a gamma distribution, was used to examine medical costs. The Medicare reimbursement policy change was statistically significantly associated with an 11% (95% CI = 2%-20%) reduction in anemia-related costs, including a 10% (95% CI = 1%-19%) reduction in Medicare payment and an 18% (95% CI = 10%-26%) reduction in patient cost sharing. For total medical costs, the policy change was statistically significantly associated with a 12% (95% CI = 6%-18%) reduction, including an 11% (95% CI = 5%-18%) reduction in Medicare payment and a 14% (95% CI = 7%-20%) reduction in patient cost sharing. Medical costs were reduced in patients who were male and those who were White but remained the same for patients who were female and those who were Black, Hispanic, and other races or ethnicities. Anemia-related and total medical costs associated with ESAs used by cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia were reduced after the Medicare reimbursement policy change. However, the policy change was only effective for patients who were male and those who were White. The policy change had no effect on patients who were female and those of racial/ethnic minorities. This study was funded by the SPARC Research Grant. The funder had no role in any part of this study. This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of the data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The authors have nothing to disclose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2021.27.8.1142DOI Listing
August 2021

Cryoablation-aided joint retention surgery for epiphysis involvement in osteosarcoma compared with endoprosthetic replacement.

Bone Joint J 2021 Aug;103-B(8):1421-1427

Orthopaedic Department, Xi Jing Hospital Affiliated to the Air Force Medical University of PLA, Xi'an, China.

Aims: We have previously reported cryoablation-assisted joint-sparing surgery for osteosarcoma with epiphyseal involvement. However, it is not clear whether this is a comparable alternative to conventional joint arthroplasty in terms of oncological and functional outcomes.

Methods: A total of 22 patients who had localized osteosarcoma with epiphyseal involvement around the knee and underwent limb salvage surgery were allocated to joint preservation (JP) group and joint arthroplasty (JA) group. Subjects were followed with radiographs, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score, and clinical evaluations at one, three, and five years postoperatively.

Results: Patients in both groups (ten in JP and 12 in JA) did not differ in local recurrence (p ≥ 0.999) and occurrence of metastases (p ≥ 0.999). Overall survival was similar in both groups (p = 0.858). Patients in the JP group had less range of motion (ROM) of the knee (p < 0.001) and lower MSTS scores (p = 0.010) compared with those of the JA group only at one year postoperatively. There was no difference between groups either at three years for ROM (p = 0.185) and MSTS score (p = 0.678) or at five years for ROM (p = 0.687) and MSTS score (p = 0.536), postoperatively. Patients in the JA group tended to have more complications (p = 0.074). Survival of primary reconstruction in the JP group was better than that of the JA group (p = 0.030).

Conclusion: Cryoablation-aided joint-sparing surgery offers native joint preservation with comparable functional recovery and more durable reconstruction without jeopardizing oncological outcomes compared with conventional limb salvage surgery. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(8):1421-1427.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B8.BJJ-2020-2528.R2DOI Listing
August 2021

Hybrid repair of acute type A aortic dissection with visceral malperfusion syndrome.

JTCVS Tech 2021 Jun 26;7:22-24. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xjtc.2020.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311454PMC
June 2021

Direct in vivo reprogramming with non-viral sequential targeting nanoparticles promotes cardiac regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 09 15;276:121028. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, 20032, China; Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 20032, China. Electronic address:

microRNA-mediated direct cardiac reprogramming, directly converts fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs), which holds great promise in cardiac regeneration therapy. However, effective approaches to deliver therapeutic microRNA into cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) to induce in vivo cardiac reprogramming remain to be explored. Herein, a non-viral biomimetic system to directly reprogram CFs for cardiac regeneration after myocardial injury was developed by coating FH peptide-modified neutrophil-mimicking membranes on mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with microRNA1, 133, 208, and 499 (miR Combo). Through utilizing the natural inflammation-homing ability of neutrophil membrane protein and FH peptide's high affinity to tenascin-C (TN-C) produced by CFs, this nanoparticle could realize sequential targeting to CFs in the injured heart and precise intracellular delivery of miRCombo, which induced reprogramming resident CFs into iCMs. In a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, intravenous injection of the nanoparticles successfully delivered miRCombo into fibroblasts and led to efficient reprogramming, resulting in improved cardiac function and attenuated fibrosis. This delivery system is minimally invasive and bio-safe, providing a proof-of-concept for biomimetic and sequential targeting nanomedicine delivery system for microRNA-mediated reprogramming therapy in multiple diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121028DOI Listing
September 2021

HBeAg-positive patients with HBsAg  < 100 IU/mL and negative HBV RNA have lower risk of virological relapse after nucleos(t)ide analogues cessation.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 22;56(9):856-867. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology On NAFLD Diagnosis, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, 100044, China.

