Publications by authors named "Ming Yang"

2,302 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The correlation between high-risk HPV infection and precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(9):10830-10836. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Auxiliary Diagnostic, The Third Outpatient Department of General Hospital of North Theater Command, People's Liberation Army of China Shenyang 110000, Liaoning Province, China.

Objective: To analyze the correlation between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

Methods: Patients with cervicitis (N=100), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN I) (N=100), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II-III (CIN II-III) (N=100) and cervical cancer (N=100) were enrolled. The exfoliated cervical cells were collected with the same method, and the detection of the HPV types was carried out by PCR-reverse dot blot (RDB) assay.

Results: The top 5 HPV types in stage I-II cervical cancer were 16, 18, 52, 58, and 53, with a HPV positivity rate of 83.61%, while top 5 HPV types in stage III-IV cervical cancer were 16, 18, 58, 52, and 33, with a HPV positivity rate of 82.05%. The rate of high-risk HPV positivity for cervicitis was 5%, with HPV types of 16, 18, 52, and 33, 12% for CIN I, with HPV types of 16, 58, 52, 33, 56, 66, and 68, and 42% for CIN II-III, with HPV types of 16, 18, 58, 52, 33, 66, and 68. The prevalence of single, dual, and multiple HPV infection was 8.00%, 1.00%, and 0.00% for CIN I, 24.00%, 7.00%, and 1.00% for CIN II-III, and 57.00%, 25.00%, and 3.00% for cervical cancer, respectively. The age of patients with CIN I was mainly ≤24 and 25-34 years while CIN II-III in 25-34 and 35-44 years, and cervical cancer in 35-44 and 45-54 years.

Conclusion: The distribution of HPV subtypes in cervical cancer is closely related to the pathological types, lesion grades, and stages of cervical cancer. The incidence of cervical lesions varies with age, suggesting that high-risk groups should be well monitored and receive regular screening and timely HPV vaccination to effectively prevent cervical cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507010PMC
September 2021

Integrative Functional Genomics Implicated the Key T-/B-Cell Deficiency Regulator in Transarterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 27;9:720791. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Unfortunately, there are still a portion of patients without therapeutic responses to TACE. Although genome-wide association studies identified multiple HCC susceptibility SNPs, it is still largely unclear how genome-wide identified functional SNPs impacting gene expression contribute to the prognosis of TACE-treated HCC patients. In this study, we developed an integrative functional genomics methodology to identify gene expression-related SNPs significantly contributing to prognosis of TACE-treated HCC patients across the whole genome. Employing integration of data from expression quantitative trait locus (eQTLs) analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) as well as the 1000 Genomes project, we successfully annotated 60 gene expression-related SNPs which are associated with OS of the TCGA patients. After genotyping these 60 SNPs in our TACE cohort, we identified four SNPs (rs12574873, rs12513391, rs34597395, and rs35624901) which are significantly associated with OS of HCC patients treated with TACE. For instance, multivariate Cox proportional hazards model indicated that the rs35624901 Deletion.Deletion (Del.Del) genotype carriers had markedly prolonged OS and a 55% decreased death risk compared with individuals with the GG genotype after TACE therapy ( = 8.3 × 10). In support of this, the rs35624901 Del.Del genotype is correlated to higher expression of , a key T-/B-cell deficiency regulator. Our findings reported the first evidence supporting the prognostic value of four eQTL SNPs in TACE-treated HCC patients. Importantly, our data implicated that antitumor immunity might contribute to TACE efficiency for unresectable HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.720791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502842PMC
September 2021

Convergent somatic mutations in metabolism genes in chronic liver disease.

Nature 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

CRUK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge, UK.

The progression of chronic liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma is caused by the acquisition of somatic mutations that affect 20-30 cancer genes. Burdens of somatic mutations are higher and clonal expansions larger in chronic liver disease than in normal liver, which enables positive selection to shape the genomic landscape. Here we analysed somatic mutations from 1,590 genomes across 34 liver samples, including healthy controls, alcohol-related liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Seven of the 29 patients with liver disease had mutations in FOXO1, the major transcription factor in insulin signalling. These mutations affected a single hotspot within the gene, impairing the insulin-mediated nuclear export of FOXO1. Notably, six of the seven patients with FOXO1 hotspot mutations showed convergent evolution, with variants acquired independently by up to nine distinct hepatocyte clones per patient. CIDEB, which regulates lipid droplet metabolism in hepatocytes, and GPAM, which produces storage triacylglycerol from free fatty acids, also had a significant excess of mutations. We again observed frequent convergent evolution: up to fourteen independent clones per patient with CIDEB mutations and up to seven clones per patient with GPAM mutations. Mutations in metabolism genes were distributed across multiple anatomical segments of the liver, increased clone size and were seen in both alcohol-related liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but rarely in hepatocellular carcinoma. Master regulators of metabolic pathways are a frequent target of convergent somatic mutation in alcohol-related and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03974-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Thermal Stability and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Poly(-caprolactone)/Chitosan Composite Membranes.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass Fibers and Eco-Dyeing and Finishing, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073, China.

