Publications by authors named "Ming Zhou"

1,305 Publications

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Angle-based wavefront sensing enabled by the near fields of flat optics.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 14;12(1):6002. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

There is a long history of using angle sensors to measure wavefront. The best example is the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Compared to other methods of wavefront sensing, angle-based approach is more broadly used in industrial applications and scientific research. Its wide adoption is attributed to its fully integrated setup, robustness, and fast speed. However, there is a long-standing issue in its low spatial resolution, which is limited by the size of the angle sensor. Here we report a angle-based wavefront sensor to overcome this challenge. It uses ultra-compact angle sensor built from flat optics. It is directly integrated on focal plane array. This wavefront sensor inherits all the benefits of the angle-based method. Moreover, it improves the spatial sampling density by over two orders of magnitude. The drastically improved resolution allows angle-based sensors to be used for quantitative phase imaging, enabling capabilities such as video-frame recording of high-resolution surface topography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26169-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Proteomics analysis identifies PEA-15 as an endosomal phosphoprotein that regulates α5β1 integrin endocytosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 6;11(1):19830. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Cancer Biology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 701 Ilalo Street, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

Endosomal trafficking of cell surface receptors is essential to their function. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that integrate adhesion to the extracellular matrix with engagement of the cytoskeleton. Ligated integrins mediate diverse signals that regulate matrix assembly, cell survival, cell morphology, and cell motility. Endosomal trafficking of integrins modulates these signals and contributes to cell motility and is required for cancer cell invasion. The phosphoprotein PEA-15 modulates integrin activation and ERK MAP Kinase signaling. To elucidate novel PEA-15 functions we utilized an unbiased proteomics approach. We identified several binding partners for PEA-15 in the endosome including clathrin and AP-2 as well as integrin β1 and other focal adhesion complex proteins. We confirmed these interactions using proximity ligation analysis, immunofluorescence imaging, pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation. We further found that PEA-15 is enriched in endosomes and was required for efficient endosomal internalization of α5β1 integrin and cellular migration. Importantly, PEA-15 promotion of migration was dependent on PEA-15 phosphorylation at serines 104 and 116. These data support a novel endosomal role for PEA-15 in control of endosomal trafficking of integrins through an association with the β1 integrin and clathrin complexes, and thereby regulation of cell motility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99348-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494857PMC
October 2021

TLR4 regulates rabies virus-induced humoral immunity through recruitment of cDC2 to lymph organs.

J Virol 2021 Oct 6:JVI0082921. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is fatal to both humans and animals around the world. Effective clinical therapy for rabies has not been achieved, and vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling rabies. Although different vaccines, such as live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, can induce different immune responses, different expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) also causes diverse immune responses. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pivotal PRR that induces cytokine production and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. Importantly, TLR4 recognizes various virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and virus-induced damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), usually leading to the activation of immune cells. However, the role of TLR4 in the humoral immune response induced by RABV has not been revealed yet. Based on TLR4-deficient () and wild-type (WT) mouse models, we report that TLR4-dependent recruitment of the conventional type-2 dendritic cells (CD8α CD11b cDC2) into secondary lymph organs (SLOs) is critical for antigen presentation. cDC2-initiated differentiation of Tfh cells promotes the proliferation of germinal centre (GC) B cells, the formation of GCs, and the production of plasma cells (PCs), all of which contribute to the production of RABV-specific IgG and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs). Collectively, our work demonstrates that TLR4 is necessary for the recruitment of cDC2 and for the induction of RABV-induced humoral immunity, which is regulated by the cDC2-Tfh-GC B axis. Vaccination is the most efficient method to prevent rabies. TLR4, a well-known immune sensor, plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response. Here, we found that TLR4 deficiency () mice suppressed the induction of humoral immune response after immunization with rabies virus (RABV), including reduced production of VNAs and RABV-specific IgG, compared with that occurred in wild-type (WT) mice. As a consequence, mice exhibited higher mortality than WT mice after challenge with virulent RABV. Importantly, further investigation found that TLR4 signaling promoted the recruitment of cDC2 (CD8α CD11b), a subset of cDCs known to induce CD4 T cell immunity through their MHC-II presentation machinery. Our results imply that TLR4 is indispensable for an efficient humoral response to rabies vaccine, which provides new insight into the development of novel rabies vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00829-21DOI Listing
October 2021

Edible mushroom consumption and incident hyperuricemia: results from the TCLSIH cohort study.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 4;12(19):9178-9187. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