Background: Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) cessation is not widely practiced and remains a controversial, but highly relevant subject in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). We aimed to explore the related factors for safe NAs cessation.

Methods: This is a multicenter prospective cohort study. Overall, 139 initially HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients meeting the stopping criteria were included in 12 hospitals in China. Enrolled patients ceased NAs and were followed up every 3 months for 24 months or until clinical relapse (CR).

Results: The 24 month cumulative rates of virological relapse (VR), CR, HBeAg reversion and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) loss were 50.4, 24.5, 11.5 and 9.4%, respectively. Patients with end of treatment (EOT) HBsAg  < 100 IU/mL plus negative HBV RNA had the lowest 24 month cumulative VR rate (5 vs 58%, p < 0.001). EOT HBsAg  ≥ 2 log IU/mL [odds ratio (OR) = 6.686, p = 0.006], EOT positive HBV RNA (OR = 3.453, p = 0.008) and EOT hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg)  ≥ 4log U/mL (OR = 3.702, p = 0.002) were found to independently predict the risk of VR. To predict VR, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) value of the EOT HBsAg  < 100 IU/mL plus EOT HBV RNA negative was 0.698 (p < 0.001), which was higher than other parameters alone or combinations.

Conclusions: NAs cessation is suitable only for a small and selected patients. An EOT HBsAg  < 100 IU/mL and EOT negative HBV RNA identified a patient with low risk of off-treatment VR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-021-01812-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370917PMC
September 2021

Impact of Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence on Economic Burdens, Productivity Loss, and Functional Abilities: Management of Cancer Survivors in Medicare.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:706289. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Cancer survivors are vulnerable to have medication nonadherence. We aimed to estimate the impact of cost-related medication nonadherence on economic burdens, productivity loss, and functional abilities among cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 2011-2018. Cost-related medication nonadherence was identified based on NHIS prompts. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to determine the impact of cost-related medication nonadherence on survivors' economic burden. Two negative binomial regression models were implemented to estimate the impact on productivity loss. In addition, four logistic regression models were used to determine the impact on functional abilities. The weighted analysis was used to generate national estimates. Among 35, 773, 286 cancer survivors, 15, 002, 192 (41.9%) respondents reported that they experienced cost-related medication nonadherence. Compared to cancer survivors without cost-related medication nonadherence, those with nonadherence were significantly associated with an increased economic burden (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.70-2.11). Also, cancer survivors with cost-related medication nonadherence were significantly more likely to have an increased bed disability day (IRR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.21-1.76). In terms of the limitations, cancer survivors with nonadherence were significantly more likely to have both activity limitation (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.60) and functional limitation (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.81-2.49). Cost-related medication nonadherence increased economic burdens, productivity loss, and limitations in functional abilities among cancer survivors. Strategies are needed to help cancer survivors with cost-related medication nonadherence to be adherent to prescriptions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.706289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276034PMC
June 2021

Inhibition of Calpain Alleviates Apoptosis in Coxsackievirus B3-induced Acute Virus Myocarditis Through Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

Int Heart J 2021 Jul 6;62(4):900-909. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University.

Virus myocarditis (VMC) is a common cardiovascular disease and a major cause of sudden death in young adults. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments. Our previous studies found that calpain activation was involved in VMC pathogenesis. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms further. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and transgenic mice overexpressing calpastatin (Tg-CAST), the endogenous calpain inhibitor, were used to establish VMC model. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis. An ELISA array detected myocardial injury. Cardiac function was measured using echocardiography. CVB3 replication was assessed by capsid protein VP1. Apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, and western blot. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins were detected by western blot. Our data showed that CVB3 infection resulted in cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased inflammatory responses and fibrosis, which induced myocardial apoptosis. Inhibiting calpain, both by PD150606 and calpastatin overexpression, could attenuate these effects. Furthermore, ER stress was activated during CVB3 infection. However, calpain inhibition could downregulate some ER stress-associated protein levels such as GRP78, pancreatic ER kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), and inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE-1α), and ER stress-related apoptotic factors, during CVB3 infection. In conclusion, calpain inhibition attenuated CVB3-induced myocarditis by suppressing ER stress, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-803DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of Mortality-Related Risk Factors and Effective Antimicrobial Regimens for Treatment of Bloodstream Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 08 17;65(9):e0069821. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing City, China.

