Publications by authors named "Ming Wang"

1,646 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Authors' Reply: To the Letter to the Editor by Kessel et al.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 28;19(7):xliii-xliv. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

aPenn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.7068DOI Listing
July 2021

A general trait-based modelling framework for revealing patterns of airborne fungal dispersal threats to agriculture and native flora.

New Phytol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

CSIRO, Health & Biosecurity, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

Fungal plant pathogens are of economic and ecological importance to global agriculture and natural ecosystems. Long-distance atmospheric dispersal of fungal spores (LAD) can pose threats to agricultural and native vegetation lands. An understanding of such patterns of fungal spore dispersal and invasion pathways can provide valuable insights into plant protection. Spore traits affect their dispersal abilities. We propose a general trait-based framework for modelling LAD to reveal dispersal patterns and pathways, and assess subsequent threats of arrival (TOA) quantitatively in the context of biosecurity. To illustrate the framework, we present a study of Australia and its surrounding land masses. The overall dispersal pattern covered almost the entire continent of Australia. Fungal spores in the size class of 10 and 20 µm (aerodynamic diameter) posed the greatest TOA. Our study shows the effects of morphological traits on these potential TOA, and how they varied between source regions, size classes, and seasons. Our framework revealed spore dispersal patterns and pathways. It also facilitates comparisons of spatio-temporal dispersal dynamics among fungal classes, gaining insights into atmospheric long-distance dispersal of fungi as a whole, and provides a basis for assessing fungal pest threats in potential source regions based on easily measured spore characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17659DOI Listing
August 2021

Database mining analysis revealed the role of the putative H/sugar transporter solute carrier family 45 in skin cutaneous melanoma.

Channels (Austin) 2021 Dec;15(1):496-506

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Metabolic reprogramming is common in various cancers. Targeting metabolism to treat tumors is a hot research topic at present. Among them, changes in glucose metabolism in cancer have been widely studied. The Warburg effect maintains a high metabolic level in the tumor, accompanied by changes in glucose transporters. The transmembrane transport of sugar was previously thought to be mediated by SGLT and GLUT. Recently, the Solute Carrier Family(SLC) 45 family may be the third sugar transporter. But the role and value of the SLC45 family in melanoma, a highly malignant skin tumor, is unclear. Our study found that the four members of the SLC45 family, SLC45A1-SLC45A4, were differentially expressed in melanoma, but only SLC45A2 and SLC45A3 had prognostic guiding values. Further analysis revealed that the co-expression patterns of SLC45A2 and SLC45A3 were enriched in multiple metabolic pathways, suggesting their potential role in melanoma. In addition, SLC45A2 and SLC45A3 are also associated with immune cell infiltration. In conclusion, SLC45A2 and SLC45A3 are good prognostic indicators for melanoma and have guiding value for the treatment of melanoma in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2021.1956226DOI Listing
December 2021

The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression in the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively uncommon disease with few reported molecular markers. This study evaluated Tim-3 and PD-1 expression in primary UTUC and its impact on patients' clinical outcomes.

Methods: Tim-3 and PD-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded sections from 101 UTUC patients. The H-score was correlated with clinicopathologic outcomes and the long-term recurrence and survival rates.

Results: T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) protein was overexpressed in UTUC cells, especially tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and endothelial cells. We found that 95% (95/101) of UTUC tissues had dysregulated Tim-3 expression, of which 44% (44/101) showed high expression. High Tim-3 expression (H-score≥100) was significantly correlated with advanced pathological grade, advanced T stage and tumour recurrence (P=0.016, 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively) and with poor intravesical recurrence-free survival (IRFS) and overall survival (OS) (P< 0.001 and 0.003). Moreover, another immune checkpoint molecule, programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), was also assessed in our study. Among patients in the low Tim-3 expression subgroup, those with high PD-1 expression experienced intravesical recurrence (IVR) more often than those with low PD-1 expression (P< 0.001). However, the PD-1 expression level had no effect on prognosis in the high Tim-3 expression subgroup.

Conclusion: We confirmed that high Tim-3 protein expression can be used as an indicator of earlier IVR and shorter OS in patients with UTUC, while high expression of PD-1 is only related to earlier IVR. We showed that Tim-3 plays a more important role in tumour recurrence and progression than PD-1. Collectively, our findings support the use of Tim-3 and PD-1 as clinical prognostic factors indicating poor patient survival. Tim-3, alone or in combination with PD-1, could become a target for future UTUC therapies, but further prospective studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.05.039DOI Listing
July 2021

Phytoremediation potential of forage mulberry ( Roxb.) for cadmium contaminated paddy soils.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Jul 30:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Sericultural Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, China.

