Publications by authors named "Ming Li"

5,723 Publications

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Efficient Stabilized Two-Qubit Gates on a Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jun;126(22):220503

IonQ, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA.

In order to scale up quantum processors and achieve a quantum advantage, it is crucial to economize on the power requirement of two-qubit gates, make them robust to drift in experimental parameters, and shorten the gate times. Applicable to all quantum computer architectures whose two-qubit gates rely on phase-space closure, we present here a new gate-optimizing principle according to which negligible amounts of gate fidelity are traded for substantial savings in power, which, in turn, can be traded for substantial increases in gate speed and/or qubit connectivity. As a concrete example, we illustrate the method by constructing optimal pulses for entangling gates on a pair of ions within a trapped-ion chain, one of the leading quantum computing architectures. Our method is direct, noniterative, and linear, and, in some parameter regimes, constructs gate-steering pulses requiring up to an order of magnitude less power than the standard method. Additionally, our method provides increased robustness to mode drift. We verify the new trade-off principle experimentally on our trapped-ion quantum computer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.220503DOI Listing
June 2021

Inhibition of miR-200b-3p alleviates lipid accumulation and promotes cholesterol efflux by targeting ABCA1 in macrophage-derived foam cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 3;22(2):831. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Imaging, Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, P.R. China.

Atherosclerosis (As) is a chronic cardiovascular disease characterized by abnormal of lipid accumulation and cholesterol efflux. The present study aimed to investigate whether the micro-RNA (miR)-200b-3p could exacerbate As by promoting lipid accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in macrophage-derived foam cells. Blood samples from 30 patients with As and 30 healthy people were collected at Quanzhou First Hospital. RAW264.7 cells were used to establish foam cells using oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The expression of miR-200b-3p and ABCA1 was evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative PCR and western blotting. Lipid accumulation was analyzed by Oil Red O staining and cholesterol content was assessed by ELISA. A targeting relationship between miR-200b-3p and ABCA1 was demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays. Compared with healthy volunteers and RAW264.7 cells, the expression level of miR-200b-3p was significantly increased whereas the expression level of ABCA1 was significantly decreased in patients with As and foam cells. Furthermore, miR-200b-3p expression was negatively correlated with ABCA1 expression in the blood of the patients with As. Lipid content was significantly decreased and cholesterol efflux was significantly increased in foam cells transfected with the miR-200b-3p inhibitor compared with inhibitor control cells. In addition, ABCA1 was shown to be targeted by miR-200b-3p. Furthermore, the lipid content in foam cells transfected with the miR-200b-3p inhibitor and small interfering-ABCA1 was significantly increased, while the cholesterol efflux was significantly decreased compared with foam cells transfected with the miR-200b-3p inhibitor. In conclusion, the findings from the present study indicated that inhibition of miR-200b-3p may alleviate lipid accumulation and promote cholesterol efflux by targeting ABCA1 in macrophage-derived foam cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200800PMC
August 2021

Therapeutic analysis of Herbert screw fixation for capitellar fractures via the anterior approach in adolescent patients.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jun 19;16(1):394. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Orthopedics, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 136 of Zhong Shan Er Lu, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the efficacy of open reduction and Herbert screw fixation for coronal fractures of the capitellum via the anterior approach in adolescents.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 15 adolescents with capitellar fractures who were admitted to our hospital from May 2014 to May 2019. The fracture was reduced through the cubital crease incision via the anterior approach and was internally fixated with Herbert screws. A follow-up was conducted after the operation to examine fracture healing and elbow function. The postoperative functional recovery of patients was evaluated with the Mayo Elbow Performance index (MEPI) and the Broberg-Morrey rating system.

Results: Patients underwent surgery 3.7 days after injury on average. Intraoperative fracture reduction was satisfactory. No vascular injury or nerve injury occurred. Bony union occurred in an average of 6 weeks after the operation. All adolescents completed a 12- to 36-month follow-up. At the last follow-up, the Mayo Elbow Performance index was considered excellent in 12 patients and good in three patients. The Broberg-Morrey score was considered excellent in 12 patients, good in two patients, and fair in one patient.

Conclusion: Open reduction with Herbert screw fixation via the anterior approach is a feasible surgical method for the treatment of coronal fractures of the capitellum in adolescents.