: Basic studies have found that xanthine oxidase inhibitors extracted from mushrooms have inhibitory effects on hyperuricemia. However, the association between mushroom consumption and hyperuricemia is unknown in humans. : We therefore designed a large-scale cohort study to examine whether mushroom consumption is a protective factor for developing hyperuricemia in adults. : This prospective cohort study investigated 19 830 participants (mean age: 39.4 years; and 9906 [50.0%] men) who were free of hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline. Mushroom consumption was measured at the baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol L in men and >350 μmol L in women. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of mushroom consumption with incident hyperuricemia. Restricted cubic spline regression was used to estimate the dose-response relationship between mushroom consumption and risk of hyperuricemia. : A total of 4260 first incident cases of hyperuricemia occurred during 61 421 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up of 4.2 years). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and inflammatory markers, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident hyperuricemia were 1.00(reference) for <1.76 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.86, 1.01) for 1.76-2.84 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.85, 1.01) for 2.85-5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, and 0.88 (0.80, 0.96) for >5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, respectively ( for trend = 0.007). : This population-based prospective cohort study has firstly demonstrated that higher mushroom consumption is significantly associated with lower incidence of hyperuricemia among general adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00650aDOI Listing
October 2021

Synthesis of Pd Sn and PdCuSn Nanorods with L1 Phase for Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Ethanol Oxidation.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 3:e2106115. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Crystal phase of nanomaterials is one of the key parameters to determine their physicochemical property and performance in various applications. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize nanomaterials with different crystal phases while maintaining the same composition, size and morphology. Here, we report a facile, one-pot, wet-chemical method to synthesize Pd Sn nanorods with the comparable size and morphology but different crystal phases, i.e., the ordered intermetallic and disordered alloy with the L1 and face-centered cubic (fcc) phases, respectively. The crystal phase of the as-synthesized Pd Sn nanorods is easily tuned by altering the types of tin precursors and solvents. Moreover, our approach can also be used to synthesize ternary PdCuSn nanorods with the L1 crystal phase. When used as electrocatalysts, the L1 Pd Sn nanorods exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance towards the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) compared to their fcc counterpart. Impressively, compared to the L1 Pd Sn nanorods, the ternary L1 PdCuSn nanorods exhibit more enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards EOR, yielding a high mass current density up to 6.22 A mg , which are superior to the commercial Pd/C catalyst and among the best reported Pd-based EOR electrocatalysts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202106115DOI Listing
October 2021

Real-Time Built-In Self-Test of MEMS Gyroscope Based on Quadrature Error Signal.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;12(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 251000, China.

In high-reliability applications, the health condition of the MEMS gyroscope needs to be known in real time to ensure that the system does not fail due to the wrong output signal. Because the MEMS gyroscope self-test based on the principle of electrostatic force cannot be performed during the working state. We propose that by monitoring the quadrature error signal of the MEMS gyroscope in real time, an online self-test of the MEMS gyroscope can be realized. The correlation between the gyroscope's quadrature error amplitude signal and the gyroscope scale factor and bias was theoretically analyzed. Based on the sixteen-sided cobweb-like MEMS gyroscope, the real-time built-in self-test (BIST) method of the MEMS gyroscope based on the quadrature error signal was verified. By artificially setting the control signal of the gyroscope to zero, we imitated several scenarios where the gyroscope malfunctioned. Moreover, a mechanical impact table was used to impact the gyroscope. After a 6000 g shock, the gyroscope scale factor, bias, and quadrature error amplitude changed by -1.02%, -5.76%, and -3.74%, respectively, compared to before the impact. The gyroscope failed after a 10,000 g impact, and the quadrature error amplitude changed -99.82% compared to before the impact. The experimental results show that, when the amplitude of the quadrature error signal seriously deviates from the original value, it can be determined that the gyroscope output signal is invalid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12091115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469003PMC
September 2021

FAIM2 Promotes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Growth and Bone Metastasis by Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:690142. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Aim: Bone metastasis is the major reason for the poor prognosis and high mortality rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This study explored the function and underlying mechanism of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (FAIM2) in the bone metastasis of NSCLC.

Methods: Samples of normal lung tissue and NSCLC tissue (with or without bone metastasis) were collected and analyzed for FAIM2 expression. HARA cells with FAIM2 overexpression and HARA-B4 cells with FAIM2 knockdown were tested for proliferation, migration, invasion, anoikis, and their ability to adhere to osteoblasts. Next, whether FAIM2 facilitates bone metastasis by regulating the epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) process and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were investigated. Finally, an model of NSCLC bone metastasis was established and used to further examine the influence of FAIM2 on bone metastasis.

