Publications by authors named "Ming-Shan Wu"

7 Publications

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Analysis of prescription pattern and guideline adherence in the management of asthma among medical institutions and physician specialties in Taiwan between 2000 and 2010.

Clin Ther 2015 Oct 20;37(10):2275-85. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate prescription patterns of antiasthmatic medications in ambulatory care, guideline adherence by physician specialties and medical institutions, and the rate of hospitalization and emergency department visits due to asthma exacerbation.

Methods: The ambulatory visits between 2000 and 2010 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 were analyzed for prescription trends. Seven classes of antiasthmatic medications were identified for prescription trend analysis. Prescription patterns of different medical institutions and physician specialties were further evaluated.

Findings: We studied 4495 patients with newly diagnosed asthma in 2000. Estimates indicated an increased use in fixed-dose combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists (3.6% in 2002 to 28.8% in 2010) with decreased use of inhaled corticosteroids (14.5% in 2001 to 7.3% in 2010). Xanthine was still the most frequently used medication for asthmatic patients (60.2% in 2001 and 45.2% in 2010). Another marked increase was the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists (2.6% in 2001 to 6.0% in 2010). In the studied population, the rate of hospital admission or emergency department visit moderately decreased from 1.42% to 0.59% during 10 years. Physicians in medical centers and regional hospitals, as well as asthma specialists, dominated the increased use of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists.

Implications: Physicians in academic medical centers and asthma specialists achieved better adherence to the core recommendations of the international guidelines for asthma management. The reasons for guideline nonadherence among physicians in district hospitals and primary care clinics deserve health care professionals' attention and require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.07.024DOI Listing
October 2015

Iridovirus CARD Protein Inhibits Apoptosis through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways.

PLoS One 2015 5;10(6):e0129071. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Fisheries Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan.

Grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae; the genomes of such viruses contain an anti-apoptotic caspase recruitment domain (CARD) gene. The GIV-CARD gene encodes a protein of 91 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10,505 Daltons, and shows high similarity to other viral CARD genes and human ICEBERG. In this study, we used Northern blot to demonstrate that GIV-CARD transcription begins at 4 h post-infection; furthermore, we report that its transcription is completely inhibited by cycloheximide but not by aphidicolin, indicating that GIV-CARD is an early gene. GIV-CARD-EGFP and GIV-CARD-FLAG recombinant proteins were observed to translocate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, but no obvious nuclear localization sequence was observed within GIV-CARD. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GIV-CARD in GK cells infected with GIV inhibited expression of GIV-CARD and five other viral genes during the early stages of infection, and also reduced GIV infection ability. Immunostaining was performed to show that apoptosis was effectively inhibited in cells expressing GIV-CARD. HeLa cells irradiated with UV or treated with anti-Fas antibody will undergo apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, respectively. However, over-expression of recombinant GIV-CARD protein in HeLa cells inhibited apoptosis induced by mitochondrial and death receptor signaling. Finally, we report that expression of GIV-CARD in HeLa cells significantly reduced the activities of caspase-8 and -9 following apoptosis triggered by anti-Fas antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GIV-CARD inhibits apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129071PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457926PMC
March 2016

Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection.

PLoS One 2015 4;10(5):e0126121. Epub 2015 May 4.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Fisheries Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0126121PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418827PMC
April 2016

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of four isotypes of immunoglobulin light chain genes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

Dev Comp Immunol 2013 Mar 24;39(3):169-79. Epub 2012 Nov 24.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

To date, many immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have been identified in diverse teleost species, but the contributions of different types of light chain (IgL) to the immune response remain unclear. Screening of a stimulated kidney cDNA library from orange-spotted grouper (Osg, Epinephelus coioides) resulted in the identification of 26 full Ig light chain (OsgIgL) coding sequences. These 26 OsgIgLs encoded peptides from 235 to 248 amino acid residues and could be grouped into five variable (V(L)) and four constant (C(L)) isotypes. The C(L) regions contained three conserved cysteine residues that may participate in intra- or inter-chain disulfide bond formation. The four C(L) isotypes could be sub-grouped into two serological types: κ (C(L)-I, C(L)-II and C(L)-III) and σ (C(L)-IV), by phylogenetic analysis. The OsgIgL genes were found to be expressed in various tissues, with greatest levels of expression observed in the head-kidney and spleen. The major expression type was C(L)-I, which comprised 92% and 91% of total OsgIgL gene expression in the head-kidney and spleen, respectively. Transcription of all four C(L) isotypes was differentially affected in response to various immunostimulators, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C and grouper iridovirus (GIV). Induction of OsgIgL genes in response to immunostimulators was particularly dramatic in the spleen, suggesting this organ holds particular importance for the regulation of OsgIgL expression. Furthermore, vaccination of grouper with formalin-inactivated GIV also induced differential patterns of expression in all four OsgIgL isotypes. In summary, the significant and diverse patterns of transcriptional induction observed for OsgIgL isotypes in the spleen and head-kidney imply that each isotype may have unique roles in the immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2012.11.003DOI Listing
March 2013