Mulberry is an important material to utilize the Cd polluted farmland in China and planting forage mulberry is a new development direction. This study aimed to investigate the changes of annual biomass and Cd content in shoot of Guisangyou 62, Guisangyou 12 and Yuesang 11 in field XT-C1, XT-X1 and ZZ-M1 under the pressure of Cd in 3 years. The Cd extraction ability of forage mulberry was analyzed, and the safety of forage mulberry was also discussed. The results showed that the annual biomass of each forage mulberry shoot could reach 64.52 ∼ 86.61 t/hectare (ha). The total harvest biomass of Guisangyou 12 was the highest, followed by Guisangyou 62 and Yuesang 11. In the same test area, for different forage mulberry varieties, there were no significant differences in Cd content in the shoot at each sampling time, and the Cd concentrations in shoot were in the range of 0.05 ∼ 0.66 mg/kg, meeting the hygienical standard for feeds (GB 13078-2017, China). Without considering the test area, the average Cd removal amount of each forage mulberry in a year was about 18.52 g/ha. Planting forage mulberry may become a new ecological economic model to achieve the safe utilization of Cd polluted farmland. Mulberry is one of the most important plants for safe utilization the Cd polluted farmland in China and planting mulberry as animal feed is a new development direction. This study investigated the effects of Cd on the shoot biomass of 3 forage mulberry varieties at 3 experimental areas in 3 years. It also examined how much Cd could be removed from soil by harvesting forage mulberry for 4 times a year. The Cd content in the shoot of forage mulberry and its safety were also evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1957768DOI Listing
July 2021

MicroRNA-361-5p slows down gliomas development through regulating UBR5 to elevate ATMIN protein expression.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 28;12(8):746. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China.

MicroRNA (miR)-361-5p has been studied to suppress gliomas development. Based on that, an insight into the regulatory mechanism of miR-361-5p in gliomas was supplemented from ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5 (UBR5)-mediated ubiquitination of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated interactor (ATMIN). miR-361-5p, ATMIN, and UBR5 levels were clinically analyzed in gliomas tissues, which were further validated in gliomas cell lines. Loss/gain-of-function method was applied to determine the roles of miR-361-5p and UBR5 in gliomas, as to cell viability, migration, invasion, colony formation ability, and apoptosis in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. The relationship between miR-361-5p and UBR5 was verified and the interaction between UBR5 and ATMIN was explored. It was detected that reduced miR-361-5p and ATMIN and enhanced UBR5 levels showed in gliomas. Elevating miR-361-5p was repressive in gliomas progression. UBR5 was directly targeted by miR-361-5p. UBR5 can ubiquitinate ATMIN. miR-361-5p suppressed gliomas by regulating UBR5-mediated ubiquitination of ATMIN. Downregulating UBR5 impeded gliomas tumor growth in vivo. Upregulating miR-361-5p targets UBR5 to promote ATMIN protein expression, thus to recline the malignant phenotype of gliomas cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04010-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319180PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-release angioplasty in acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(19):5028-5036

Department of Neurology, Puai Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430033, Hubei Province, China.

Background: In both national and international studies, the safety and effectiveness of treatment with the Solitaire stent in patients with ischemic stroke caused by acute large vessel occlusion were good, and the disability rate was significantly reduced. However, there are currently only a few reports on the differences in endovascular treatment for different etiological classifications, especially in the anterior cranial circulation, aorta atherosclerotic stenosis, and acute thrombosis.

Aim: To investigate the efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-release angioplasty in patients with acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction.

Methods: Twenty-five patients with acute middle cerebral atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction were retrospectively enrolled in this study from January 2017 to December 2019. The Solitaire AB stent was used to improve anterior blood flow to maintain modified cerebral infarction thrombolysis [modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI)] at the 2b/3 level or above, the stent was then unfolded and released.

Results: All 25 patients underwent successful surgery, with an average recanalization time of 23 min. One patient died of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral herniation after the operation. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores immediately after surgery (7.5 ± 5.6), at 24 h (5.5 ± 5.6) and at 1 wk (3.6 ± 6.7) compared with the preoperative NIHSS score (15.9 ± 4.4), were significantly different ( < 0.01). One case of restenosis was observed 3 mo after surgery (the stenosis rate was 50% without clinical symptoms), the modified Rankin scale scores were 0 points in 14 cases (56%), 1 point in 4 cases (16%), 2 points in 2 cases (8%), 3 points in 3 cases (12%), 4 points in 1 case (4%), and 6 points in 1 case (4%).

Conclusion: In acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction, when the Solitaire AB stent is unfolded and the forward blood flow is maintained at mTICI level 2b/3 or higher, stent release may be a safe and effective treatment method; however, long-term observation and a larger sample size are required to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i19.5028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283618PMC
July 2021

Untargeted LC/MS-Based Metabolic Phenotyping of Hypopituitarism in Young Males.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:684869. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hypopituitarism (Hypo-Pit) is partial or complete insufficiency of anterior pituitary hormones. Besides hormone metabolism, the global metabolomics in Hypo-Pit are largely unknown. We aimed to explore potential biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and personalized treatment. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we identified 72 differentially abundant features through liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, obtained in 134 males with Hypo-Pit and 90 age matched healthy controls. Hypopituitarism exhibits an increased abundance of metabolites involved in amino acid degradation and glycerophospholipid synthesis, but decreased content of metabolites in steroid hormone synthesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Significantly changed metabolites included creatine, creatinine, L-alanine, phosphocholines, androstenedione, hydroprenenolone, and acylcarnitines. In Hypo-Pit patients, the increased ratio of creatine/creatinine suggested reduced creatine uptake and impaired creatine utilization, whereas the decreased level of beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetylcarnitine (C2) and a significantly decreased ratio of decanoylcarnitine (C10) to free carnitine suggested an impaired beta-oxidation. Furthermore, the creatine/creatinine and decanoylcarnitine/carnitine ratio were identified as diagnostic biomarkers for Hypo-Pit with AUCs of 0.976 and 0.988, respectively. Finally, we found that the creatinine and decanoylcarnitine/carnitine ratio could distinguish cases that were sensitive vs. resistant to human chorionic gonadotropin therapy. We provided a global picture of altered metabolic pathways in Hypo-Pit, and the identified biomarkers in creatine metabolism and beta-oxidation might be useful for the preliminary screening and diagnosis of Hypo-Pit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.684869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295757PMC
July 2021