Results: FAIM2 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and NSCLC tissues with bone metastasis. FAIM2 expression was positively associated with the tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis, and poor prognosis of NSCLC. FAIM2 upregulation promoted HARA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, but inhibited cell apoptosis. FAIM2 knockdown in HARA-B4 cells produced the opposite effects. HARA-B4 cells showed a stronger adhesive ability to osteocytes than did HARA cells. FAIM2 was found to be related to the adhesive ability of HARA and HARA-B4 cells to osteocytes. FAIM2 facilitated bone metastasis by regulating the EMT process and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, FAIM2 was found to participate in regulating NSCLC bone metastasis .

Conclusions: FAIM2 promoted NSCLC cell growth and bone metastasis by regulating the EMT process and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. FAIM2 might be useful for diagnosing and treating NSCLC bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.690142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459617PMC
September 2021

Combination of structural MRI, functional MRI and brain PET-CT provide more diagnostic and prognostic value in patients of cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Tr/DNER: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Sep 24;21(1):368. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 GuoXue Alley, 610041, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely reveals structural changes in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis and thus provides very limited information. Here, we combined structural MRI, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings to characterize this rare disorder in a patient.

Case Presentation: A 43-year-old woman presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia, memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Anti-Tr antibodies were detected in both her serum (1:10) and cerebrospinal fluid (1:10). A diagnosis of anti-Tr-positive autoimmune cerebellar ataxia was established. The patient's symptoms were worse, but her brain MRI was normal. Meanwhile, voxel-based morphometry analysis showed bilateral reduced cerebellar volume, especially in the posterior lobe and uvula of the cerebellum and the middle of the left temporal lobe compared with 6 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (6 females, 43 ± 2 years; p < 0.05). Using seed-based functional connectivity analysis, decreased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left frontal lobe compared to the control group (p < 0.05) was detected. PET-CT revealed bilateral hypometabolism in the cerebellum and relative hypermetabolism in the cerebellar vermis and bilateral frontal lobe, but no malignant changes.

Conclusions: A combination of structural MRI, functional MRI, and brain PET-CT has higher diagnostic and prognostic value than conventional MRI in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02403-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461997PMC
September 2021

Dietary patterns and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults: A prospective cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Oct 4;40(10):5373-5382. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Prospective cohort studies linking dietary patterns and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between dietary patterns and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population.

Methods: This study included a total of 17,360 participants free from NAFLD at baseline. Dietary patterns at baseline were identified with factor analysis based on responses to a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between dietary patterns and risk of NAFLD.

Results: During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 4034 NAFLD cases were documented. Three main dietary patterns were extracted: sugar rich dietary pattern, vegetable rich dietary pattern, and animal food dietary pattern. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, occupation, income, physical activity, total energy intake, personal and family history of disease, depressive symptoms, dietary supplement use, inflammation markers, and each other dietary pattern score, comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of dietary pattern scores, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of NAFLD were 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) for sugar rich dietary pattern, 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) for vegetable rich dietary pattern, and 1.22 (1.10, 1.36) for animal food dietary pattern. Further adjustment for waist circumference instead of body mass index provided similar results.

Conclusion: Dietary patterns rich in animal foods or sugar were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults, whereas a vegetable rich dietary pattern was not associated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.08.021DOI Listing
October 2021

Dietary fiber intake and risk of prediabetes in China: results from the TCLSIH Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Sep 21:1-20. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

High dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but the association of dietary fiber with prediabetes is only speculative, especially in China, where the supportive data from prospective studies is lacking. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of incident prediabetes among Chinese adults. We performed a prospective analysis in 18,085 participants of the TCLSIH cohort study who were free of diabetes, prediabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary data were collected using a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Prediabetes was defined based on the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 63,175 person-years of follow-up, 4,139 cases of incident prediabetes occurred. The multivariable HRs (95% CIs) of prediabetes for the highest versus lowest quartiles were 0.85 (0.75, 0.98) (P for trend =0.02) for total dietary fiber, 0.84 (0.74, 0.95) (P for trend <0.01) for soluble fiber, and 1.05 (0.93, 1.19) (P for trend =0.38) for insoluble fiber. Fiber from fruits, but not from cereals, beans, and vegetables was inversely associated with prediabetes. Our results indicate that intakes of total dietary fiber, soluble fiber, and fiber derived from fruit sources were associated with a lower risk of prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521003779DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultra-processed food consumption and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Growing evidence supports a link between ultra-processed food consumption and human health outcomes. However, the association between ultra-processed food consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not known. We aimed to explore the association between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of NAFLD.