Levels Of Evidence: Therapeutic, retrospective study-Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02536-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Arginase plays an important role in ammonia detoxification of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. Electronic address:

A two-stage study was carried out to test the mechanism of arginase in ammonia detoxification of yellow catfish. At stage 1, fish was injected lethal half concentration ammonium acetate and 0.9% sodium chloride respectively every 12 h in six replicates for 72 h. The result found that no significant different in serum ammonia contents of fish in ammonium acetate group at hours 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72. At stage 2, ammonium acetate group was split in two, one continued to injected with ammonium acetate (NH group) and the other with ammonium acetate and valine (an inhibitor of arginase; Val group); Sodium chloride group also was split in two, one continued to injected with sodium chloride (NaCl group) and the other with sodium chloride and valine (NaCl+Val group). The experiment continued for 12 h. Serum ammonia and liver arginine contents of fish in Val group were higher than those of fish in NH group; Compared with NaCl group, arginase activity and ARG 1 expression in liver of fish in Val group were lower; Fish in NaCl and NaCl+Val groups had the lowest serum superoxide dismutase activities, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1 and 8 contents, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-8 expressions than fish in NH and Val groups, and had the higher lysozyme activities, complement 3 and 4 contents. This study indicates that ammonia poisoning would lead to oxidative damage, immunosuppression and inflammation in yellow catfish; Arginase may be an important target of ammonia toxicity in yellow catfish; Exogenous arginine supplementation might alleviate the symptoms of ammonia poisoning in yellow catfish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.06.013DOI Listing
June 2021

A new species of Trichodina lishuiensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in urinary bladder of Odorrana schmackeri (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Zhejiang, China.

Acta Trop 2021 Jun 16:106015. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, and State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China; The Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China.

Endoparasitic trichodinids are rather rare ciliates. In this study we describe a new species named Trichodina lishuiensis from the bladder of Odorrana schmackeri collected in Zhejiang, China, with the prevalence of 20% (9/45). We identified T. lishuiensis as a new species by morphological comparison and molecular analysis. The ciliates were observed using the dry-silver and protargol staining methods, as well as SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Trichodina lishuiensis is a small species (cell diameter 31.8-43.9 μm), with incompact denticles connection, medium-wide blades and thick rays. We also sequenced a 1712 bp-long fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the new species clustered with Trichodina unionis. The route of transmission of Trichodina species in the urinary bladder remains a mystery. We hypothesize that the transmisison takes place during the amplexus, with eggs and sperm discharged from the cloaca, and that trichodinids 'accompany' the amphibian through its whole life cycle, but further studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106015DOI Listing
June 2021

Geo-climatic factors weaken the effectiveness of phytoplankton diversity as a water quality indicator in a large sediment-laden river.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 8;792:148346. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The study aims to determine whether phytoplankton diversity can be used as an indicator of water quality in large-scale sediment-laden rivers with heterogeneous environmental conditions. We hypothesized that environmental factors, such as sediment load, water surface slope, and precipitation, may impact the effectiveness of using phytoplankton diversity as a water quality indicator. To test this hypothesis, the Yellow River was selected for phytoplankton diversity and water quality assessments. We measured water quality parameters, calculated phytoplankton diversity indices, and collected data on geo-climatic variables at 130 sampling points in the Yellow River mainstream over two seasons (spring and autumn) in 2019. The results of the water quality assessment based on phytoplankton diversity indices were compared with those based on water quality index (WQI). Correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression, distance-based redundancy analysis, and regression modeling were used to explore the biogeographical patterns and drivers of phytoplankton diversity. According to the WQI, the water quality gradually deteriorated from the source to the estuary of the river. Three biodiversity indices (Margalef, Pielou, and Shannon-Wiener) indicated that the water quality varied dynamically in the middle reaches of the river. The actual relationships between the biodiversity indices and WQI did not fit well with the standard curves of water quality classification based on the respective biodiversity indices and WQI. Variation partitioning analysis indicated that water quality parameters, such as sediment and nutrient load, were the dominant drivers of variation in phytoplankton diversity in most cases, with the contribution ranging from 11.0% to 25.7%. Geo-climatic factors, such as water surface slope and annual mean precipitation, also affected phytoplankton diversity, with the contribution reaching 27.8%. Therefore, in sediment-laden rivers with a large geographical span and complex environment, phytoplankton diversity cannot be used as a suitable water quality indicator, albeit it can reflect habitat changes to a certain extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148346DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on outpatient appointments of rheumatic patients in a non-outbreak area of China.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Provincial Hospital), Jinan, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has caused huge impacts on all of people's lives and health systems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, China was the first country to impose lockdown. We aimed to study the influence of COVID-19 on the outpatient visits of rheumatic patients in a non-outbreak area of China.