Poly (-caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan (CS) are widely used as biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with desirable properties for tissue engineering applications. Composite membranes (CS-PCL) with various blend ratios (CS:PCL, /) of 0:100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, and 100:0 were successfully prepared by lyophilization. The thermal stabilities of the CS-PCL membranes were systematically characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), dynamic thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was shown that the blend ratio of PCL and CS had a significant effect on the thermal stability, hydrophilicity, and dynamic mechanical viscoelasticity of the CS-PCL membranes. All the samples in the experimental range exhibited high elasticity at low temperature and high viscosity at high temperatures by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The performances of the CS-PCL membranes were at optimum levels when the blend ratio (/) was 10:90. The glass transition temperature of the CS-PCL membranes increased from 64.8 °C to 76.6 °C compared to that of the pure PCL, and the initial thermal decomposition temperature reached 86.7 °C. The crystallinity and porosity went up to 29.97% and 85.61%, respectively, while the tensile strength and elongation at the breakage were 20.036 MPa and 198.72%, respectively. Therefore, the 10:90 (/) blend ratio of CS/PCL is recommended to prepare CS-PCL membranes for tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14195538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509319PMC
September 2021

miRNA-34b/c regulates mucus secretion in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells by targeting FGFR1.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in airway epithelial cells is the main cause of bronchiolitis in children. Excessive mucus secretion is one of the primary symbols in RSV related lower respiratory tract infections (RSV-related LRTI). However, the pathological processes of mucus hypersecretion in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells remains unclear. The current study explores the involvement of miR-34b/miR-34c in mucus hypersecretion in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells by targeting FGFR1. First, miR-34b/miR-34c and FGFR1 mRNA were quantified by qPCR in throat swab samples and cell lines, respectively. Then, the luciferase reporters' assay was designed to verify the direct binding between FGFR1 and miR-34b/miR-34c. Finally, the involvement of AP-1 signalling was assessed by western blot. This study identified that miR-34b/miR-34c was involved in c-Jun-regulated MUC5AC production by targeting FGFR1 in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells. These results provide some useful insights into the molecular mechanisms of mucus hypersecretion which may also bring new potential strategies to improve mucus hypersecretion in RSV disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16988DOI Listing
October 2021

Ensembles from silver clusters and cucurbit[6]uril-containing linkers.

Dalton Trans 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University Henan Key Laboratory of Coal Green Conversion, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China.

In this work, organic supramolecular linkers involving cucubit[6]urils CB[6] and ,'-hexamethylene-bis(pyrazinyl hexafluorophosphate) ([email protected][6]) were utilized to assemble dodenuclear silver chalcogenolate clusters into three one-dimensional (1D) materials under different synthesis conditions. These three crystal structures of CB[6]-based sliver cluster-organic rotaxane frameworks were well resolved, and their emission properties were investigated systematically. This construction strategy involving organic supramolecular linkers gives a new methodology for cluster-assembled materials with intriguing structural and functional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02505hDOI Listing
October 2021

The Dual Effect of Abnormal Serum Uric Acid on Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 29;2021:2362799. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

An abnormal serum uric acid (SUA) level is associated with many diseases. To our knowledge, there is no research on the association between SUA and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between SUA and IDD. From June 2011 to July 2020, 691 patients undergoing surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) were included in the LDH group, and 684 patients who underwent endoscopic surgery for knee trauma were included in the non-LDH group. We examined the baseline characteristics of all these patients and divided the SUA level into 10 groups according to the percentiles in males, females, and the total population. Subsequently, the relationship between the SUA level and IDD was further analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups ( > 0.05). Among the 10 groups, the LDH rate was higher at both lower and higher SUA levels. In multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and drinking, when the SUA level was <20% or >80%, compared with 60-80%, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of LDH of the total population were 1.821 (1.125-2.946) and 1.701 (1.186-2.438), respectively, and in the males, they were 1.922 (1.169-3.161) and 2.800 (1.766, 4.439), respectively. In females, when the SUA was <20%, there was a higher LDH rate (OR = 1.951, 95% CI 1.091-3.486). The present study suggests that there is a U-shaped relationship between SUA and IDD, being particularly prominent among male. Lower and higher SUA level may be risk factors for IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2362799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494577PMC
September 2021

AMPK agonist alleviate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via activating mitophagy in high fat and streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Oct 9;12(10):925. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Nephrology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was a crucial pathological feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and renal tubular injury might associate with abnormal mitophagy. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of AMPK agonist metformin on mitophagy and cellular injury in renal tubular cell under diabetic condition. The high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic mice model and HK-2 cells were used in this study. Metformin was administered in the drinking water (200 mg/kg/d) for 24 weeks. Renal tubulointerstitial lesions, oxidative stress and some indicators of mitophagy (e.g., LC3II, Pink1, and Parkin) were examined both in renal tissue and HK-2 cells. Additionally, compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) and Pink1 siRNA were applied to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of metformin on mitophagy. We found that the expression of p-AMPK, Pink1, Parkin, LC3II, and Atg5 in renal tissue of diabetic mice was decreased obviously. Metformin reduced the levels of serum creatinine, urine protein, and attenuated renal oxidative injury and fibrosis in HFD/STZ induced diabetic mice. In addition, Metformin reversed mitophagy dysfunction and the over-expression of NLRP3. In vitro pretreatment of HK-2 cells with AMPK inhibitor compound C or Pink1 siRNA negated the beneficial effects of metformin. Furthermore, we noted that metformin activated p-AMPK and promoted the translocation of Pink1 from the cytoplasm to mitochondria, then promoted the occurrence of mitophagy in HK-2 cells under HG/HFA ambience. Our results suggested for the first time that AMPK agonist metformin ameliorated renal oxidative stress and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice via activating mitophagy through a p-AMPK-Pink1-Parkin pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04184-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Classification of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Based on Immunogenomic Profiling and Validation at Single-Cell Resolution.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:722841. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The aim of this paper was to identify an immunotherapy-sensitive subtype for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (ER+ BC) patients by exploring the relationship between cancer genetic programs and antitumor immunity via multidimensional genome-scale analyses. Multidimensional ER+ BC high-throughput data (raw count data) including gene expression profiles, copy number variation (CNV) data, single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation data, and relevant clinical information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas to explore an immune subtype sensitive to immunotherapy using the Consensus Cluster Plus algorithm based on multidimensional genome-scale analyses. One ArrayExpress dataset and eight Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GEO-meta dataset) as well as the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium dataset were used as validation sets to confirm the findings regarding the immune profiles, mutational features, and survival outcomes of the three identified immune subtypes. Moreover, the development trajectory of ER+ BC patients from the single-cell resolution level was also explored. Through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, three immune subtypes of ER+ BC (C1, C2, and C3, designated the immune suppressive, activation, and neutral subtypes, respectively) were identified. C2 was associated with up-regulated immune cell signatures and immune checkpoint genes. Additionally, five tumor-related pathways (transforming growth factor, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix, interferon-γ, and WNT signaling) tended to be more activated in C2 than in C1 and C3. Moreover, C2 was associated with a lower tumor mutation burden, a decreased neoantigen load, and fewer CNVs. Drug sensitivity analysis further showed that C2 may be more sensitive to immunosuppressive agents. C2 (the immune activation subtype) may be sensitive to immunotherapy, which provides new insights into effective treatment approaches for ER+ BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.722841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490889PMC
September 2021