Methods: The prospective study included 16 168 participants aged 18-90 years from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) Cohort Study. Information on ultra-processed food consumption was collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of sonographic fatty liver in the absence of significant alcohol intake (≥210 g/week for men and ≥140 g/week for women, respectively) and other liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of NAFLD.

Results: During 56 935 person-years of follow-up, we documented 3752 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, education, occupation, income, physical activity, total energy intake, personal and family history of disease and overall diet quality, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of NAFLD across increasing quartiles of ultra-processed food consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) and 1.18 (1.07, 1.30), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per one standard deviation increase in ultra-processed food consumption, equivalent to a 62.7 g/1000 kcal per day, was 1.06 (1.03, 1.09), P = 0.0001.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that higher ultra-processed food consumption is associated with a higher risk of NAFLD. This finding suggests that ultra-processed food, which is widely consumed worldwide, might be a modifiable dietary target to reduce the risk of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab174DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnosis of "cribriform" prostatic adenocarcinoma: an interobserver reproducibility study among urologic pathologists with recommendations.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3990-4001. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, Tufts Medical Center Boston, MA, USA.

Accurate diagnosis of cribriform Gleason pattern 4 (CrP4) prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is important due to its independent association with adverse clinical outcomes and as a growing body of evidence suggests that it impacts clinical decision making in PCa management. To identify reproducible features for diagnosis of CrP4, we assessed interobserver agreement among 27 experienced urologic pathologists of 60 digital images from 44 radical prostatectomies (RP) that represented a broad spectrum of potential CrP4. The following morphologic features were correlated with the consensus diagnosis (defined as 75% agreement) for each image: partial vs. transluminal glandular bridging, intraglandular stroma, <12 vs. ≥12 lumina, well vs. poorly formed lumina, mucin (mucinous fibroplasia, extravasation, or extracellular pool), size (compared to benign glands and number of lumina), number of attachments with gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of glandular circumference, central nerve, dense (cell mass occupying >50% of luminal space) vs. loose, and regular vs. irregular contour. Interobserver reproducibility for the overall diagnostic agreement was fair (k=0.40). Large CrP4 had better agreement (k=0.49) compared to small CrP4 (k=0.40). Transluminal bridging, dense cellular proliferation, a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland occupying <50% of gland circumference, lack of intraglandular mucin, and lack of contact between the majority of intraglandular cells with stroma were significantly associated with consensus for CrP4. In contrast, partial bridging, majority of intraglandular cells in contact with stroma, mucinous fibroplasia, only one attachment to the gland border by tumor cells forming a "glomeruloid-like" pattern, and a clear luminal space along the periphery of gland accounting for >50% of the glandular circumference were associated with consensus against CrP4. In summary, we identified reproducible morphological features for and against CrP4 diagnosis, which could be used to refine and standardize the diagnostic criteria for CrP4.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414383PMC
August 2021

Eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) of kidney demonstrates sporadic TSC/MTOR mutations: next-generation sequencing multi-institutional study of 19 cases.

Mod Pathol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

A distinct renal tumor has recently been described as "high-grade oncocytic renal tumor" and "sporadic renal cell carcinoma with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm". The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) consensus proposed a unifying name "eosinophilic vacuolated tumor" (EVT) for this emerging entity. In this multi-institutional study, we evaluated 19 EVTs, particularly their molecular features and mutation profile, using next-generation sequencing. All cases were sporadic and none of the patients had a tuberous sclerosis complex. There were 8 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 47 years (median 50; range 15-72 years). Average tumor size was 4.3 cm (median 3.8 cm; range 1.5-11.5 cm). All patients with available follow-up data (18/19) were alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression during the follow-up, ranging from 12 to 198 months (mean 56.3, median 41.5 months). The tumors were well circumscribed, but lacked a well-formed capsule, had nested to solid growth, focal tubular architecture, and showed ubiquitous, large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin K, CD117, CD10, and antimitochondrial antigen were expressed in all cases. Other positive stains included: PAX8, AE1/AE3 and CK18. CK7 was typically restricted only to rare scattered cells. Vimentin, HMB45, melan-A, and TFE3 were negative in all cases. All tumors showed retained SDHB. All cases (19/19) showed non-overlapping mutations of the mTOR pathway genes: TSC1 (4), TSC2 (7), and MTOR (8); one case with MTOR mutation showed a coexistent RICTOR missense mutation. Low mutational rates were found in all samples (ranged from 0 to 6 mutations/Mbp). Microsatellite instability and copy number variations were not found in any of the 17 analyzable cases. EVT represents an emerging renal entity that shows a characteristic and readily identifiable morphology, consistent immunohistochemical profile, indolent behavior, and mutations in either TSC1, TSC2, or MTOR genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00923-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Improvement of Oxygen Reduction Performance in Alkaline Media by Tuning Phase Structure of Pd-Bi Nanocatalysts.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 14;143(38):15891-15897. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902, United States.