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) attributable to carbapenem-resistant (CRE-BSIs) are dangerous and a major cause of mortality in clinical settings. This study was therefore designed to define risk factors linked to 30-day mortality in CRE-BSI patients and to examine the relative efficacies of different antimicrobial treatment regimens in affected individuals. Data pertaining to 187 CRE-BSI cases from four teaching hospitals in China collected between January 2018 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. For the 187 patients analyzed in this study, the 30-day mortality of CRE-BSI was 41.7% (78/187). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Pitt bacteremia score, immunocompromised status, meropenem MIC of ≥8 mg/liter,absence of source control of infection, and appropriate empirical therapy were independent predictors of CRE-BSI patient 30-day mortality. After controlling for potential confounding factors relative to ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) treatment, combination therapies including CAZ-AVI (odds ratio [OR], 1.287; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.124 to 13.403;  = 0.833) were not related to any significant change in patient mortality risk, whereas the 30-day mortality risk was higher for patients administered other antimicrobial regimens (OR, 12.407; 95% CI, 1.684 to 31.430;  = 0.011). When patients were treated with antimicrobial regimens not containing CAZ-AVI, combination therapy (OR, 0.239; 95% CI, 0.077 to 0.741;  = 0.013) was related to a decreased 30-day mortality risk relative to monotherapy treatment. The mortality-related risk factors and relative antimicrobial regimen efficacy data demonstrated in this study may guide the management of CRE-BSI patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00698-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370219PMC
August 2021

Health utilities in pediatric cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis for clinical implementation.

Qual Life Res 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, MS 735, Room S6027, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA.

Purpose: Health utility (HU) is a useful metric for evaluating cost and utility of cancer therapies or prioritizing healthcare resources. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare HUs in association with clinical parameters and identify missing cancer-related themes from the extant HU measures for pediatric cancer patients and survivors.

Methods: Studies published in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were identified. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate weighted means of HUs assessed by self- and proxy-responses. Mixed-effects meta-regressions were applied to compare HUs between cancer patients/survivors and general populations. Missing themes in the extant measures were identified based on established patient-reported outcomes frameworks.

Results: Of 123 selected studies included pediatric cancer populations, 44% used the Health Utilities Index version 2 (HUI2), and 48% used version 3 (HUI3). Compared to general populations, cancer patients undergoing therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had 0.129 (95% CI - 0.183 to - 0.075) and brain tumor had 0.257 (95% CI - 0.354 to - 0.160) lower HUs per proxy-reported HUI3, whereas survivors of ALL had 0.028 (95% CI - 0.062 to 0.007) and brain tumor had 0.188 (95% CI - 0.237 to - 0.140) lower HUs per proxy-reported HUI3. Compared to general populations, cancer patients treated with multimodality therapy and survivors off therapy 2-5 years had significantly poorer HUs (p's < 0.05). Missing cancer-specific contents from the HU measures were identified.

Conclusion: Pediatric cancer patients and survivors had poorer HUs than general populations. It is important to select appropriate HUs for economic evaluations, and offer interventions to minimize HU deficits for particular cancer populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02931-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Pandemic Worry and Preventive Health Behaviors During the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:700072. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Fudan University School of Pharmacy, Shanghai, China.

As schools are preparing for onsite learning, it is urgently needed to characterize the extent of pandemic worry and to examine predictors of adopting preventive health behaviors of hand washing, face mask wearing, and maintaining social distance among student pharmacists. An online survey was sent to 326 student pharmacists in the United States. Pandemic worry was measured using a seven-point Likert scale ranging from extremely not afraid of, to extremely afraid of getting COVID-19. The health belief model (HBM) was the theoretical framework of this study. Preventive health behaviors and components of the HBM were also measured using seven-point Likert scales (one indicated extremely unlikely; seven indicated extremely likely). Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of each behavior. A medium level of pandemic worry ( = 4.2, = 1.92) was identified and females reported a higher pandemic worry. Respondents reported that they were extremely likely to wash their hands ( = 6.8, = 0.48) and maintain social distance ( = 6.6, = 0.92), but were moderately unlikely to wear face masks ( = 2.2, = 1.51). Determinants of face mask wearing included pandemic worry, perceived benefits, cue to action, self-efficacy, and being of an Asian American. Perceived barriers were negatively associated with face mask wearing. Strategies should be implemented to reduce the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among student pharmacists. Predictors identified in this study should be incorporated in efforts to improve face mask wearing. Continued monitoring of pandemic worry and preventive health behaviors is of great significance when universities and colleges are for onsite learning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.700072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245776PMC
June 2021