Post hoc Analysis of Clinical Outcomes in Placebo- and Pirfenidone-Treated Patients with IPF Stratified by BMI and Weight Loss.

Respiration 2021 Oct 5:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

National Reference Coordinating Center for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Louis Pradel Hospital and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR754, member of OrphaLung, RespiFil, ERN-LUNG, Lyon, France.

Background: Weight loss is frequently reported in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and may be associated with worse outcomes in these patients.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and weight loss, and outcomes over 1 year in patients with IPF.

Methods: Data were included from placebo patients enrolled in ASCEND (NCT01366209) and CAPACITY (NCT00287716 and NCT00287729), and all patients in INSPIRE (NCT00075998) and RIFF Cohort A (NCT01872689). An additional analysis included data from pirfenidone-treated patients. Outcomes (annualized change in percent predicted forced vital capacity [%FVC], percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, 6-min walk distance, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, hospitalization, mortality, and serious adverse events) were analyzed by baseline BMI (<25 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2-<30 kg/m2, or ≥30 kg/m2) and annualized percent change in body weight (no loss, >0-<5% loss, or ≥5% loss).

Results: Placebo-treated patients with a baseline BMI <25 kg/m2 or annualized weight loss may experience worse outcomes versus those with a baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or no weight loss. The proportion of placebo-treated patients who experienced a relative decline of ≥10% in %FVC or death up to 1 year post-randomization was highest in patients with a baseline BMI <25 kg/m2. Pirfenidone-treated patients with an annualized weight loss ≥5% may also experience worse outcomes versus those with no weight loss.

Conclusions: Patients with a baseline BMI <25 kg/m2 or annualized weight loss of >0-<5% or ≥5% may experience worse outcomes over 1 year versus those with a baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or no weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518855DOI Listing
October 2021

Antagonizing astrocytic platelet activating factor receptor-neuroinflammation for total flavone of epimedium in response to cuprizone demyelination.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 1;101(Pt A):108181. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address:

Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by recurrent demyelination and progressive neurodegeneration, but there are no clinical drugs targeting myelin regeneration or improving functional disability in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Total flavone of Epimedium (TFE) is the main active components of Epimedium, which exhibits the beneficial biological activities in the treatment of diseases, but there is no report in the treatment of demyelinating disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic potential and possible mechanism of TFE in the treatment of demyelination. The results showed that TFE efficiently improved the behavioural performance and histological demyelination in cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelinating model. In terms of action, TFE increased astrocytes enrichment in corpus callosum, striatum and cortex, and promoted astrocytes to express neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, the expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in astrocytes was induced by CPZ feeding and LPS stimulation, accompanied by the increase of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β. TFE declined the expression of PAFR, and inhibited inflammatory response. At the same time, TFE also antagonized PAFR activation and inflammatory response triggered by PAF, which further confirmed that TFE, as a new PAFR antagonist, inhibited the astrocyte-derived inflammatory response by antagonizing PAFR-neuroinflammation axis, thus contributing to myelin protection and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108181DOI Listing
October 2021

Degradation and toxicity of the antidepressant fluoxetine in an aqueous system by UV irradiation.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 1;287(Pt 4):132434. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine (FLU), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is commonly found in aquatic environments. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis is widely used to remove certain pharmaceuticals from water and wastewater. The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of FLU and its transformed products formed during UV photolysis by using zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) as a model. The degradation rates of FLU for five days were approximately 63.6% ± 2.14%, 84.6% ± 0.99%, and 97.5% ± 0.25% after 15, 30, and 60 min of UV irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism was explored using LC-MS measurements and density flooding theory (DFT) theoretical calculations. Comprehensive toxicity preassessment of FLU and its degradation products was carried out using the T.E.S.T. software. The effects of physiological and biochemical parameters and neuron- and apoptosis-related gene expression were examined in zebrafish embryos exposed to non-irradiated (0-min) and irradiated (15, 30- and 60-min) solutions from 4 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf. The hatching time of zebrafish embryos exposed to the non-irradiated solution (0-min) and irradiated solution (60-min) was delayed, their heart rate at 48 and 72 hpf increased, and their body length at 120 hpf decreased. Significant differences were found between the non-irradiated (0-min) and UV-irradiated (15- or 30-min) groups. A dynamic response involving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was also observed in the non-irradiated and UV-irradiated groups. During the UV treatment experiments, the expression levels of neuron-related and apoptosis-related genes were significantly reduced over time alongside the formation of FLU degradation products. Overall, this study provides new concepts to remove and assess the toxicity of emerging contaminants in aquatic environments and highlights the need to consider the formation and persistence of toxic transformation products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132434DOI Listing
October 2021