Tuning the crystal phase of bimetallic nanocrystals offers an alternative avenue to improving their electrocatalytic performance. Herein, we present a facile and one-pot synthesis approach that is used to enhance the catalytic activity and stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media via control of the crystal structure of Pd-Bi nanocrystals. By merely altering the types of Pd precursors under the same conditions, the structured PdBi and conventional face-centered cubic () structured PdBi nanocrystals with comparable size and morphology can be precisely synthesized, respectively. Interestingly, the carbon-supported PdBi nanocrystals exhibit superior ORR activity in alkaline media, delivering a mass activity (MA) as high as 2.05 A/mg. After 10,000 cycles of ORR durability test, the structured PdBi/C nanocatalysts still remain a MA of 1.52 A/mg, which is 3.6 times, 16.9 times, and 21.7 times as high as those of the PdBi/C counterpart, commercial Pd/C, and Pt/C electrocatalysts, respectively. Moreover, structural characterizations of the PdBi/C nanocrystals after the durability test demonstrate the excellent retention of the original size, morphology, composition, and crystal phase, greatly alleviating the leaching of the Bi component. This work provides new insight for the synthesis of multimetallic catalysts with a metastable phase and demonstrates phase-dependent catalytic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c08644DOI Listing
September 2021

Early Warning of Gas Concentration in Coal Mines Production Based on Probability Density Machine.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Computer, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212100, China.

Gas explosion has always been an important factor restricting coal mine production safety. The application of machine learning techniques in coal mine gas concentration prediction and early warning can effectively prevent gas explosion accidents. Nearly all traditional prediction models use a regression technique to predict gas concentration. Considering there exist very few instances of high gas concentration, the instance distribution of gas concentration would be extremely imbalanced. Therefore, such regression models generally perform poorly in predicting high gas concentration instances. In this study, we consider early warning of gas concentration as a binary-class problem, and divide gas concentration data into warning class and non-warning class according to the concentration threshold. We proposed the probability density machine (PDM) algorithm with excellent adaptability to imbalanced data distribution. In this study, we use the original gas concentration data collected from several monitoring points in a coal mine in Datong city, Shanxi Province, China, to train the PDM model and to compare the model with several class imbalance learning algorithms. The results show that the PDM algorithm is superior to the traditional and state-of-the-art class imbalance learning algorithms, and can produce more accurate early warning results for gas explosion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21175730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433910PMC
August 2021

Colloidal manganese salt improves the efficacy of rabies vaccines in mice, cats, and dogs.

J Virol 2021 Sep 8:JVI0141421. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries worldwide. At present, the administration of rabies vaccines has been the most effective strategy to control rabies. Herein, we evaluate the effect of colloidal manganese salt (Mn jelly, MnJ) as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine in mice, cats, and dogs. The results showed that MnJ promoted type I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokine production and the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and . Besides, MnJ serving as an adjuvant for rabies vaccines could significantly facilitate the generation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, plasma cells (PCs), and RABV-specific antibody-secreting-cells (ASCs), consequently improved the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines and provide better protection against virulent RABV challenge. Similarly, MnJ enhanced the humoral immune response in cats and dogs as well. Collectively, our results suggest that MnJ can facilitate the maturation of DCs during rabies vaccination, which can be a promising adjuvant candidate for rabies vaccines. Extending humoral immune response by using adjuvants is an important strategy for vaccine development. In this study, a novel adjuvant MnJ supplemented in rabies vaccines was evaluated in mice, cats, and dogs. Our results in the mouse model revealed that MnJ increased the numbers of mature DCs, Tfh cells, GC B cells, PCs, and RABV-specific ASCs, resulting in enhanced immunogenicity and protection rate of rabies vaccines. We further found MnJ had the same stimulative effect in cats and dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that MnJ serving as a novel adjuvant of rabies vaccines can boost immune response both in a mouse and pet model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01414-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Flexible and transparent silver nanowires/biopolymer film for high-efficient electromagnetic interference shielding.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;607(Pt 1):89-99. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, PR China. Electronic address:

Flexible and transparent conductive films are highly desirable in some optoelectronic devices, such as smart windows, touch panels, as well as displays and electromagnetic protection field. Silver nanowire (Ag NW) has been considered as the best material to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) to fabricate flexible transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding films due to its superior comprehensive performance. However, the common substrates supporting Ag NWs require surface modification to enhance the adhesion with Ag NWs. In this work, a flexible and transparent Ag NWs EMI shielding film with sandwich structure through a facile rod-coating method, wherein Ag NWs network were embedded between biodegradable gelatin-based substrate and cover layer. The interfacial adhesion between Ag NWs and gelatin-based layers was enhanced by hydrogen-bonding interaction and swelling effect without any pretreatment. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of the G/Ag NW/G (G represents gelatin-based layer) film reaches 37.74 dB at X band with an optical transmittance of 72.0 %. What's more, the flexible gelatin-based layer and encapsulated structure endow the resultant G/Ag NW/G film integrating excellent mechanical properties, reliable durability, antioxidation, as well as anti-freezing performance. This work paves a new way for fabricating flexible transparent EMI shielding films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.190DOI Listing
September 2021

Persisting lung pathogenesis and minimum residual virus in hamster after acute COVID-19.

Protein Cell 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13238-021-00874-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422370PMC
September 2021

Preexposure and Postexposure Prophylaxis of Rabies With Adeno-Associated Virus Expressing Virus-Neutralizing Antibody in Rodent Models.

Front Microbiol 2021 19;12:702273. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Rabies, a fatal disease in humans and other mammals, is caused by the rabies virus (RABV), and it poses a public health threat in many parts of the world. Once symptoms of rabies appear, the mortality is near 100%. There is currently no effective treatment for rabies. In our study, two human-derived RABV-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA), CR57 and CR4098, were cloned into adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, and recombinant AAVs expressing RVNA were evaluated for postexposure prophylaxis after intrathecal injection into RABV-infected rats. At 4days post-infection with a lethal dose of RABV, 60% of the rats that received an intrathecal injection of AAV-CR57 survived, while 100% of the rats inoculated with AAV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) succumbed to rabies. Overall, these results demonstrate that AAV-encoding RVNA can be utilized as a potential human rabies postexposure prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.702273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417364PMC
August 2021

A comparative review of microplastics in lake systems from different countries and regions.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 5;286(Pt 2):131806. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Henan Province Industrial Technology Research Institute of Resources and Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics, as defined here as plastics with a diameter of <5 mm, can impose severely detrimental impacts on the environment and can now be commonly found in different water bodies. To date, the status of microplastics in limnic systems, which have different hydrologic systems compared to other water bodies such as oceans or rivers, has rarely been reviewed. In the present study, the microplastic pollutants in different countries and regions were comparatively investigated in terms of their abundances, morphologies, and polymer types in the water and sediments of lakes. The concentration and characteristics of microplastics were found to be largely different across countries and regions, which was related to the local development level and economic structure. The migration paths of microplastics in the inner and external limnic ecosystems further revealed the causes for the regional divergence in microplastics. Policy developments in different countries and regions were also discussed to highlight the urgency of better controlling microplastic pollution in lake systems. The characteristics of microplastics vary across countries and regions, depending on the local development level and economic structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131806DOI Listing
August 2021

Eremophilane sesquiterpenoids from the whole plant of Parasenecio albus with immunosuppressive activity.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Oct 11;115:105247. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Fifteen new highly oxygenated eremophilane sesquiterpenoids, parasubolides A-O (1-15), were obtained from the whole plant of Parasenecio albus. The structures of 1-15 were elucidated based on the interpretation of NMR and HRESIMS data, along with experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-6, and 9-14 represent the first class of 1,2,10-trioxygenated eremophilane lactones. Selected isolates were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities. Compounds 4, 5, and 12 exhibited moderate inhibition against LPS-induced B-cell proliferation with IC values of 23.1, 33.8, and 26.6 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105247DOI Listing
October 2021