Effect of Cost-Related Medication Non-adherence Among Older Adults With Medication Therapy Management.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:670034. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Medication therapy management (MTM) was established by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) with the aim to improve medication adherence. However, the national prevalence of cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) is still unknown and there is a literature gap in the association between MTM services and CRN. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A nationally representative study sample from Medicare Current Beneficiary Surveys (MCBS) was used. Survey sampling weights were applied for national estimates of CRN. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions controlling for covariates were conducted to investigate the effect of the MTM on the CRN. The study identified 1,549 MTM-eligible beneficiaries. The prevalence of CRN was higher in MTM-eligible individuals than in non-MTM eligible individuals (24.14 vs. 13.44%; < 0.001). According to the results of multivariable logistic regressions, we found that MTM eligibility was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of CRN (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.28-1.96). Additionally, some other variables such as health status, with or without low-income subsidy are also associated with CRN. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of CRN in MTM-eligible beneficiaries was higher than in non-MTM eligible beneficiaries. Further studies with the longitudinal design are warranted to clarify the relationship between MTM and CRN. Alternative strategies to improve CRN should be considered in future Medicare Part D Enhanced MTM Models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.670034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245679PMC
June 2021

Eleven routine clinical features predict COVID-19 severity uncovered by machine learning of longitudinal measurements.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 17;19:3640-3649. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Shaoxing 312000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Severity prediction of COVID-19 remains one of the major clinical challenges for the ongoing pandemic. Here, we have recruited a 144 COVID-19 patient cohort, resulting in a data matrix containing 3,065 readings for 124 types of measurements over 52 days. A machine learning model was established to predict the disease progression based on the cohort consisting of training, validation, and internal test sets. A panel of eleven routine clinical factors constructed a classifier for COVID-19 severity prediction, achieving accuracy of over 98% in the discovery set. Validation of the model in an independent cohort containing 25 patients achieved accuracy of 80%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 0.70, 0.99, 0.93, and 0.93, respectively. Our model captured predictive dynamics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) while their levels were in the normal range. This model is accessible at https://www.guomics.com/covidAI/ for research purpose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225590PMC
June 2021

Knowledge and Determinants of Behavioral Responses to the Pandemic of COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:673187. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Understanding knowledge and behavioral responses to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for appropriate public health interventions. To assess knowledge of COVID-19 and to examine determinants associated with the adoption of preventive health behaviors among future health care providers. An anonymous online survey was sent out to pharmacy students in high and low-endemic areas of COVID-19 in China. Based on recommendations from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, preventive health behaviors examined in this study included washing hands, wearing a face mask, and maintaining social distancing. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used and measured by a seven-point Likert scale (one as extremely unlikely; seven as extremely likely). Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine predictors of preventive health behaviors. Among 203 respondents who finished the survey, a medium level of knowledge (4.41 ± 0.95) of COVID-19 was reported. Respondents were extremely likely to wear a face mask (6.85 ± 0.60), but only moderately likely to engage in washing hands (5.95 ± 1.38) and maintaining social distancing (6.19 ± 1.60). Determinants of washing hands were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and gender; wearing a face mask were cue to action, self-efficacy, knowledge, and ethnicity; and maintaining social distancing were cue to action and self-efficacy. Public health interventions should consider incorporating cue to action, self-efficacy, and knowledge as factors to potentially improve the adoption of face mask-wearing, hand washing, and social distancing as appropriate individual preventive measures, especially if local and regional authorities are considering reopening schools sometime in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.673187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219873PMC
June 2021

Culture-Related Health Disparities in Quality of Life: Assessment of Instrument Dimensions Among Chinese.