Pan-cancer analysis of prognostic metastatic phenotypes.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Although cancer is highly heterogeneous, all metastatic cancer is considered American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. Internal validation of nationally representative patient data from the National Cancer Database (n = 461 357; 2010-2013), and external validation using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (n = 106 595; 2014-2015) were assessed using the concordance index. Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and sample-size adjusted BIC identified distinct clusters. Kappa coefficients assessed external cluster validation. A Cox proportional hazards model with identified latent class as the stratification variable was used for overall survival. Latent class analysis identified five metastatic phenotypes with differences in overall survival (P < 0.0001): (Stage IVA) nearly-exclusive bone-only metastases (n = 59 049, 12.8%; median survival 12.7 months; common in lung, breast, and prostate cancers); (IVB) predominant lung metastases (n = 62 491, 13.5%; 11.4 months; common in breast, stomach, kidney, ovary, uterus, thyroid, cervix, and soft tissue cancers); (IVC) predominant liver/lung metastases (n = 130 014, 28.2%; 7.0 months; common in colorectum, pancreatic, lung, esophagus, and stomach cancers); (IVD) bone/liver/lung metastases predominant over brain (n = 61 004, 13.2%; 5.9 months; common in lung and breast cancers); and (IVE) brain/lung metastases predominant over bone/liver (n = 148 799, 32.3%; 5.7 months; lung cancer and melanoma). Long-term survivors were identified, particularly in Stages IVA-B. A pan-cancer nomogram model to predict survival (STARS: Site, Tumor, Age, Race, Sex) was created, validated, and provides 13% better prognostication than AJCC: 1-month concordance-index of 0.67 (95% CI 0.66-0.67) vs 0.61 (95% CI 0.60-0.61). STARS is simple, uses easily-accessible variables, better prognosticates survival outcomes, and provides a platform to develop novel metastasis-directed clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33744DOI Listing
July 2021

Programmed PPAR-α downregulation induces inflammaging by suppressing fatty acid catabolism in monocytes.

iScience 2021 Jul 24;24(7):102766. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Inflammaging is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease. Monocytes are the principal immune cells for the production of inflammatory cytokines and contribute to inflammaging in the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we found that monocytes from aged individuals contained high levels of lipid droplets (LDs), and this increase was correlated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. Downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α may be responsible for the pro-inflammatory phenotype of monocytes in aged individuals, as it was positively correlated with LD accumulation and increasing TNF-α concentration. Interestingly, interventions that result in PPAR-α upregulation, such as fenofibrate treatment, TNF-α neutralization, or calorie restriction, reversed the effect of aging on monocytes. Thus the downregulation of PPAR-α and LD levels in monocytes represents a novel biomarker for inflammaging. Furthermore, PPAR-α activation in the elderly may also alleviate long-term inflammaging, preventing the development of life-limiting chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273418PMC
July 2021

Vitamin D and family history of hypertension in relation to hypertension status among college students.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Hypertension and vitamin D concentrations have heritable components, although these factors remain uninvestigated in young adults. The objective of this study was to investigate hypertension risk among young adults with respect to family history of hypertension, adjusting for vitamin D status. Resting blood pressure (BP) was measured in 398 individuals aged 18-35 and classified according to the 2017 American Heart Association criteria. Plasma vitamin D metabolite (25(OH)D; 24,25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)D) concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Stepwise logistic regression was used to select covariates. Participants' mean age was 21, 30.3% had hypertension, and nearly all unaware of their hypertensive status (90.7%). Compared with no parental history, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for hypertension was elevated among participants with two parents having hypertension (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.70-11.76), adjusting for sex, body mass index, physical activity, and plasma 25(OH)D. Results for systolic hypertension (SH) were similar but more extreme (two parents AOR = 7.1, 95% CI: 2.82, 17.66), although dihydroxy metabolites (1,25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)D) were significant. There was a strong, independent association with dual parental history and hypertension status, regardless of vitamin D status. Hypertension was prevalent in nearly one-third of the sample and underscores the need for targeted prevention for young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00577-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Real-World Study of Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Bleomycin Chemotherapy Regimen in Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

Biomed Res Int 2021 24;2021:6661698. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Little observational data exist regarding the use of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) chemotherapy regimen in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 95 patients with GTN in our center from June/2010 to June/2018. All patients received at least 2 cycles of BEP chemotherapy. The primary outcomes were the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes were disease-free survival (DFS), pregnancy rates after BEP exposure, drug resistance rate, and other adverse events.