Decorating UiO-66-NH crystals on recyclable fiber bearing polyamine and amidoxime bifunctional groups via cross-linking method with good stability for highly efficient capture of U(VI) from aqueous solution.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 20;424(Pt A):127273. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Hubei key Laboratory of Novel Reactor & Green Chemical Technology, National Engineering Research Center of Phosphorus Resource Exploitation, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

Although polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been extensively investigated to remove U(VI) from water, their practical applications are seriously hindered by the relatively low stability of PANF in acidic solution and great difficulty of separating MOFs nanoparticles from solution, beside that, little attention is paid to the fabrication of MOFs and PANF composite materials (MPCMs) with excellent adsorption capacity for U(VI). Herein, we report the synthesis of novel MPCMs by decorating different concentrations of UiO-66-NH2 crystals onto polyamine and amidoxime groups functionalized PANF (PA-AO-PANF) through cross-linking method for U(VI) extraction. The characterization results reveal that the combination of PA-AO-PANF and UiO-66-NH2 crystals endows MPCMs with excellent separation ability, large surface area, good stability and plentiful surface functional groups, which contributes to good selectivity and enhanced adsorption performance. Consequently, the obtained UN-PA-AO-PANF-2 shows the maximum uptake capacity of 441.8 mg/g and equilibrium uptake time of 30 min towards U(VI). Besides, the U(VI) uptake ability and structure of UN-PA-AO-PANF-2 are well preserved after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. With these outstanding properties, the adsorbent has great potential for the capture of U(VI) from aqueous solutions. Importantly, this work provides a cost-effective and efficient way to construct extremely stable MPCMs hybrid fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127273DOI Listing
September 2021

Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index: Prognostic factor related to inflammation in elderly patients with cancer cachexia.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery/Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Systemic inflammation and cachexia are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in elderly patients with cancer. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a simple and useful tool to assess these conditions, but its predictive ability for elderly patients with cancer cachexia (EPCC) is unknown.

Methods: This multicentre cohort study included 746 EPCC with an average age of 72.00 ± 5.24 years, of whom 489 (65.5%) were male. The patients were divided into two groups (high GNRI group ≥91.959 vs. low GNRI group <91.959) according to the optimal cut-off value of the ROC curve. The calibration curves were performed to analyse the prognostic, predictive ability of GNRI. Comprehensive survival analyses were utilized to explore the relationship between GNRI and the overall survival (OS) of EPCC. Interaction analysis was used to investigate the comprehensive effects of low GNRI and subgroup parameters on the OS of EPCC.

Results: In this study, a total of 2560 patients were diagnosed with cancer cachexia, including 746 cases of EPCC. During the 3.6 year median follow-up, we observed 403 deaths. The overall mortality rate for EPCC at 12 months was 34.3% (95% CI: 62.3% to 69.2%), and resulting in rate of 278 events per 1000 patient-years. The GNRI score of EPCC was significantly lower than those of young patients with cancer cachexia (P < 0.001). The 1, 3, and 5 year calibration curves showed that the GNRI score had good survival prediction in the OS of EPCC. The GNRI could predict the OS of EPCC, whether as a continuous variable or a categorical variable. Particularly, we also found that low GNRI score (<91.959) of EPCC had a worse prognosis than those with a high GNRI score (≥91.959, P = 0.001, HR = 1.728, 95% CI: 1.244-2.401). Consistent results were observed in the tumour subgroups of gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Notably, similar results were observed in the sensitivity analysis. In the subgroup analysis, the low GNRI has a combined effect with age (<70 years) on poor OS of EPCC. The results of the prognostic risk model found that the lower the GNRI score, the greater the prognostic risk score, and the greater the risk of death in EPCC.

Conclusions: For the first time, this study found that the GNRI score can serve as an independent prognostic factor for the OS of EPCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12800DOI Listing
September 2021

Epitaxial Growth of Quasi-One-Dimensional Bismuth-Halide Chains with Atomically Sharp Topological Non-Trivial Edge States.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 16;15(9):14850-14857. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Physics and BUAA-UOW Joint Research Centre, Beihang University, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Quantum spin Hall insulators (QSHIs) have one-dimensional (1D) spin-momentum locked topological edge states (ES) inside the bulk band gap, which can serve as dissipationless channels for the practical applications in low consumption electronics and high performance spintronics. However, obtaining the clean and atomically sharp ES which serves as ideal 1D spin-polarized nondissipative conducting channels is demanding and still a challenge. Here, we report the formation of the quasi-1D BiI nanoribbons on the surface of Bi(111) with the support of the graphene-terminated 6H-SiC(0001) and the direct observation of the topological ES at the step edges by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopic-imaging results. The ES reside surround the edge of BiI nanoribbons and exhibits noteworthy robustness against nontime reversal symmetry (non-TRS) perturbations. The theoretical simulations verify the topological nontriviality of 1D ES, which is retained after considering the presence of the underlying Bi(111). Our study supports the existence of topological ES in BiI nanoribbons, benefiting to engineer the topological features by using the 1D nanoribbons as building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04928DOI Listing
September 2021

Two-step complete splenic artery embolization for the management of symptomatic sinistral portal hypertension.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) is a rare clinical syndrome. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes and safety of splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the treatment of SPH.

Methods: This retrospective study included 39 SPH patients who underwent SAE treatment between August 2009 and May 2021. The cases had esophageal, gastric, or ectopic varices detected by endoscopy or enhanced CT, with symptoms or signs of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and/or postprandial fullness. Clinical symptom improvement rate, complications, and symptomatic recurrence rate were observed and analyzed after treatment.