Methods: We selected three provincial or ministerial hospitals in Jinan, and collected the outpatient appointments data in rheumatology and immunology departments during the Shandong Province first-level public health emergency response period from 25 January 2020 to 8 March 2020.

Results: In the early stage, the number of outpatient appointments in the rheumatology and immunology departments of the three provincial or ministerial hospitals were significantly reduced, and gradually restored in the late stage. It showed that in the face of major infectious diseases, strict quarantine measures with the cooperation of the public not only controls the epidemic in a short time, but also lifts the quarantine measures and opens general outpatient clinics in hospitals as soon as possible, thus minimizing the impact on other patients.

Interpretation: The impact on the western hospital was greater than that on the Chinese medicine hospital, and the impact on the back-up designated hospitals for COVID-19 was the greatest. Online appointment can reduce the risk of infection in outpatients, but not completely solve the follow-up problem of rheumatic patients. Telemedicine provides a new solution for both management of rheumatic patients and control of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-021-01891-2DOI Listing
June 2021

[Research progress of different surgical approaches in treatment of acetabular both-column fractures].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;35(6):661-666

Department of Orthopedics, First Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, P.R.China.

Objective: To review the research progress of different surgical approaches in the treatment of acetabular both-column fractures.

Methods: The domestic and foreign related research literature on surgical approaches for acetabular both-column fractures was extensively consulted. The anatomical characteristics, exposure ranges, advantages, disadvantages, and indications of various common surgical approaches for both-column fractures were mainly summarized.

Results: The ilioinguinal approach is more suitable for both-column fractures if the anterior column fracture is complicated or combined with the anterior wall fracture while the posterior column fracture is simple and stable. The modified Stoppa approach or the lateral (para) rectus abdominal approach is the preferred choice when both-column fractures are combined with a quadrilateral fracture or femoral head dislocation. What's more, the Kocher-Langenbeck approach is required when the posterior column fractures are complicated or combined with posterior wall fractures. In addition, the simultaneous ilioinguinal and Kocher-Langenbeck approaches are the first choices when the both-column fractures possessing extremely severe and obvious displacement.

Conclusion: The reasonable choice of surgical approach is extremely important for acetabular both-column fractures. Each surgical approach has its advantages and limitations. It is necessary to take the precise reposition of the acetabular joint surface as the principle, and comprehensively judge the fracture types and severity of anterior column, posterior column, and square area, and then select the optimal surgical approach for surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202012113DOI Listing
June 2021

bloodstream infection secondary to acute pancreatitis: A case report.

Authors:
Ming Li Ning Li

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(17):4357-4364

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300000, China.

Background: () is an opportunistic pathogen. It can cause infections after birth, after an abortion, and in patients with diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, or an immunosuppressive state. Here, we report a patient with infection secondary to acute pancreatitis, with no underlying diabetes, malignancy, or liver cirrhosis.

Case Summary: A 62-year-old Han Chinese woman presented to the Tianjin Hospital of ITCWM Nankai Hospital on January 8, 2020 because of epigastric abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed that urine amylase was 10403 U/L (reference: 47-458), and blood amylase was 1006 U/L (reference: < 100). Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatic edema and peripancreatic exudation. She was diagnosed with mild acute pancreatitis and treated accordingly. She was readmitted the next day for similar symptoms. Two hours later, she went to the lavatory and urinated, and the urine color was like soy sauce. Oxygen saturation decreased to 77%, and she developed consciousness disturbance. She was admitted to the intensive care unit. After 8 h in the hospital, she had a high fever of 40 ℃, blood was drawn for culture, and 3 g of cefoperazone/sulbactam was administered. After 12 h, she had a cardiac arrest and died shortly. Blood culture confirmed a infection.

Conclusion: infection may be secondary to acute pancreatitis. Rapid recognition and aggressive early management are critical for the survival of patients with infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i17.4357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173429PMC
June 2021

Exosomal miR-92b-3p Promotes Chemoresistance of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through the PTEN/AKT Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 31;9:661602. Epub 2021 May 31.

High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China.