Results: Of the 95 patients included, 66 (69.5%) patients received BEP as primary treatment and 29 (30.5%) were Salvage chemotherapy. The median age at diagnosis was 37 years (range 29.75-46) and 34 years (range 27-40) in two groups, respectively. The median WHO prognostic scores were 6 (range 3.5-8), and 77.32% of patients were FIGO stage III-IV in the primary treatment group. The median WHO prognostic scores were 5 (range 3-9), and 66.55% of patients were FIGO stage III-IV in the salvage treatment group. Median cycles of BEP treatment were 4 (3, 5) and 3 (2, 4) in two groups, respectively. In the primary chemotherapy group, 18.2% received additional hysterectomy, 4.5% received UAE for vaginal bleeding, and 1.52% received whole-brain radiotherapy. In the salvage chemotherapy group, 20.7% received hysterectomy, 6.9% received lobectomy, 3.4% received hysteroscopic lesion resection, and 3.4% received whole-brain radiotherapy. CR rates to initial chemotherapy were 86.4%, including 87.9% in the primary chemotherapy group and 82.8% in the salvage chemotherapy group. No predictive factor of chemotherapy resistance was identified. The rate of 5 year-DFS was 96.52% (95% CI 86.78-99.12) in the primary chemotherapy group and 92.44% (95% CI 73.02-98.06) in the salvage chemotherapy group. The rate of 5 year-OS was 98.31% (95% CI 88.57-99.76) and 95.65% (95% CI 79.93-99.38) in the two groups, respectively. During the treatment, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and liver dysfunction occurred in 80.3%, 6.1%, 25.8%, and 50% primary chemotherapy patients and 82.8%, 31%, 10.3%, and 86.2% salvage chemotherapy patients. In patients with fertility requirements, live birth rates were 100% (10/10) in primary chemotherapy patients and 80% (4/5) in salvage chemotherapy patients.

Conclusions: BEP regimen was effective in the treatment of GTINs. The treatment was well tolerated, with no safety concerns on patients' fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6661698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249144PMC
June 2021

Arabidopsis MORC proteins function in the efficient establishment of RNA directed DNA methylation.

Nat Commun 2021 07 13;12(1):4292. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The Microrchidia (MORC) family of ATPases are required for transposable element (TE) silencing and heterochromatin condensation in plants and animals, and C. elegans MORC-1 has been shown to topologically entrap and condense DNA. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of MORCs has been shown to reactivate silent methylated genes and transposons and to decondense heterochromatic chromocenters, despite only minor changes in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here we provide the first evidence localizing Arabidopsis MORC proteins to specific regions of chromatin and find that MORC4 and MORC7 are closely co-localized with sites of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We further show that MORC7, when tethered to DNA by an artificial zinc finger, can facilitate the establishment of RdDM. Finally, we show that MORCs are required for the efficient RdDM mediated establishment of DNA methylation and silencing of a newly integrated FWA transgene, even though morc mutations have no effect on the maintenance of preexisting methylation at the endogenous FWA gene. We propose that MORCs function as a molecular tether in RdDM complexes to reinforce RdDM activity for methylation establishment. These findings have implications for MORC protein function in a variety of other eukaryotic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24553-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277788PMC
July 2021

Solute carrier transporter superfamily member SLC16A1 is a potential prognostic biomarker and associated with immune infiltration in skin cutaneous melanoma.

Channels (Austin) 2021 12;15(1):483-495

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Melanoma is a type of cancer with a relatively poor prognosis. The development of immunotherapy for the treatment of patients with melanoma has drawn considerable attention in recent years. It is of great clinical significance to identify novel promising prognostic biomarkers and to explore their roles in the immune microenvironment. The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is a group of transporters predominantly expressed on the cell membrane and are involved in substance transport. SLC16A1 is a member of the SLC family, participating in the transport of lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, ketone bodies, etc. The role of SLC16A1 in tumor immunity has been recently elucidated, while its role in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was performed to explore the role of SLC16A1 in melanoma. The results showed that high SLC16A1 expression was correlated with decreased overall survival in patients with melanoma. The genes co-expressed with SLC16A1 were significantly enriched in metabolic regulation, protein ubiquitination, and substance localization. Moreover, SLC16A1 was correlated with the infiltration of immune cells. In conclusion, SLC16A1 is a robust prognostic biomarker for melanoma and may be used as a novel target in immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2021.1953322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279094PMC
December 2021

Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 aggravates acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure by triggering excess nitroxidative stress and iron accumulation.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jul 6;172:578-589. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510280, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510000, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF), which is characterized by GSH depletion, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the specific mechanism of APAP-induced ALF remains to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) aggravated APAP-induced ALF associated with excess lipid peroxidation, which was reversed by lipid peroxidation inhibitor (ferrostatin-1). Meanwhile, IDO1 deficiency effectively decreased the accumulation of reactive nitrogen species. Additionally, IDO1 deficiency prevented against APAP-induced liver injury through suppressing the activation of macrophages, thereby reduced their iron uptake and export, eventually reduced iron accumulation in hepatocytes through transferrin and transferrin receptor axis. In summary, our study confirmed that APAP-induced IDO1 aggravated ALF by triggering excess oxidative and nitrative stress and iron accumulation in liver. These results offer new insights for the clinical treatment of ALF or iron-dysregulated liver diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Comprehensive Bioinformatics Analysis of mRNA Expression Profiles and Identification of a miRNA-mRNA Network Associated with the Pathogenesis of Low-Grade Gliomas.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 29;13:5135-5147. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Low-grade glioma is the most common type of primary intracranial tumour, and the overall survival of patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) has shown no significant improvement over the past few decades. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of LGG.