Results: All the procedures were performed successfully. Of all patients, 17 received the 2-step complete SAE procedure, 19 received only the first step of the 2-step protocol (i.e., partial splenic embolization [PSE] procedure), and the remaining three received the 1-step complete SAE procedure. After the procedures, the symptoms completely disappeared in all patients, and the main complications were post-embolization syndromes, with 27 patients (69.2%) developing a low-grade fever, 24 (61.5%) developing abdominal pain and 4 (10.3%) developing nausea or mild vomiting. During the prolonged follow-up, varicose veins were gradually reduced as detected by enhanced CT; liver function parameters and platelet count remained in the normal range. Only one patient who underwent PSE treatment developed upper GI rebleeding 7 months after the procedure.

Conclusion: Two-step complete SAE is a safe and feasible procedure for the treatment of symptomatic SPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1983641DOI Listing
September 2021

First Report of Sclerotinia Blight on Peanut Caused by in Qinghai Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Shandong Peanut Research Institute , Plant Protect, No. 126 Wannianquan Road, Licang, Qingdao, Shandong, 266100, China, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China, 266100.

Historically, peanut has not been produced in Qinghai province located in Northwest China because of the high elevation and cold climates. However, since 2020 field studies have been conducted to evaluate peanut cultivars for suitability to field production. In 2020, peanut cultivation was successful for the first time in Haidong city, Qinghai province, China. In August 2020, brown, irregular-shaped lesions were observed on peanut stems from Qinghai province in China. In the early stage, the watersoaked spots were formed on the stems, then lesions expanded rapidly and became brown. In advanced stages of the disease, stems became bleached and eventually died. The inside of the stems was rotten and hollow, and the diseased stem wilted and died. White hyphae and black irregular shaped sclerotia were observed on the infected stems. Finally, local or whole plant rotted and died at the end. Approximately 10% of the plants in a field were infected. Symptomatic stems were cut into small pieces, disinfected with 75% ethanol for 1 minute, 0.5% NaClO for two minutes, and sterile water for three times. Pieces then were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and incubated at 25°C in darkness. Fungal colonies were initially white, becoming gray, then black sclerotia (2.4 to 6.0 mm in diameter) were appeared at the edge of colonies. Genomic DNA of the pure cultures of an isolate (ZHX7) was extracted and PCR was carried out using glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (G3PDH) region primers G3PDH-F/G3PDH-R, heat-shock protein 60 gene (HSP60) region primers HSP60-F/HSP60-R, and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit gene (RPB2) region primers RPB2-F/RPB2-R (Staats et al., 2005), respectively. G3PDH region (Accession No. MZ388475) showed 99.44% sequence identity (887 bp out of 909 bp) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Accession No. AJ705044, 887 bp out of 887 bp). HSP60 region (Accession No. MZ388476) showed 99.90% sequence identity (972 bp out of 984bp) to S. sclerotiorum (Accession No. AJ716048, 972 bp out of 980 bp). RPB2 region (Accession No. MZ388477) showed 100.00% sequence identity (1096 bp out of 1129 bp) to S. sclerotiorum (Accession No. AJ745716, 1096 bp out of 1096 bp). Phylogenetic analysis was done using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) analysis based on those gene sequences. The isolate was identified as S. sclerotiorum based on molecular analysis and morphological characteristics. For pathogenicity assay, ten-days-old potted peanut (Luhua No.12) seedlings were inoculated with one mycelial plug (8 mm in diameter ) by placing the inoculum on the base of the stem in a growth chamber (30°C in the day and 25°C at night, a 12-h photoperiod and 80% RH). All inoculated seedlings exhibited typical basal stem rot, and root showed different degrees of damage, and wilted 5 days after inoculation. No symptoms were observed on control plants treated with sterile distilled mycelial plugs, and S. sclerotiorum was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. S. sclerotiorum has been reported on peanut in Northeastern China (Yan et al., 2005). To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. sclerotiorum causing Sclerotinia Blight on peanut in Qinghai province, China. The peanut planting area in Qinghai has been further expanded this year, and S. sclerotiorum has a broad host range (Boland and Hall, 1994), so Sclerotinia Blight is a potential threat to peanut production, and as a result, it is critical for commercial producers to monitor plants for S. sclerotiorum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1503-PDNDOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation and Validation of the Prognostic Value of Serum Albumin to Globulin Ratio in Patients With Cancer Cachexia: Results From a Large Multicenter Collaboration.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:707705. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery/Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Recently, albumin-globulin ratio (AGR), a serological indicator that reflects nutritional status and systemic inflammatory, has been reported to be associated with the prognosis of various cancers. However, there is currently no research report on its relationship with cancer cachexia.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of AGR in patients with cancer cachexia through a multicenter retrospective analysis.

Methods: We recruited 2,364 patients with cancer cachexia and randomly divided the patients into training and validation cohorts at a ratio of 7:3. The optimal stratification method was used to determine the optimal cutoff value of AGR. The survival curve was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression proportional-hazards model was used to determine independent prognostic factors in patients with cancer cachexia. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the prognostic performance of different malnutrition evaluation tools.

Results: The optimal cutoff value of AGR is 1.24 in patients with cancer cachexia. Increasing AGR was associated with survival in a dose-response manner with a forward L-shape. Compared with the high AGR group, the low AGR group had a shorter overall survival; and there was consistency in training and validation cohorts. In the stratified analysis of TNM stage, AGR has good prognostic distinguishing ability for advanced patients. Multivariate survival analysis determined that low AGR was an independent risk factor affecting all-cause mortality in patients with cancer cachexia. In addition, compared with other malnutrition evaluation tools, AGR could effectively stratify the prognosis of patients with cancer cachexia.