Alterations in functional network centrality in first-episode drug-naïve adolescent-onset schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Center of Psychoradiology, Department of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Mianyang/Sichuan Mental Health Center, Mianyang, 621000, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Schizophrenia is a disorder resulting from aberrant brain networks and circuits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate specific network alterations in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) and to help identify the neurophysiological mechanisms of this adolescent disorder. We recruited forty-one subjects, including 20 AOS patients and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs), and we acquired brain images to examine the specific changes in functional network patterns using degree centrality (DC), which quantifies the strength of the local functional connectivity hubs. Whole-brain correlation analysis was applied to assess the relationships between clinical characteristics and DC measurements. The AOS group exhibited increased DC in the right inferior frontal lobe, right fusiform gyrus and right thalamus (p < 0.05, AlphaSim correction). Whole-brain correlation analysis found that the DC value in the right parahippocampus was positively correlated with PANSS-positive symptom scores (r = 0.80); DC in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) was positively correlated with PANSS-negative symptom scores (r = 0.79); DC in the left precuneus was positively correlated with self-certainty (SC) scores (r = 0.70); and DC in the left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was negatively correlated with self-reflectiveness (SR) scores (r = 0.69). We conclude that frontoparietal network and cortico-thalamo-cortical pathway disruptions could play key roles in the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AOS. In AOS patients, the right parahippocampus and SPL are important structures associated with positive and negative symptoms, respectively, and the left precuneus and MFG contribute to deficits in cognitive insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00505-9DOI Listing
August 2021

ELMO1 signaling is a promoter of osteoclast function and bone loss.

Nat Commun 2021 08 17;12(1):4974. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Center for Cell Clearance, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology and Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Osteoporosis affects millions worldwide and is often caused by osteoclast induced bone loss. Here, we identify the cytoplasmic protein ELMO1 as an important 'signaling node' in osteoclasts. We note that ELMO1 SNPs associate with bone abnormalities in humans, and that ELMO1 deletion in mice reduces bone loss in four in vivo models: osteoprotegerin deficiency, ovariectomy, and two types of inflammatory arthritis. Our transcriptomic analyses coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 genetic deletion identify Elmo1 associated regulators of osteoclast function, including cathepsin G and myeloperoxidase. Further, we define the 'ELMO1 interactome' in osteoclasts via proteomics and reveal proteins required for bone degradation. ELMO1 also contributes to osteoclast sealing zone on bone-like surfaces and distribution of osteoclast-specific proteases. Finally, a 3D structure-based ELMO1 inhibitory peptide reduces bone resorption in wild type osteoclasts. Collectively, we identify ELMO1 as a signaling hub that regulates osteoclast function and bone loss, with relevance to osteoporosis and arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25239-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371122PMC
August 2021

Soybean responds to phosphate starvation through reversible protein phosphorylation.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 7;167:222-234. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Root Biology Center, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is considered as a major constraint on crop production. Although a set of adaptative strategies are extensively suggested in soybean (Glycine max) to phosphate (Pi) deprivation, molecular mechanisms underlying reversible protein phosphorylation in soybean responses to P deficiency remains largely unclear. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify differential phosphoproteins in soybean roots under Pi sufficient and deficient conditions. A total of 427 phosphoproteins were found to exhibit differential accumulations, with 213 up-regulated and 214 down-regulated. Among them, a nitrate reductase, GmNR4 exhibiting increased phosphorylation levels under low Pi conditions, was further selected to evaluate the effects of phosphorylation on its nitrate reductase activity and subcellular localization. Mutations of GmNR4 phosphorylation levels significantly influenced its activity in vitro, but not for its subcellular localization. Taken together, identification of differential phosphoproteins reveled the complex regulatory pathways for soybean adaptation to Pi starvation through reversible protein phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.08.007DOI Listing
October 2021

Real-time on-site monitoring of soil ammonia emissions using membrane permeation-based sensing probe.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 26;289:117850. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, Australia. Electronic address:

An ability to real-time, continuously monitor soil ammonia emission profiles under diverse meteorological conditions with high temporal resolution in a simple and maintenance-free fashion can provide the urgently needed scientific insights to mitigate ammonia emission to the atmosphere and improve agricultural fertilization practice. Here, we report an open-chamber deployment unit embedded a gas-permeable membrane-based conductometric sensing probe (OC-GPMCP) capable of on-site continuously monitoring soil ammonia emission flux ( [Formula: see text] ) -time (t) profiles without the need for ongoing calibration. The developed OC-GPMCPs were deployed to a sugarcane field and a cattle farm under different fertilization/meteorological conditions to exemplify their real-world applicability for monitoring soil ammonia emission from agricultural land and livestock farm, respectively. The obtained [Formula: see text] - t profiles from the sugarcane field unveil that the ammonia emission rate is largely determined by fertilization methods and meteorological conditions. While the [Formula: see text] - t profiles from the cattle farm can be decisively correlated to various meteorological conditions. The reported OC-GPMCP is cheap to fabricate, easy to deploy, and maintenance-free to operate. These advantageous features make OC-GPMCP an effective analytical tool for large-scale soil ammonia emission assessment under diverse meteorological conditions, providing critically important scientific insights to mitigate ammonia emission into the atmosphere and improve agricultural fertilization practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117850DOI Listing
November 2021