Front Public Health 2021 9;9:663904. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the major focuses of primary care. However, HRQoL instruments used in China are mainly developed from Western countries. Such instruments may not cover all important health concepts valued by the Chinese as health is a culture-specific concept. The objectives of this study are to identify culture-specific health dimensions and culture-related health disparities in primary care that are considered important by Chinese living in China. A purposive sample of 164 adult Chinese (67 healthy persons and 97 patients) were interviewed face to face. In-depth open-ended questions were asked to elicit culture-specific dimensions of quality of life in primary care settings in China. Twelve health dimensions were identified. Five most frequently mentioned dimensions were: mood ( = 52, 31.71%), physical activities ( = 48, 29.27%), work ( = 40, 24.39%), diet ( = 32, 19.51%), and vitality ( = 28, 17.07%). Significantly more healthy persons reported mood (49.25 vs. 19.59%, < 0.001), mindset (16.42 vs. 0.00%, < 0.001), and self-care (11.94 vs. 2.06%, = 0.016) characterizing good HRQoL, while more patients emphasized on work (4.48 vs. 38.14%, < 0.001). Diet and vitality appeared to be culture-specific dimensions related to health among Chinese. To better adapt or develop HRQoL instruments for Chinese, dimensions or items regarding diet might be included and disparities in the meaning of vitality between Chinese and Western cultures should be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.663904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221419PMC
August 2021

Association of waist-to-height ratio with hypertension and its subtypes in southern China.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, China.

Data regarding the association of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with hypertension (HTN) are conflicting. Moreover, little information is available on the association between WHtR and HTN subtypes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between WHtR and the prevalence of HTN and its subtypes in a Chinese population. In the cross-sectional analysis, 13,947 adults from the China Hypertension Survey study were analysed. We examined the relationship between WHtR and the prevalence of HTN and its subtypes (isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) and systodiastolic hypertension (SDH)) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A generalized additive model (GAM) and smooth curve fitting (penalized spline method) were also used. Overall, the mean WHtR was 0.50. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HTN, ISH, IDH and SDH for each standard deviation (SD) increase in WHtR were 1.53 (1.45-1.61), 1.36 (1.28-1.44), 1.41 (1.20-1.65) and 1.47 (1.36-1.59), respectively. The fully adjusted smooth curve fitting revealed a linear association between WHtR and HTN, ISH, IDH, and SDH. Moreover, the positive associations between WHtR and HTN and its subtypes were more strong among younger adults (<60 compared with ≥60 years, P values for interaction <0.001). These findings suggested that WHtR was positively associated with HTN and its subtypes, especially among younger adults (<60 years) in southern China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00566-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficient Reduction of Selenite to Elemental Selenium by Liquid-Phase Catalytic Hydrogenation Using a Highly Stable Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Supported Pt Catalyst Coated by N-Doped Carbon.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse/School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China.

A stable catalyst, Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) coated with N-doped carbon (Pt/[email protected]), was designed to reduce selenite (Se(IV)) in water to elemental selenium by liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation. Commercial Pt/C, pristine Pt/CNT, and carbon-coated Pt/CNT (Pt/[email protected]) were used for benchmarking. The Pt particles in Pt/[email protected] were completely embedded beneath the coatings to minimize leaching and were not easily accessible to Se(IV). However, Schottky-Mott-type metal-carbon junctions that activate H were formed on the coated catalyst, facilitating effective reduction of Se(IV). The initial activity of Pt/[email protected] (900.5 mg L g h) was two times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (448.6 mg L g h). The commercial Pt/C and uncoated Pt/CNT lost their initial activities during reuse and were almost inactive after 10 cycles due to significant Pt leaching (>90%) during the reaction and acid-washing regeneration processes. Pt/[email protected] maintained 33% of the initial activity after the first cycle and stabilized over the following 9 cycles due to effective protection of Pt particles by carbon coatings. After 10 cycles, the activity of Pt/[email protected] was over 20 times higher than that of Pt/C and uncoated Pt/CNT. Overall, catalytic hydrogenation using carbon-coated-supported Pt catalysts is an effective and promising approach to remove Se(IV) in water.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05101DOI Listing
June 2021

Developmental consequences of children born from mothers with telbivudine treatment during late pregnancy: A prospective study with 3-year follow-up.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):1527-1537

Department of Hepatology Division 2, Peking University Ditan Teaching Hospital, Beijing, China.