Resistance to first-line chemotherapy drugs has become an obstacle to improving the clinical prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Exosomal microRNAs have been shown to play pro- and anti-chemoresistant roles in various cancers, but their role in SCLC chemoresistance has never been explored. In this study, we observed that the expression of exosomal miR-92b-3p was significantly increased in patients who developed chemoresistance. Luciferase reporter analysis confirmed that PTEN was a target gene of miR-92b-3p. The PTEN/AKT regulatory network was related to miR-92b-3p-mediated cell migration and chemoresistance and in SCLC. Importantly, exosomes isolated from the conditioned medium of SBC-3 cells overexpressing miR-92b-3p could promote SCLC chemoresistance and cell migration. Furthermore, we found that plasma miR-92b-3p levels were significantly higher in patients with chemoresistant SCLC than in those with chemosensitive SCLC, but the levels were down-regulated in patients who achieved remission. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that SCLC patients with high miR-92b-3p expression were associated with shorter progression-free survival. Overall, our results suggested that exosomal miR-92b-3p is a potential dynamic biomarker to monitor chemoresistance in SCLC and represents a promising therapeutic target for chemoresistant SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.661602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201786PMC
May 2021

Characterization of a bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei LP10266 recovered from an endocarditis patient in Shandong, China.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Jun 17;21(1):183. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.

Background: Lactobacilli are often recognized as beneficial partners in human microbial environments. However, lactobacilli also cause diseases in human, e.g. infective endocarditis (IE), septicaemia, rheumatic vascular disease, and dental caries. Therefore, the identification of potential pathogenic traits associated with lactobacilli will facilitate the prevention and treatment of the diseases caused by lactobacilli. Herein, we investigated the genomic traits and pathogenic potential of a novel bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei LP10266 which has caused a case of IE. We isolated L. paracasei LP10266 from an IE patient's blood to perform high-throughput sequencing and compared the genome of strain LP10266 with those of closely related lactobacilli to determine genes associated with its infectivity. We performed the antimicrobial susceptibility testing on strain LP10266. We assessed its virulence by mouse lethality and serum bactericidal assays as well as its serum complement- and platelet-activating ability. The biofilm formation and adherence of strain LP10266 were also studied.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain LP10266 was allied with L. casei and L. paracasei. Genomic studies revealed two spaCBA pilus clusters and one novel exopolysaccharides (EPS) cluster in strain LP10266, which was sensitive to ampicillin, penicillin, levofloxacin, and imipenem, but resistant to cefuroxime, cefazolin, cefotaxime, meropenem, and vancomycin. Strain LP10266 was nonfatal and sensitive to serum, capable of activating complement 3a and terminal complement complex C5b-9 (TCC). Strain LP10266 could not induce platelet aggregation but displayed a stronger biofilm formation ability and adherence to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to the standard control strain L. paracasei ATCC25302.

Conclusion: The genome of a novel bacterial strain L. paracasei LP10266 was sequenced. Our results based on various types of assays consistently revealed that L. paracasei LP10266 was a potential pathogen to patients with a history of cardiac disease and inguinal hernia repair. Strain LP10266 showed strong biofilm formation ability and adherence, enhancing the awareness of L. paracasei infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02253-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Biological removal of deltamethrin in contaminated water, soils and vegetables by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia XQ08.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 23;279:130622. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China.

The consideration of ecological and human health risk is an emerging concern with the excessive or inappropriate use of deltamethrin. In this study, the degradation conditions of the newly deltamethrin-degrading strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia XQ08 were optimized, which were temperature 35 °C, pH 7.5, cell concentration 5.5 × 10 cfu/mL, and substrate concentration 50 mg/L. Strain XQ08 could effectively degrade deltamethrin into three smaller molecular weight and lower toxic compounds. Enriched strain XQ08 was immobilized in a charcoal-alginate matrix and possessed more prominent biodegradability, reusability, storability and thermostability than free XQ08. In a continuous reactor system, immobilized XQ08 could averagely remove 78.81% of deltamethrin at the gradient influent dosages of 50, 75 and 100 mg/L within 30 d. Immobilized XQ08 introduced into the filed brown and yellow soils exhibited a superior degradation potential for deltamethrin with the half-lives of 1.77 and 2.04 d, which were 2.39 and 2.14 folds, or 6.09 and 5.47 folds faster than free XQ08 degradation (4.23 and 4.37 d) or natural dissipation (10.78 and 11.16 d), respectively. Moreover, application of free XQ08 decreased the persistence of deltamethrin in Brassica pekinensis and Brassica chinensis from 5.47 and 6.23 to 2.05 and 2.32 d, or by 62.52% and 62.76%, respectively. This study provides a feasible, effective and rapid biological removal technology for deltamethrin-contaminated environments in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130622DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary potato intake and risks of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 1;40(6):3754-3764. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education of China, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Evidence regarding associations between potato consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risks is accumulating. This study aims to synthesize the evidence by conducting a meta-analysis of available studies.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched (up to August 2020) to retrieve all eligible studies on the associations of interest. The risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were summarized using random- or fixed-effects model based on heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were performed for East and West regions separately. Dose-response relationship was assessed using data from all intake categories in each study.