Methods: To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of mRNA-miRNA networks related to LGG, in the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the genomic landscape between low-grade gliomas and normal brain tissues from the GEO and TCGA datasets was first conducted to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs in LGG. Following a series of analyses, including WGCNA, GO and KEGG analyses, PPI and key model analyses, and survival analysis of the DEGs with clinical phenotypes, the potential key genes were screened and identified, and the related miRNA-mRNA networks were subsequently constructed through miRWalk 3.0. Finally, the potential miRNA-mRNA networks were further validated in CGGA (Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas) datasets and clinical specimens by qRT-PCR.

Results: In our results, six hub genes, MELK, NCAPG, KIF4A, NUSAP1, CEP55, and TOP2A, were ultimately identified. Two regulatory pathways, miR-495-3p-TOP2A and miR-1224-3p-MELK, that regulate the pathogenesis of LGG were ultimately identified. Furthermore, the expression of miR-495-3p-TOP2A and miR-1224-3p-MELK in solid tissues was validated by qRT-PCR.

Conclusion: Our study identified hub genes and related miRNA-mRNA regulatory pathways that contribute to the carcinogenesis of LGG, which may help us reveal the mechanisms underlying the development of LGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S314011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254561PMC
June 2021

High-coverage targeted lipidomics revealed dramatic lipid compositional changes in asthenozoospermic spermatozoa and inverse correlation of ganglioside GM3 with sperm motility.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Jul 7;19(1):105. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, 710038, Xi'an, China.

Background: It has been previously demonstrated that cholesterol content and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio were significantly higher in asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The majority of published studies have investigated the fatty acid composition of phospholipids rather than lipids themselves. This study evaluated the lipid composition of asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic spermatozoa, and identified the exact lipid species that correlated with sperm motility.

Methods: A total of 12 infertile asthenozoospermia patients and 12 normozoospermia subjects with normal sperm motility values were tested for semen volume, sperm concentration, count, motility, vitality and morphology. High-coverage targeted lipidomics with 25 individual lipid classes was performed to analyze the sperm lipid components and establish the exact lipid species that correlated with sperm motility.

Results: A total of 25 individual lipid classes and 479 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Asthenozoospermic spermatozoa showed an increase in the level of four lipid classes, including Cho, PE, LPI and GM3. A total of 48 lipid molecular species were significantly altered between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic spermatozoa. Furthermore, the levels of total GM3 and six GM3 molecular species, which were altered in normozoospermic spermatozoa versus asthenozoospermic spermatozoa, were inversely correlated with sperm progressive and total motility.

Conclusions: Several unique lipid classes and lipid molecular species were significantly altered between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic spermatozoa, revealing new possibilities for further mechanistic pursuits and highlighting the development needs of culture medium formulations to improve sperm motility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-021-00792-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262046PMC
July 2021

Dual-mode aptasensor for simultaneous detection of multiple food-borne pathogenic bacteria based on colorimetry and microfluidic chip using stir bar sorptive extraction.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Jul 6;188(8):244. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.

A dual-mode aptasensor using colorimetry and microfluidic chip (MC) together with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has been developed for firstly qualifying samples contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V.P) and Salmonella typhimurium (S.T), then precisely determine both of them in positive samples. For this purpose, the aptamer-streptavidin encoded probes (Apt-SAEs) corresponding to different bacteria were prepared in advance. Then, a stir bar modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) was made to extract bacteria together with Apt-SAE probes. The binding event of aptamer and target triggered the formation of two sandwich structures containing Apt-SAE, V.P or S.T. The concentration of bacteria could be enriched by 1000 times within 15 min to avoid long-time enrichment process. Finally, the stir bar was immersed in the 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-HO solution for color development. The color could be observed by naked eyes to judge whether the analytes were present. The colorless samples were judged to be negative. For the positive samples, the adsorbed encoded probes corresponding to different bacteria would be eluted from the stir bar and rapidly analyzed by the MC. Under the optimized conditions, 100 CFU/mL of V.P or S.T or both of them could be observed by colorimetry and 35 CFU/mL of them could be detected (S/N = 3) by the MC. The assay has significant application value for on-site screening and multiple detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04902-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Adult outdoor group sport play during a pandemic: Feasibility, acceptability, and program adherence results from a study of modifications to mitigate COVID-19 risk.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Sep 27;23:101476. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term adherence to an adult outdoor group sport play program designed to maximize enjoyment that was modified to incorporate COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies. We enrolled 17 healthy, but sedentary, central Pennsylvania adults (  = 31.6 ± 7.3) without obesity via mail advertisements to participate in four, 60-minute sessions of instructor-led modified sport games (e.g., handball, Ultimate Frisbee, soccer) over a two-week period in October 2020. Durign recrutiment and the study period, there were approximately 1000-2000 new cases of COVID-19 daily in central Pennsylvania . The overall adherence rate to the sessions was 91%, and no participants reported new or existing COVID-19 symptoms or diagnoses during the two-week study period or 10-days following the final session. Despite enforcing mandatory COVID-19 safety measures (e.g., universal masking, social distancing), the participants reported enjoying the program and feeling socially connected with one another, while perceiving the program to be safe. Additionally, all participants expressed a desire to participate again, if the program were offered in the future. These results suggest that an outdoor group sport play program for adults can be feasible, acceptable, and well-adhered to despite enforcing mandatory COVID-19 safety precautions. Physical activity programs similar to the one presented here may provide an easily-adaptable approach to outdoor physical activity during the current and potential future pandemics that have viral transmission characteristics similar to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249198PMC
September 2021