Conclusion: AGR was an independent prognostic factor affecting patients with cancer cachexia, especially in advanced patients. Compared with other malnutrition evaluation tools, AGR can effectively stratify the prognosis of patients with cancer cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.707705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461248PMC
September 2021

Involvement of epithelia-derived exosomes in chronic respiratory diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Nov 21;143:112189. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Research Center of China-Africa Infectious Diseases, Xiangya School of Medicine Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Exosomes are tiny membrane lipid bilayer vesicles (φ40-100 nm) formed by the fusion of multivesicular bodies with plasma membrane, which are released extracellular by exocytosis. As natural nanocarriers, exosomes contain a variety of signal substances of the mother cell: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, etc., which always play a vital role in the transmission of signal molecules between different cells. Epithelial cells are the first-line defense system against various inhaled allergens causing chronic respiratory diseases (CRD), such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It's noted that increasing literature shows the exosomes derived from epithelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of CRD. Moreover, the correlations between exosome cargo and the disease phenotypes show a high potential of using exosomes as biomarkers of CRD. In this review, we mainly focus on the physiological functions of epithelial-derived exosomes and illustrate the involved mechanism of epithelial-derived exosomes in common CRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112189DOI Listing
November 2021

Integrated analysis of mRNA and long non-coding RNA expression profiles reveals the potential roles of lncRNA-mRNA network in carp macrophage immune regulation.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a hot topic in research as mounting evidence has indicated their transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulatory potential in multiple biological processes. Previous studies have revealed the involvement of lncRNAs in the immunoregulation of mammalian macrophages by changing mRNA expression; however, studies on the lncRNAs in fish macrophages and their potential roles in the immune system remain unknown. Primary macrophages were isolated from the head kidney (HK) of red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and high-throughput lncRNA-mRNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The results revealed that the most highly expressed mRNAs in primary HK macrophages were mainly involved in immune-related signal pathways. Furthermore, the most enriched immune-related GO term and KEGG pathway of the mRNAs were "immune system development" and "chemokine signaling pathway," respectively. A total of 20,333 lncRNAs, composed of 10,512 known and 9821 novel lncRNAs, were identified, and functional enrichment analysis of the lncRNA-mRNA network indicated that the expressed lncRNAs in primary HK macrophages could be associated with the regulation of multiple immune-related signaling pathways. In addition, the expressions of several selected lncRNAs and their related mRNAs were determined in carp macrophages following a 6-h exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly(I: C), the results of which confirmed the co-expression regulation of lncRNAs and target mRNAs in the immune response of carp macrophages. These results suggest the correlative of the lncRNA-mRNA network in fish macrophage immune response, which may further affect the cross-talk of various signaling pathways by interaction with other network genes. Here, we provided fundamental data about the transcriptome profiles of primary HK macrophages from red common carp by analysis of the lncRNA-mRNA network, and ultimately suggest the potential roles of lncRNA-mRNA networks in immune regulation in teleost fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-021-00610-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Light-modulated vertical heterojunction phototransistors with distinct logical photocurrents.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Sep 23;9(1):167. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

The intriguing carrier dynamics in graphene heterojunctions have stimulated great interest in modulating the optoelectronic features to realize high-performance photodetectors. However, for most phototransistors, the photoresponse characteristics are modulated with an electrical gate or a static field. In this paper, we demonstrate a graphene/C/pentacene vertical phototransistor to tune both the photoresponse time and photocurrent based on light modulation. By exploiting the power-dependent multiple states of the photocurrent, remarkable logical photocurrent switching under infrared light modulation occurs in a thick C layer (11 nm) device, which implies competition of the photogenerated carriers between graphene/C and C/pentacene. Meanwhile, we observe a complete positive-negative alternating process under continuous 405 nm irradiation. Furthermore, infrared light modulation of a thin C (5 nm) device results in a photoresponsivity improvement from 3425 A/W up to 7673 A/W, and we clearly probe the primary reason for the distinct modulation results between the 5 and 11 nm C devices. In addition, the tuneable bandwidth of the infrared response from 10 to 3 × 10 Hz under visible light modulation is explored. Such distinct types of optical modulation phenomena and logical photocurrent inversion characteristics pave the way for future tuneable logical photocurrent switching devices and high-performance phototransistors with vertical graphene heterojunction structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00406-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Chinese patent medicine Aidi injection for cancer care: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 20;282:114656. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Centre for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aidi injection is one of the China Food and Drug Administration approved Chinese herbal injections and the most competitive product in cancer care in China. It is composed of the extracts from Mylabris Phalerata, Astragalus Membranaceus, Panax Ginseng, and Acanthopanax Senticosus.

Aim Of The Study: This overview aims to map systematic reviews (SRs) of Aidi injection for cancer and provide a summarized evidence for clinical practice and decision making.

Materials And Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on Aidi injection for cancer care until December 2020. Six authors worked in pairs independently identified studies, collected data, and assessed the quality of included studies according to the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A narrative synthesis was used for the evidence mapping.

Results: Fifty-two SRs on Aidi injection as adjuvant therapy were included, involving lung cancer (20 SRs), liver cancer (10), colorectal cancer (7), gastric cancer (6), lymphoma (2), breast cancer (2), esophageal cancer (1), ovary cancer (1), and a mix of different cancers (4). Except for one SR focusing on Aidi injection used alone, other SRs evaluated Aidi injection in combination with chemotherapy (43), radiotherapy (4), or chemo/radiology/targeting therapy (4). Aidi injection showed additional beneficial effects on survival (9), objective response rate (44), quality of life (42), and the reduction of side-effects from chemo/radiotherapy (48). Using AMSTAR 2 tool, two reviews were assessed as low and the rest as critically low methodological quality mainly due to the lack of prospective registration. The reporting quality was insufficient assessed with PRISMA in the reporting of search strategy (26, 50.0%), additional analysis (19, 36.5%), and the summary of evidence (2, 3.8%).