Results: A total of 19 studies (13 for T2D; 6 for GDM) were identified, including 21,357 T2D cases among 323,475 participants and 1516 GDM cases among 29,288 pregnancies. Meta-analysis detected a significantly positive association with T2D risk for total potato (RR: 1.19 [1.06, 1.34]), baked/boiled/mashed potato (RR: 1.08 [1.00, 1.16]), and French fries/fried potato (RR: 1.33 [1.03, 1.70]) intakes among Western populations. Dose-response meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly increased T2D risk by 10% (95% CI: 1.07, 1.14; P for trend<0.001), 2% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.04; P for trend = 0.02) and 34% (95% CI: 1.24, 1.46; P for trend<0.001) for each 80 g/day (serving) increment in total potato, unfried potato, and fried potato intakes, respectively. As for GDM, summarized estimates also suggested a higher though non-significant GDM risk for total potato (RR: 1.19 [0.89, 1.58]), and French fries/fried potato (RR: 1.03 [0.97, 1.09]) intakes in Western countries. In the dose-response meta-analysis, a significantly increased GDM risk was revealed for each daily serving (80 g) intakes of total potato (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.42; P for trend = 0.007) and unfried potato (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.48; P for trend = 0.006).

Conclusions: This study suggests that higher potato intake is associated with higher T2D risk among Western populations. The positive relationship presents a significant dose-response manner. Wisely controlled potato consumption may confer potential glucometabolic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.039DOI Listing
May 2021

Innate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jun;39(6):725-729

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is a complex ecosystem that contains adaptive and innate immune cells that have tumor-promoting and anti-tumor effects. There is still much to learn about the diversity, plasticity, and functions of innate immune cells in the TIME and their roles in determining the response to immunotherapies. Experts discuss recent advances in our understanding of their biology in cancer as well as outstanding questions and potential therapeutic avenues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.05.016DOI Listing
June 2021

Stimuli-responsive surfaces for switchable wettability and adhesion.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210162. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Centre of Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Diverse unique surfaces exist in nature, e.g. lotus leaf, rose petal and rice leaf. They show similar contact angles but different adhesion properties. According to the different wettability and adhesion characteristics, this review reclassifies different contact states of droplets on surfaces. Inspired by the biological surfaces, smart artificial surfaces have been developed which respond to external stimuli and consequently switch between different states. Responsive surfaces driven by various stimuli, e.g. stretching, magnetic, photo, electric, temperature, humidity and pH, are discussed. Studies reporting on either atmospheric or underwater environments are discussed. The application of tailoring surface wettability and adhesion includes microfluidics/droplet manipulation, liquid transport and harvesting, water energy harvesting and flexible smart devices. Particular attention is placed on the horizontal comparison of smart surfaces with the same stimuli. Finally, the current challenges and future prospects in this field are also identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2021.0162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205534PMC
June 2021

Optoelectronic parametric oscillator.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Jun 15;9(1):102. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083, China.

Oscillators are one of the key elements in various applications as a signal source to generate periodic oscillations. Among them, an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is a driven harmonic oscillator based on parametric frequency conversion in an optical cavity, which has been widely investigated as a coherent light source with an extremely wide wavelength tuning range. However, steady oscillation in an OPO is confined by the cavity delay, which leads to difficulty in frequency tuning, and the frequency tuning is discrete with the minimum tuning step determined by the cavity delay. Here, we propose and demonstrate a counterpart of an OPO in the optoelectronic domain, i.e., an optoelectronic parametric oscillator (OEPO) based on parametric frequency conversion in an optoelectronic cavity to generate microwave signals. Owing to the unique energy-transition process in the optoelectronic cavity, the phase evolution in the OEPO is not linear, leading to steady single-mode oscillation or multimode oscillation that is not bounded by the cavity delay. Furthermore, the multimode oscillation in the OEPO is stable and easy to realize owing to the phase control of the parametric frequency-conversion process in the optoelectronic cavity, while stable multimode oscillation is difficult to achieve in conventional oscillators such as an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) or an OPO due to the mode-hopping and mode-competition effect. The proposed OEPO has great potential in applications such as microwave signal generation, oscillator-based computation, and radio-frequency phase-stable transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-0337-5DOI Listing
June 2020