Case Report: A 62-Year-Old Woman With Contrast-Induced Encephalopathy Caused by Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysm.

Front Surg 2021 19;8:689713. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a rare complication of endovascular treatment and is extensively reported as a transient and reversible phenomenon. This report describes a 62-year-old woman for embolization of an internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. The operation was successful, but postoperation the patient suffered unconsciousness, blindness, hemiplegia, ophthalmoplegia, fever, and seizures. CT of the brain without the contrast showed widespread edema in the right cerebral hemisphere, which is involved in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. She was diagnosed with CIE in time and treated with supportive management as soon as possible, and fortunately, the patient improved a benign course and was discharged without any neurological deficits. This study emphasizes the prevention of the CIE and the importance of early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.689713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326837PMC
July 2021

Virus-Like Vesicles Based on Semliki Forest Virus-Containing Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Make a Safe and Efficacious Rabies Vaccine Candidate in a Mouse Model.

J Virol 2021 09 4;95(20):e0079021. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural Universitygrid.35155.37, Wuhan, China.

Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that causes encephalitis in mammals, and vaccination is the most effective method to control and eliminate rabies. Virus-like vesicles (VLVs), which are characterized as infectious, self-propagating membrane-enveloped particles composed of only Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicase and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), have been proven safe and efficient as vaccine candidates. However, previous studies showed that VLVs containing rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) grew at relatively low titers in cells, impeding their potential use as a rabies vaccine. In this study, we constructed novel VLVs by transfection of a mutant SFV RNA replicon encoding RABV-G. We found that these VLVs could self-propagate efficiently in cell culture and could evolve to high titers (approximately 10 focus-forming units [FFU]/ml) by extensive passaging 25 times in BHK-21 cells. Furthermore, we found that the evolved amino acid changes in SFV nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) at positions 470 and 482 was critical for this high-titer phenotype. Remarkably, VLVs could induce robust type I interferon (IFN) expression in BV2 cells and were highly sensitive to IFN-α. We found that direct inoculation of VLVs into the mouse brain caused reduced body weight loss, mortality, and neuroinflammation compared with the RABV vaccine strain. Finally, it could induce increased generation of germinal center (GC) B cells, plasma cells (PCs), and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs), as well as provide protection against virulent RABV challenge in immunized mice. This study demonstrated that VLVs containing RABV-G could proliferate in cells and were highly evolvable, revealing the feasibility of developing an economic, safe, and efficacious rabies vaccine. VLVs have been shown to represent a more versatile and superior vaccine platform. In previous studies, VLVs containing the Semliki Forest virus replicase (SFV nsP1 to nsP4) and rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) grew to relatively low titers in cells. In our study, we not only succeeded in generating VLVs that proliferate in cells and stably express RABV-G, but the VLVs that evolved grew to higher titers, reaching 10 FFU/ml. We also found that nucleic acid changes at positions 470 and 482 in nsP1 were vital for this high-titer phenotype. Moreover, the VLVs that evolved in our studies were highly attenuated in mice, induced potent immunity, and protected mice from lethal RABV infection. Collectively, our study showed that high titers of VLVs containing RABV-G were achieved, demonstrating that these VLVs could be an economical, safe, and efficacious rabies vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00790-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475514PMC
September 2021

The Pathogenic Features of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Possible Mechanisms for Immune Evasion?

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:693579. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerging, highly transmitted and pathogenic coronavirus that has caused global public health events and economic crises. As of March 4, 2021, more than 100 million people have been infected, more than 2 million deaths have been reported worldwide, and the numbers are continuing to rise. To date, a specific drug for this lethal virus has not been developed to date, and very little is currently known about the immune evasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this review was to summarize and sort dozens of published studies on PubMed to explore the pathogenic features of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the possible immune escape mechanisms of this virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.693579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317057PMC
August 2021
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