Transcriptional analysis of orange-spotted grouper reacting to experimental grouper iridovirus infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2012 Jun 12;37(2):233-42. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC.

Disease caused by grouper iridovirus (GIV) has resulted in economic losses due to high mortality in grouper culture. Thirty-eight up- and 48 down-regulated known entities have been identified using a GIV-infected grouper kidney cDNA microarray chip. Further quantitative validation was executed in the head-kidney and spleen for 24 candidate genes and 7 immune factors following GIV inoculation. Significant induction with various patterns could be seen in 30 tested genes in the spleen. However, only 23 genes had induction in the head-kidney and meanwhile 5 genes showed reduction. Transcriptional expression profiles of selected genes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC) were also established to compare with the GIV-stimulated expression. The results indicated that the responses of most genes facing GIV invasion have more similarities to PIC treatment than LPS. Seven genes are thought to be interferon-related factors: RNA helicase DHX58, ISG15, viperin, HECT E3 ligase (HECT), CD9, urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (PLAUR) and Mx-1. Following immunization with inactivated GIV, significant induction could be seen in DHX58, viperin, IL-1β, IL-8, COX-2, HECT, PLAUR, IgM, Mx-1, very large inducible GTPase-1 (VLIG1) and TNF-α in the head-kidney or spleen, and the latter 6 genes also had a gradual increasing pattern by a boosting immunization. These factors might play important roles in adaptive antiviral protection. Thus, we have characterized the temporal response patterns of virus responsive genes and have also identified several potential immune markers to further investigate host antiviral defense mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2012.04.002DOI Listing
June 2012

Differential display of grouper iridovirus-infected grouper cells by immunostaining.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Aug 2;372(4):674-80. Epub 2008 Jun 2.

Graduate Institute of Life Science, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Grouper iridovirus (GIV) is one of the most devastating infectious pathogens of aquaculture fish. When infecting a susceptible cell line, such as GK-2, GIV causes antigenic changes in host cellular proteins. To understand the host gene expression characteristics after viral infection, we developed an immunostaining method to screen differentially expressed genes of fish cells in response to GIV infection using phage display complementary DNA libraries. In total, 66 genes were identified from grouper kidney and brain cell lines. These genes are related to replication, transcription, translation, immunity, apoptosis, structure proteins, metabolism, energy, protein modification, and homeostasis. Four dynamic antigenic patterns were observed among these immunocloned genes upon GIV infection. Microarray analysis further confirmed the transcriptional patterns of 80% of the identified genes. This immunostaining screening method provides insights into a host's cellular protein response to viral infection on a translational basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.126DOI Listing
August 2008

Characterization of serum immunoglobulin M of grouper and cDNA cloning of its heavy chain.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2006 Feb 30;109(3-4):255-65. Epub 2005 Sep 30.

Department of Food Science, National Kinmen Institute of Technology, Kinmen, Taiwan.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) from the whole serum of grouper fish, Epinephelus coioides was purified by affinity chromatography using protein A-Sepharose column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions revealed that the relative molecular masses (Mr) of the equimolar heavy and light chains of IgM were 78,000 and 27,000, respectively. The cDNAs encoding IgM heavy chain comprising its variable (VH) and constant (CH) regions have been cloned and sequenced from a grouper kidney cDNA library by antibody screening method. Five VH (130-142 amino acids) and four CH (450-454 amino acids) families were identified. The variable and constant regions were conserved with their putative domains. All the four constant region domains (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) contained each three conserved cysteine residues, which are considered to form the inter- and intra-chain disulfide bridges. There were three carbohydrate acceptor sites in the constant region. In general, the pattern of IgM gene organization seems to resemble that of other teleosts. Moreover, the CH genes in grouper IgM occur as multifamily as reported in Atlantic salmon and common carp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.08.029DOI Listing
February 2006