A Natural Membrane Vesicle Exosome-based Sinomenine Delivery Platform for Hepatic Carcinoma Therapy.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Recent evidence has demonstrated that Sinomenine (SIN) exerts antitumor activity in vitro. However, the clinical utility of SIN remains limited mainly because of its poor bioavailability. Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that play crucial roles in intracellular communications through functionally active substances such as DNA and RNA. Exosomes have been utilized as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery of different anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Exosomes-SIN for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a rat model. To do so, we prepared a mixture of SIN and exosomes (Exo-SIN) to improve the bioavailability of SIN to treat liver cancer. The in vitro release profile of the Exo-SIN was examined. We observed a continuous, slow release of SIN from Exo-SIN in simulated body fluid as well as tumor microenvironment. In the cytotoxicity test, Exo-SIN exhibited a significantly stronger inhibition in HepG2 cells, compared to free SIN. The flow cytometry assessments showed that Exo-SIN could suppress HepG2 cell migration in a Transwell assay and induce cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis. Western blotting showed that survivin, a crucial protein for survival of living cells, was significantly downregulated after treatment with Exo-SIN. In conclusion, our data suggest that Exo-SIN could serve as a potential, effective delivery platform for hepatic carcinoma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026621666210612032004DOI Listing
June 2021

Hyperactivation of RAP1 and JAK/STAT Signaling Pathways Contributes to Fibrosis during the Formation of Nasal Capsular Contraction.

Eur Surg Res 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laser Center of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Silicone implant-based augmentation rhinoplasty or mammoplasty induces capsular contracture, which has been acknowledged as a process that develops an abnormal fibrotic capsule associated with the immune response to allogeneic materials. However, the signaling pathways leading to the nasal fibrosis remain poorly investigated. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of nasal capsular contracture, with a specific research interest in the signaling pathways involved in fibrotic development at the advanced stage of contracture. By examining our recently obtained RNA sequencing data and global gene expression profiling between grade II and grade IV nasal capsular tissues, we found that both the RAP1 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways were hyperactive in the contracted capsules. This was verified on quantitative real-time PCR which demonstrated upregulation of most of the representative component signatures in these pathways. Loss-of-function assays through siRNA-mediated Rap1 silencing and/or small molecule-directed inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway in ex vivo primary nasal fibroblasts caused a series of dramatic behavioral and functional changes, including decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and synthesis of type I collagen, compared to control cells, and indicating the essential role of the RAP1 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in nasal capsular fibrosis. Our results sheds light on targeting downstream signaling pathways for the prevention and therapy of silicone implant-induced nasal capsular contracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513780DOI Listing
June 2021

Using photo-induced p-n junction interface effect of CoMnO/β-MnO oxidase mimetics for colorimetric determination of hydroquinone in seawater.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 26;1172:338695. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 266100, Qingdao, PR China.

Detection of pollutants in seawater faces a great challenge of strong interference, and the facile detection method is lacked. The CoMnO/β-MnO p-n junction oxidase mimetics were successfully prepared for colorimetric detection of hydroquinone in seawater. The catalysis ability was enhanced significantly by the photo-induced p-n junction interface effect. It not only promoted the formation of HO by suppressing the recombination of photon-generated carriers, but also provided the driving force for electron transport. The colorimetric detection of hydroquinone was achieved by fading and exhibited good adaptability in seawater. The obtained good recovery rate (97.23%-101.37%) in seawater makes it an inspiring method for practical application. The photo-induced p-n junction interface effect provides an opportunity for developing the application of colorimetric sensing in seawater detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338695DOI Listing
August 2021

Variation in the content and fluorescent composition of dissolved organic matter in soil water during rainfall-induced wetting and extract of dried soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 9;791:148296. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is present in all soils, providing a readily available carbon source for microorganisms, which influences microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Rainfall-induced wetting can alter the content and composition of soil DOM. However, conventional methods commonly used to extract DOM from soils involve air- or oven-drying followed by extraction with water, and the results vary considerably in terms of indexes used. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the variation in DOM content and composition of soil gravity water and capillary water during wetting, and establish a better method to obtain real soil DOM information. Following simulated rainfall (50 mm h, 0-24 h), gravity water and capillary water in fresh soil samples were separated using a high-speed refrigerated centrifuge. Additionally, DOM in dried soil samples was extracted using various soil/water ratios after drying by different methods. The DOM data obtained by conventional methods were compared with capillary water data. The results showed that DOM degradation occurred mainly in capillary water close to the surface of soil particles. Among the six fluorescent components of DOM identified, a tryptophan-like component (E/E = 295/335 nm and 230/335 nm) was possibly derived from terrestrial plants, and a tyrosine-like component (E/E = 265/305 nm) was likely derived from microbial secretion. Except for little variation in the fluorescence index, dissolved organic carbon concentrations in capillary water were double those in dried soil extracted by conventional methods. The humification index and spectral slope ratio of DOM extracted by conventional methods also markedly varied, and no clear patterns were observed for the variation in specific UV absorbance at 254 nm. These findings allow real information to be obtained regarding soil DOM during wetting, and better selection of the extraction method and indexes when studying soil DOM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148296DOI Listing
June 2021