Conclusion: Aidi injection has been evaluated for its adjuvant beneficial effects on cancer survival, tumor responses, quality of life, and reducing the side effects of chemo/radiotherapy, mainly focusing on lung, liver and colorectal cancer. The methodological and reporting quality are weak and need to be improved in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114656DOI Listing
January 2022

Associations of low hand grip strength with 1 year mortality of cancer cachexia: a multicentre observational study.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery/Clinical Nutrition, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Backgrounds: Hand grip strength (HGS) is one of diagnose criteria factors of sarcopenia and is associated with the survival of patients with cancer. However, few studies have addressed the association of HGS and 1 year mortality of patients with cancer cachexia.

Methods: This cohort study included 8466 patients with malignant solid tumour from 40 clinical centres throughout China. Cachexia was diagnosed using the 2011 International cancer cachexia consensus. The hazard ratio (HR) of all cancer cachexia mortality was calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to evaluate the association between HGS and the 1 year mortality of patients with cancer cachexia. The interaction analysis was used to explore the combined effect of low HGS and other factors on the overall survival of patients with cancer cachexia.

Results: Among all participants, 1434 (16.9%) patients with cancer were diagnosed with cachexia according to the 2011 International cancer cachexia consensus with a mean (SD) age of 57.75 (12.97) years, among which there were 871 (60.7%) male patients. The HGS optimal cut-off points of male and female patients were 19.87 and 14.3 kg, respectively. Patients with cancer cachexia had lower HGS than those patients without cachexia (P < 0.05). In the multivariable Cox analysis, low HGS was an independent risk factor of cachexia [HR: 1.491, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.257-1.769] after adjusting other factors. In addition, all of cancer cachexia patients with lower HGS had unfavourable 1 year survival (P < 0.001). In a subset analysis, low HGS was an independent prognosis factor of male patients with cancer cachexia (HR: 1.623, 95% CI: 1.308-2.014, P < 0.001), but not in female patients (HR: 1.947, 95% CI: 0.956-3.963, P = 0.0662), and low HGS was associated with poor 1 year survival of digestive system, respiratory system, and other cancer cachexia patients (all P < 0.05). Low HGS has combined effects with high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio or low albumin on unfavourable overall survival of patients with cancer cachexia.

Conclusions: Low HGS was associated with poor 1 year survival of patients with cancer cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12778DOI Listing
September 2021

The use of miR122 and its target sequence in adeno-associated virus-mediated trichosanthin gene therapy.

J Integr Med 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Engineering Research Center of Gene Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic transgene expression, such as trichosanthin (tcs), regulated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector is a promising cancer gene therapy. However, the cytotoxic transgene can hamper the vector production in the rAAV producer cell line, human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Here, we explored microRNA-122 (miR122) and its target sequence to limit the expression of the cytotoxic gene in the rAAV producer cells.

Methods: A miR122 target (122T) sequence was incorporated into the 3' untranslated region of the tcs cDNA sequence. The firefly luciferase (fluc) transgene was used as an appropriate control. Cell line HEK293-mir122 was generated by the lentiviral vector-mediated genome integration of the mir122 gene in parental HEK293 cells. The effects of miR122 overexpression on cell growth, transgene expression, and rAAV production were determined.

Results: The presence of 122T sequence significantly reduced transgene expression in the miR122-enriched Huh7 cell line (in vitro), fresh human hepatocytes (ex vivo), and mouse liver (in vivo). Also, the normal liver physiology was unaffected by delivery of 122T sequence by rAAV vectors. Compared with the parental cells, the miR122-overexpressing HEK293-mir122 cell line showed similar cell growth rate and expression of transgene without 122T, as well as the ability to produce liver-targeting rAAV vectors. Fascinatingly, the yield of rAAV vectors carrying the tcs-122T gene was increased by 77.7-fold in HEK293-mir122 cells. Moreover, the tcs-122T-containing rAAV vectors significantly reduced the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells without affecting the normal liver cells.

Conclusion: HEK293-mir122 cells along with the 122T sequence provide a potential tool to attenuate the cytotoxic transgene expression, such as tcs, during rAAV vector production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2021.09.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Integrins in the Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation by Mechanical Signals.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

The Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, 130021, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can sense and convert mechanical stimuli signals into a chemical response. Integrins are involved in the mechanotransduction from inside to outside and from outside to inside, and ultimately affect the fate of MSCs responding to different mechanical signals. Different integrins participate in different signaling pathways to regulate MSCs multi-differentiation. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the effects of mechanical signals on the differentiation of MSCs, the importance of integrins in mechanotransduction, the relationship between integrin heterodimers and different mechanical signals, and the interaction among mechanical signals. We put forward our views on the prospect and challenges of developing mechanical biology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-021-10260-5DOI Listing
September 2021

On-Surface Synthesis of Variable Bandgap Nanoporous Graphene.

Small 2021 Sep 18:e2102246. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117551, Singapore.

Tuning the bandgap of nanoporous graphene is desirable for applications such as the charge transport layer in organic-hybrid devices. The holy grail in the field is the ability to synthesize 2D nanoporous graphene with variable pore sizes, and hence tunable band gaps. Herein, the on-surface synthesis of nanoporous graphene with variable bandgaps is demonstrated. Two types of nanoporous graphene are synthesized via hierarchical CC coupling, and are verified by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoporous graphene-1 is non-planar, and nanoporous graphene-2 is a single-atom thick planar sheet. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal that nanoporous graphene-2 has a bandgap of 3.8 eV, while nanoporous graphene-1 has a larger bandgap of 5.0 eV. Corroborated by first-principles calculations, it is proposed that the large bandgap opening is governed by the confinement of π-electrons induced by pore generation and the non-planar structure. The finding shows that by introducing nanopores or a twisted structure, semi metallic graphene is converted into semiconducting nanoporous graphene-2 or insulating wide-bandgap nanoporous graphene-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102246DOI Listing
September 2021

The Safety and Effectiveness of Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Biomed Res Int 2021 7;2021:5537899. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, China.