Nitrogen Activation and Transformation on Monometallic Niobium Boron Oxide Cluster Anions at Room Temperature: A Dual-Site Mechanism.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 6;12(27):6313-6319. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 102488, China.

Dinitrogen activation and transformation at room temperature is a goal that has been long sought after. Despite that, it remains underdeveloped due to being a challenging research area and the need for a better mechanistic understanding. Herein, we report that well-defined NbBO gas-phase clusters can activate one N molecule and generate the products BNO and BNO, as applying mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. This unusual N activation reaction results from the different functions of the Nb and BO moieties in NbBO. Theoretical calculations suggest that a catalytic cycle can be completed by the recovery of NbBO, which is achieved through the reactions of Nb and NbO with BO and BO, respectively. This is the first example of N efficient transformation at a monometallic cluster, and this method for generating dual active sites by designing proper ligands may open the way toward the development of more effective N fixation and functionalization methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01633DOI Listing
July 2021

An automated method for detecting atrial fat using convolutional neural network.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Jul 6:9544119211029745. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Zhongli, Taoyuan city.

Atrial Fibrillation (A-fib) is a common cardiac rhythm problem in the population these days in which irregular heartbeat leads to blood clots, heart failure, stroke, and other significant clinical complications. Researchers have found that the atrial fat can lead to AF in most patients. To develop an automated method for detecting the epicardial fat present in the atrium using a Convolutional Neural Network. Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) images of ten patients were pre-processed to remove the unwanted structure around the heart. An automated pixel value masking was done to locate the epicardial fat in the atrium and a 3D view of the heart was constructed for correct visualization of the location of the fat. A fast and fully automated Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was applied to detect the atrial epicardial fat through feature selection from the CT images. We achieved 89.22% accuracy, 90.18% sensitivity, and 88.52% specificity in the detection of atrial epicardial fat using our CNN architecture. Our results showed that this CNN-based method can be helpful in atrial epicardial fat detection. Since Deep learning techniques add robustness, rapidness, and reliability, this study provides an unutilized way to detect the atrial fat tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09544119211029745DOI Listing
July 2021

Myricetin Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Viral Replication by Targeting M and Ameliorates Pulmonary Inflammation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:669642. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Haihe Education Park, Tianjin, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely around the world and has seriously affected the human health of tens of millions of people. In view of lacking anti-virus drugs target to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop effective new drugs. In this study, we reported our discovery of SARS-CoV-2 M inhibitors. We selected 15 natural compounds, including 7 flavonoids, 3 coumarins, 2 terpenoids, one henolic, one aldehyde and one steroid compound for molecular docking and enzymatic screening. Myricetin were identified to have potent inhibit activity with IC 3.684 ± 0.076 μM in the enzyme assay. The binding pose of Myricetin with SARS-CoV-2 M was identified using molecular docking method. In the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 M, the chromone ring of Myricetin interacts with His41 through -π stacking, and the 3'-, 4'- and 7-hydroxyl of Myricetin interact with Phe140, Glu166and Asp187 through hydrogen bonds. Significantly, our results showed that Myricetin has potent effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1α, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Overall, Myricetin may be a potential drug for anti-virus and symptomatic treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.669642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248548PMC
June 2021

Adjunctive dietary intervention for bipolar disorder: a randomized, controlled, parallel-group, modified double-blinded trial of a high n-3 plus low n-6 diet.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Objective: To investigate the preliminary efficacy of a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) dietary intervention in improving mood stability in Bipolar Disorder (BD) when compared to dietary intervention with usual U.S. levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes (control diet, CD).

Methods: This 2-arm, parallel-group, randomized, modified double-blind, controlled 48-week study of 12-week intensive diet intervention in subjects with BD was conducted at a single suburban-rural site in the mid-Atlantic region. Participants with DSM-IV TR BD I or II with hypomanic or depressive symptoms were randomized, stratified on gender (N = 82). The intervention included the provision of group-specific study foods and dietary counseling. Variability of mood symptoms was measured by a twice-daily, 12-week ecological momentary analysis (EMA) paradigm, and group differences were analyzed using multilevel models. Circulating n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of diet exposure.