Combining MGMT promoter pyrosequencing and protein expression to optimize prognosis stratification in glioblastoma.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Center of Brain Tumor, Institute for Brain Disorders and Beijing Key Laboratory of Brain Tumor, Beijing, China.

Pyrosequencing (PSQ) represents the golden standard for MGMT promoter status determination. Binary interpretation of results based on the threshold from the average of several CpGs tested would neglect the existence of the "gray zone". How to define the gray zone and reclassify patients in this subgroup remains to be elucidated. A consecutive cohort of 312 primary glioblastoma patients were enrolled. CpGs 74-81 in the promoter region of MGMT were tested by PSQ and the protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to calculate the area under the curves (AUC). Kaplan-Meier plots were used to estimate the survival rate of patients compared by the log-rank test. The optimal threshold of each individual CpG differed from 5-11%. Patients could be separated into hypomethylated subgroup (all CpGs tested below the corresponding optimal thresholds, n=126, 40.4%), hypermethylated subgroup (all CpGs tested above the corresponding optimal thresholds, n=108, 34.6%), and the gray zone subgroup (the left patients, n=78, 25.0%). Patients in the gray zone harbored an intermediate prognosis. The IHC score instead of the average methylation levels could successfully predict the prognosis for the gray zone (AUC for overall survival: 0.653, 0.519, respectively). Combining PSQ and IHC significantly improved the efficiency of survival prediction (AUC: 0.662, 0.648, 0.720 for PSQ, IHC, and combination, respectively). IHC is a robust method to predict prognosis for patients in the gray zone defined by PSQ. Combining PSQ and IHC could significantly improve the predictive ability for clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15024DOI Listing
June 2021

Self-Constructed Multiple Plasmonic Hotspots on an Individual Fractal to Amplify Broadband Hot Electron Generation.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P.R. China.

Plasmonic nanoparticles are ideal candidates for hot-electron-assisted applications, but their narrow resonance region and limited hotspot number hindered the energy utilization of broadband solar energy. Inspired by tree branches, we designed and chemically synthesized silver fractals, which enable self-constructed hotspots and multiple plasmonic resonances, extending the broadband generation of hot electrons for better matching with the solar radiation spectrum. We directly revealed the plasmonic origin, the spatial distribution, and the decay dynamics of hot electrons on the single-particle level by using simulation, dark-field spectroscopy, pump-probe measurements, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Our results show that fractals with acute tips and narrow gaps can support broadband resonances (400-1100 nm) and a large number of randomly distributed hotspots, which can provide unpolarized enhanced near field and promote hot electron generation. As a proof-of-concept, hot-electron-triggered dimerization of -nitropthiophenol and hydrogen production are investigated under various irradiations, and the promoted hot electron generation on fractals was confirmed with significantly improved efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c03218DOI Listing
June 2021

[Significance and future of anticoagulant therapy for sepsis].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):621-625

Department of Critical Care Medicine, the First People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Sepsis is caused by the imbalance of the host body's response to infection, which causes life-threatening organ dysfunction. Disorders of blood coagulation play a very important role in the development of sepsis. In sepsis, the body's coagulation system is activated, leading to hypercoagulability, while the anticoagulation mechanism is significantly inhibited, causing a large number of microthrombi to form, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may occur. Although there are obvious controversies about the anticoagulation treatment of sepsis at home and abroad, we cannot deny the significance of anticoagulation treatment in sepsis. Only appropriate anticoagulation can effectively reduce the mortality in septic DIC, septic shock and high-risk population, and ultimately effectively reduce the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The sepsis-induced coagulation dysfunction (SIC) score is currently used internationally to guide anticoagulation. SIC score is optimized based on the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) overt DIC score and Sepsis-3, including platelet, international normalized ratio (INR) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). The SIC score can sensitively monitor sepsis-induced coagulation dysfunction. When the SIC score is ≥ 4, it is the best timing to initiate anticoagulation therapy. At present, the internationally recommended anticoagulant drugs include antithrombin (AT), thrombomodulin (TM), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), heparin, etc., while the domestically recommended anticoagulant drugs are only unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Before using anticoagulant drugs, it is necessary to evaluate the possibility of bleeding and thrombosis in the patients. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the patient's primary disease. Try to adopt the treatment strategy of transitioning from unfractionated heparin to low molecular weight heparin without obvious anticoagulation contraindications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20201126-00731DOI Listing
May 2021