We prospectively investigated the neurological development in infants born from mothers treated with telbivudine (LdT) in the third trimester for prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mother-to-infant transmission. Mothers with high HBV load were assigned to either the LdT group ( = 81, 600 mg of LdT each day from gestational week 28 to delivery) or the Control group ( = 39, untreated). Their infants were followed for 36 months to assess physical and neurological developments with Gesell Developmental Schedule tools. At 12 months after birth, the mean scores in the LdT group for gross motor, fine motor, adaptive, linguistic, and personal social domains were similar to those in the Control group. At 36 months, infants in the LdT group had higher mean scores for gross motor than the Control group (98.42 ± 9.69 vs. 94.54 ± 7.48, = 0.03). In the LdT group, the rates of normal development were higher for gross motor (96.30% vs. 82.05% = 0.01) and lower for adaptive (74.07% vs. 92.31% = 0.02). Multivariate regression analyses showed that exposure to LdT during pregnancy was independently associated with infant's development in gross motor (OR 6.49, 95% CI 1.37-30.20, = 0.02) and adaptive (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.71, = 0.01) at 36 months. These results suggest that prenatal LdT exposure might affect neurological development in long-term observation.Abbreviations: LdT: telbivudine; HBV: hepatitis B virus; HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen; HBeAg: hepatitis Be antigen; HbsAb: hepatitis B surface antibody; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; NA: nucleoside/nucleotide analog; LAM: lamivudine; MTCT: mother-to-child transmission; GDS: Gesell Developmental Schedule; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; DQ: developmental quotient; RMB: renminbi; BMI: body mass Index; HBIG: hepatitis B immunoglobulin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1936769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205043PMC
December 2021

Tacrolimus Protects Podocytes from Apoptosis via Downregulation of TRPC6 in Diabetic Nephropathy.

J Diabetes Res 2021 20;2021:8832114. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Podocyte injury plays an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN), and apoptosis is one of its mechanisms. The transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) is expressed in podocytes and mediates podocyte injury induced by high glucose levels. Tacrolimus is a novel immunosuppressive agent that is reported to play an important role in podocyte protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of podocyte protection by tacrolimus in a type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rat model and in immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5). Transmission electron microcopy was used to evaluate renal injury morphology. After treatment with FK506, we measured 24-hour urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios and creatinine clearance rates as well as major biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Nephrin and TRPC6 protein expression and podocyte apoptotic rates and were measured using immunohistochemical staining, TUNEL assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot was used to measure expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and bax/bcl-2. Exposed to high glucose (HG), DM rats exhibited disrupted biochemical conditions and impaired podocyte structure. Decreased expression of nephrin and increased expression of TRPC6, cleaved-caspase-3, and bax/bcl-2 ratios were found in podocytes, along with higher apoptotic percentage, while tacrolimus intervention counteracted the effect of HG on podocytes. Our results suggest that tacrolimus protects podocytes during the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy, possibly ameliorating podocyte apoptosis by downregulating the expression of TRPC6.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8832114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163546PMC
May 2021

Mortality Rate and Characteristics of Deaths Following COVID-19 Vaccination.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:670370. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

The emergency use authorization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines brought both hopes and concerns to the Americans and others. We aimed to estimate the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination and presented characteristics of deaths following COVID-19 vaccination. Data on deaths following COVID-19 vaccination were obtained from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from December 11, 2020 through January 8, 2021. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID Data Tracker was used to identify the total number of people receiving COVID-19 vaccines during the same period to estimate the mortality rate. Stratified analysis was conducted by the location of vaccination. As of January 8, 2021, 55 deaths were reported, and the mortality rate of COVID-19 vaccination was 8.2 per million population. A total of 37 deaths were reported among long-term care facility residents, and the mortality rate was 53.4 per million population. Top reported comorbidities associated with deaths included hypertension, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and heart failure. In addition, dementia was more likely to be associated with deaths vaccinated at long-term care facilities than at other locations. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks in older frail populations, and our findings do not support actions to exclude older adults from being vaccinated. However, continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination is still warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.670370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160119PMC
May 2021

The relationship between the atherogenic index of plasma and arterial stiffness in essential hypertensive patients from China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 05 19;21(1):245. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, 330006, China.

Background: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) always remains in a potential association with arterial stiffness, however, this association has not been fully discovered and needs to be studied in depth in large hypertensive patient populations. The present analysis thus sought to further explore the association that exists between AIP and arterial stiffness in Chinese patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed 4744 Chinese individuals with essential hypertension. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of plasma of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels indicated in molar concentrations. Measurement of arterial stiffness was carried out via brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).

Results: Data were adjusted for potential confounding variables, and multivariate linear regression analysis revealed AIP to be positively correlated with baPWV (β = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.72, P < 0.001). When AIP was instead treated as a categorical variable divided into quartiles, the same relationship was observed (P for trend < 0.001). We additionally found AIP and baPWV had a stronger positive association in individuals with a body mass index (BMI) < 24 kg/m (P for interaction < 0.05).

Conclusion: AIP and arterial stiffness were positively correlated in essential hypertension patients in China, especially in those with a BMI < 24 kg/m. Clinical trial registration ChiCTR1800017274.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02049-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136204PMC
May 2021
-->