Results: All 82 randomized participants were included in biochemical analyses. Seventy participants completed at least 2 EMA surveys and were included in primary EMA analyses. Variability in mood, energy, irritability, and pain as measured using EMA was reduced in the H3-L6 group compared to the CD group. No significant differences in mean ratings of mood symptoms, or any other symptom measures, were detected. The dietary intervention effect on target PUFAs significantly differed by the group over time.

Conclusions: A dietary intervention adjunctive to usual care showed preliminary efficacy in improving variability in mood symptoms in participants with BD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02272010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bdi.13112DOI Listing
July 2021

Predicting short and long-term mortality after acute ischemic stroke using EHR.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 29;427:117560. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Geisinger Neuroscience Institute, Geisinger, Danville, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Despite improvements in treatment, stroke remains a leading cause of mortality and long-term disability. In this study, we leveraged administrative data to build predictive models of short- and long-term post-stroke all-cause-mortality.

Methods: The study was conducted and reported according to the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) guideline. We used patient-level data from electronic health records, three algorithms, and six prediction windows to develop models for post-stroke mortality.

Results: We included 7144 patients from which 5347 had survived their ischemic stroke after two years. The proportion of mortality was between 8%(605/7144) within 1-month, to 25%(1797/7144) for the 2-years window. The three most common comorbidities were hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. The best Area Under the ROC curve(AUROC) was reached with the Random Forest model at 0.82 for the 1-month prediction window. The negative predictive value (NPV) was highest for the shorter prediction windows - 0.91 for the 1-month - and the best positive predictive value (PPV) was reached for the 6-months prediction window at 0.92. Age, hemoglobin levels, and body mass index were the top associated factors. Laboratory variables had higher importance when compared to past medical history and comorbidities. Hypercoagulation state, smoking, and end-stage renal disease were more strongly associated with long-term mortality.

Conclusion: All the selected algorithms could be trained to predict the short and long-term mortality after stroke. The factors associated with mortality differed depending on the prediction window. Our classifier highlighted the importance of controlling risk factors, as indicated by laboratory measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117560DOI Listing
August 2021

Resveratrol-induced Sirt1 phosphorylation by LKB1 mediates mitochondrial metabolism.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 1;297(2):100929. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

MOE Key Laboratory for Cellular Dynamics, University of Science & Technology of China School of Life Sciences, Hefei, China; Anhui Key Laboratory for Cellular Dynamics & Chemical Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science & Hefei National Science Center for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Hefei, Anhui, China; Keck Center for Organoids Plasticity, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Electronic address:

The NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirt1 has been implicated in the prevention of many age-related diseases, including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol, exhibits antiaging, antitumor, and vascular protection effects by activating Sirt1. However, the molecular mechanism of Sirt1 activation as induced by resveratrol remains unclear. By knockdown/rescue experiments, fluorometric Sirt1 activity assay, immunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays, we identify here that the tumor suppressor LKB1 (liver kinase B1) as a direct activator of Sirt1 elicited by resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes the binding between LKB1 and Sirt1, which we first reported, and this binding leads to LKB1-mediated phosphorylation of Sirt1 at three different serine residues in the C terminus of Sirt1. Mechanistically, LKB1-mediated phosphorylation increases intramolecular interactions in Sirt1, such as the binding of the C terminus to the deacetylase core domain, thereby eliminating DBC1 (Deleted in Breast Cancer 1, Sirt1 endogenous inhibitor) inhibition and promoting Sirt1-substrate interaction. Functionally, LKB1-dependent Sirt1 activation increases mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through deacetylation and activation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. These results identify Sirt1 as a context-dependent target of LKB1 and suggest that a resveratrol-stimulated LKB1-Sirt1 pathway plays a vital role in mitochondrial metabolism, a key physiological process that contributes to numerous age-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100929DOI Listing
July 2021

Combined use of low T3 syndrome and NT-proBNP as predictors for death in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 2;21(1):140. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Heart Failure Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Road, 100037, Beijing, China.

Background: In patients with established HF, low triiodothyronine syndrome (LT3S) is commonly present, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful marker for predicting death. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of LT3S in combination with NT-proBNP for risk of death in patients with heart failure (HF).

Methods: A total of 594 euthyroid patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF were enrolled by design. Of these patients, 27 patients died during hospitalization and 100 deaths were identified in patients discharged alive during one year follow-up. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the base of the reference ranges of free T3 (FT3) levels: LT3S group (FT3 < 2.3pg/mL, n = 168) and non-LT3S group (FT3 ≥ 2.3pg/mL, n = 426).