Objective: Bevacizumab was currently available for nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSqNSCLC) patients and has been studied in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment of these patients. This meta-analysis summarizes the most up-to-date evidences regarding the effects and adverse reactions of bevacizumab in the treatment of NSqNSCLC patients.

Methods: The authors searched for RCTs from electronic database including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Experimental arm was defined as the bevacizumab-containing group and the control arm as the bevacizumab-free group. Data of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse reactions were synthetically extracted. A protocol for this meta-analysis has been registered on PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero).

Results: Ten RCTs that involved a total of 3134 patients were included. The experimental group was associated with significant superior ORR (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.14, < 0.001), OS (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.99, < 0.001), and prolonged PFS (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.74, < 0.001) compared to the control. No significant difference was observed regarding DCR (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.30, = 0.08). The experimental group showed higher rate of hypertension (RR 6.91, 95% CI 4.62 to 10.35, < 0.00001) and hemorrhagic events (RR 3.07, 95% CI 1.78 to 5.30, < 0.0001) than the control group. The experimental group showed lower rate of anemia (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.96, = 0.02) than the control group. No significant difference was observed regarding treatment-related adverse event grade 3-5 (TRAE3-5) (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.53, = 0.06), thrombocytopenia (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.33, = 0.29), and neutropenia (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.40, = 0.36).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that bevacizumab could increase ORR, OS, and prolonged PFS for treatment of NSqNSCLC patients. However, no significant improvement in DCR was observed and bevacizumab could increase the rate of hypertension and hemorrhagic events. Bevacizumab was an acceptable option for NSqNSCLC patients. This trial is registered with : CRD42021226790.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5537899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440089PMC
October 2021

Microwave technology: a novel approach to the transformation of natural metabolites.

Chin Med 2021 Sep 16;16(1):87. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Pharmacy School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China.

Microwave technology is used throughout the world to generate heat using energy from the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is characterized by uniform energy transfer, low energy consumption, and rapid heating which preserves much of the nutritional value in food products. Microwave technology is widely used to process food such as drying, because food and medicinal plants are the same organisms. Microwave technology is also used to process and extract parts of plants for medicinal purposes; however, the special principle of microwave radiation provide energy to reaction for transforming chemical components, creating a variety of compounds through oxidation, hydrolysis, rearrangement, esterification, condensation and other reactions that transform original components into new ones. In this paper, the principles, influencing factors of microwave technology, and the transformation of natural metabolites using microwave technology are reviewed, with an aim to provide a theoretical basis for the further study of microwave technology in the processing of medicinal materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00500-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444431PMC
September 2021

AIM2 deficiency in B cells ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus by regulating Blimp-1-Bcl-6 axis-mediated B-cell differentiation.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Sep 14;6(1):341. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) has been reported to be a component of inflammasomes in innate immune cells. Surprisingly, AIM2 is expressed by B cells, and higher AIM2 expression is observed in the B cells from lupus patients. To date, the inflammasome-independent function of AIM2 in B cells remains unclear. Here, we report increased expression of AIM2 in human tonsil memory and germinal center (GC) B cells and in memory B cells and plasma cells from the circulation and skin lesions of lupus patients. Conditional knockout of AIM2 in B cells reduces the CD19 B-cell frequency in lymph nodes and spleens, and dampens KLH-induced IgG1-antibody production. In a pristane-induced mouse model of lupus, AIM2 deficiency in B cells attenuates lupus symptoms and reduces the frequency of GC B cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, plasmablast cells, and plasma cells. Furthermore, the loss of AIM2 in human B cells leads to the increased expression of Blimp-1 and reduces the expression of Bcl-6. However, the silencing of Blimp-1 and Bcl-6 has no significant effect on AIM2 expression, indicating that AIM2 might be the upstream regulator for Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. In addition, IL-10 is found to upregulate AIM2 expression via DNA demethylation. Together, our findings reveal that AIM2 is highly expressed in the B cells of lupus patients and promotes B-cell differentiation by modulating the Bcl-6-Blimp-1 axis, providing a novel target for SLE treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00725-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440614PMC
September 2021

One-Year Mortality in Patients with Cancer Cachexia: Association with Albumin and Total Protein.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 29;13:6775-6783. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery/Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Serum albumin can indicate the onset of cancer cachexia, provide information about a patient's nutritional status, and serve as a biomarker for the prognosis of patients with cancer cachexia. However, the relationship between serum albumin levels and mortality in patients with cancer cachexia remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association of albumin and total protein with 1-year mortality in patients with cancer cachexia.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study using data from a multicenter cancer clinical survey from 2013 to 2018. In total, 266 patients with cancer cachexia who survived for <1 year and 266 patients who survived for ≥1 year were included in this study. The participants were matched by age, sex, tumor type, tumor stage, and hospital site. The crude and adjusted risks of 1-year survival were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression, with or without adjustment for covariates.

Results: Logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly negative linear association between albumin level and 1-year mortality in patients with cancer cachexia (p < 0.001). An L-shaped relationship existed between total protein and 1-year mortality, with a turning point at 70.4 g/L. When albumin was divided into quartiles, Q3 (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.68; p < 0.001) and Q4 (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.55; p < 0.001) were associated with higher 1-year survival than Q1 among patients with cancer cachexia. When total protein was divided into quartiles, Q2 (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.64; p < 0.001), Q3 (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.96; p = 0.035), and Q4 (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.72; p = 0.002) were associated with higher 1-year survival than Q1 among patients with cancer cachexia.

Conclusion: Serum albumin and total protein may predict 1-year survival. Future clinical studies should lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of serum protein levels in patients with cancer cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S318728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412822PMC
August 2021
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