Results: In multivariable Cox regression, LT3S was significantly associated with 1 year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.82; P = 0.005), but not significant for in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95 % CI, 1.58 to 2.82; P = 0.290) after adjustment for clinical variables and NT-proBNP. Addition of LT3S and NT-proBNP to the prediction model with clinical variables significantly improved the C statistic for predicting 1 year all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: In patients with acute decompensated HF, the combination of LT3S and NT-proBNP improved prediction for 1 year all-cause mortality beyond established risk factors, but was not strong enough for in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00801-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252209PMC
July 2021

A one-step, one-pot CRISPR nucleic acid detection platform (CRISPR-top): Application for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

Talanta 2021 Oct 12;233:122591. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, 100020, PR China. Electronic address:

The existing CRISPR-mediated diagnostic tests require a two-step procedure (DNA or RNA amplification followed by CRISPR-mediated sequence-specific detection) for nucleic acid detection, which increases complexity and the risk of sample cross-contamination. Here, we report a new CRISPR-mediated test, called CRISPR-top (CRISPR-mediated testing in one-pot), which integrates simultaneous target pre-amplification with CRISPR/cas12b-mediated detection into a one-pot reaction mixture, performed at a constant temperature. The novel CRISPR-top assay was applied to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). COVID-19 CRISPR-top targets the ORF1ab (opening reading frame 1a/b) and NP (nucleoprotein) genes of SARS-CoV-2, and operates at 59 °C for 40 min with minimal instrument. The COVID-19 CRISPR-top assay can return results within 60-min and is easily interpreted by visual fluorescence or lateral flow readouts. The analytical limit of detection (LoD) for COVID-19 CRISPR-top is 10 copies (for each detection target) per reaction with no cross-reactivity observed from non-SARS-CoV-2 templates. Among clinically collected non-COVID-19 samples, the assay's specificity was 100% (80/80 oropharynx swab samples). Among 52 COVID-19 positive clinical samples collected, the COVID-19 CRISPR-top assay yielded 38 (73.1%) positive results using fluorescence readout and 35 (67.3%) positive results with lateral-flow readout. These diagnostic results were similar to those obtained using RT-PCR (34 positive (65.4%)). These data indicate that COVID-19 CRISPR-top is a simple, rapid, accurate and highly sensitive method for SARS-CoV-2 detection which can be used in the clinic, field laboratories and primary care facilities in resource-challenged settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197615PMC
October 2021

[Plant species diversity of peat mire in Changbai Mountains, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jun;32(6):2138-2146

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun 130024, China.

We investigated the plant species richness both in cespitose mires (, ) and non-cespitose mire () in Changbai Mountain. A total of 83 species (36 families, 59 genuses) was recorded in three sites. Among which, 71 species occurred in the site, 61 species in the site, and 26 species in the site. The total species number and species richness in the two cespitose mires were much higher than that in the non-cespitose mire, while those on tussocks were much higher than between tussocks in the two cespitose mires. Plant species richness on tussocks was positively related to the height, basal circumference and surface area of the tussocks, suggesting that tussocks were important for plant species diversity in mires. Results of the canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the differences in soil water content, nutrient (soil organic carbon, total N, total P and C/N), and litter layer depth were the main factors influencing the differences of plant community composition on tussocks and between-tussocks. In the cespitose mires, the hummock-hollow microtopography could foster high diversity by increasing surface area and creating multiple micro-habitats. Given its function in maintaining high species diversity, cespitose could be a preferred species for vegetation restoration in degraded peat mires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202106.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Sex Differences in Academic Productivity Across Academic Ranks and Specialties in Academic Medicine: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2112404. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Importance: Despite equal numbers of men and women entering medical school, women are underrepresented in the upper echelons of academic medicine and receive less compensation and research funding. Citation-related publication productivity metrics, such as the h-index, are increasingly used for hiring, salary, grants, retention, promotion, and tenure decisions. Exploring sex differences in these metrics across academic medicine provides deeper insight into why differences are observed in career outcomes.

Objective: To systematically examine the available literature on sex differences in h-index of academic faculty physicians across all medical specialties and all levels of academic rank.

Data Sources: Medical literature with the term h-index found in PubMed and published between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2018, was used.

Study Selection: A PICOS (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses), and MOOSE (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) selection protocol was used to find observational studies that published h-indexes for faculty physicians that were stratified by sex. Studies were excluded if they were review articles, retracted, or unavailable online. Ultimately, 14 of 786 studies (1.78%) met the inclusion criteria.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Data from 9 studies across 16 specialties were examined using weighted random-effects meta-analyses. Five studies were excluded because of overlapping specialties with another study or because they were missing appropriate statistics for the meta-analysis. Four of these studies were included in qualitative synthesis to bring the total to 13 studies.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary study outcome was the h-index.

Results: The meta-analysis included 10 665 North American unique academic physicians across 9 different studies from the years 2009 to 2018. Of the 10 665 physicians, 2655 (24.89%) were women. Summary effect sizes for mean h-indexes of men and women and mean h-index difference between men and women were determined for all faculty physicians and at each academic rank. Overall, female faculty had lower h-indexes than male faculty (mean difference, -4.09; 95% CI, -5.44 to -2.73; P < .001). When adjusting for academic rank, female faculty still had lower h-indexes than male faculty at the ranks of assistant professor (mean difference, -1.3; 95% CI, -1.90 to -0.72; P < .001), associate professor (mean difference, -2.09; 95% CI, -3.40 to -0.78; P = .002), and professor (mean difference, -3.41; 95% CI, -6.24 to -0.58; P = .02).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, women had lower h-indexes than men across most specialties and at all academic ranks, but it is unclear why these differences exist. These findings suggest that future investigation should be conducted regarding the causes of lower h-indexes in women and that interventions should be developed to provide a more equitable environment for all physicians regardless of sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.12404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243235PMC
June 2021
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