Mapping methylation quantitative trait loci in cardiac tissues nominates risk loci and biological pathways in congenital heart disease.

BMC Genom Data 2021 Jun 10;22(1):20. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, San Diego, CA, 92123, USA.

Background: Most congenital heart defects (CHDs) result from complex interactions among genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic modifications, and maternal environmental exposures. Characterizing the complex relationship between genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic variation will enhance our understanding of pathogenesis in this important type of congenital disorder. We investigated cis-acting effects of genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on local DNA methylation patterns within 83 cardiac tissue samples and prioritized their contributions to CHD risk by leveraging results of CHD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and their effects on cardiac gene expression.

Results: We identified 13,901 potential methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) with a false discovery threshold of 5%. Further co-localization analyses and Mendelian randomization indicated that genetic variants near the HLA-DRB6 gene on chromosome 6 may contribute to CHD risk by regulating the methylation status of nearby CpG sites. Additional SNPs in genomic regions on chromosome 10 (TNKS2-AS1 gene) and chromosome 14 (LINC01629 gene) may simultaneously influence epigenetic and transcriptomic variations within cardiac tissues.

Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that genetic variants may influence the risk of CHDs through regulating the changes of DNA methylation and gene expression. Our results can serve as an important source of information that can be integrated with other genetic studies of heart diseases, especially CHDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-021-00975-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194170PMC
June 2021

Expanding mutational spectrum of HRAS by a patient with Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome.

J Dermatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

As one of the epidermal nevus syndromes, Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims (SFM) is characterized by craniofacial nevus sebaceous (NS) and extracutaneous abnormalities (e.g., brain, eyes, and bone). Here, we report a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with significant skin abnormalities (NS in the scalp, extensive epidermal nevus along Blaschko's lines), ocular abnormalities (strabismus), central nervous system abnormalities (seizure and mental retardation), lymphatic dysplasia (chylous pleural and pericardial effusion), cardiac abnormalities (patent foramen ovale), urogenital system abnormalities (cryptorchidism, hypospadias), and a tumor predisposition (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma). DNA samples from NS, rhabdomyosarcoma, and peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. A novel mutation in the HRAS gene (c.38G>T; p.Gly13Val) was detected in a mosaic state in NS, rhabdomyosarcoma, and peripheral blood leukocytes, with different ratio of heterozygous mutation (HRAS c.38G>T) of 39.90% (9412/23 588 reads), 73.03% (205 562/281 468 reads), and 14.16% (15 837/111 842 reads), respectively. By predicting the impact of the mutation on the biological function of protein, we found that the novel HRAS mutation (c.38G>T; p.Gly13Val) had the highest damaging scores among other HRAS mutations reported so far. This is the first reported SFM syndrome patient with novel mosaic HRAS mutation, which may help to expand the mutational spectrum of HRAS and better understand the role of HRAS in the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15922DOI Listing
June 2021

Senolytics reduce coronavirus-related mortality in old mice.

Science 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and Center of Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the pronounced vulnerability of the elderly and chronically-ill to SARS-CoV-2-induced morbidity and mortality. Cellular senescence contributes to inflammation, multiple chronic diseases, and age-related dysfunction, but effects on responses to viral infection are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that senescent cells (SnC) become hyper-inflammatory in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-1, increasing expression of viral entry proteins and reducing anti-viral gene expression in non-SnCs through a paracrine mechanism. Old mice acutely infected with pathogens that included a SARS-CoV-2-related mouse β-coronavirus experienced increased senescence and inflammation with nearly 100% mortality. Targeting SnCs using senolytic drugs before or after pathogen exposure significantly reduced mortality, cellular senescence, and inflammatory markers and increased anti-viral antibodies. Thus, reducing the SnC burden in diseased or aged individuals should enhance resilience and reduce mortality following viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abe4832DOI Listing
June 2021

A new method for purifying N-Glycans released from milk glycoprotein.

J Proteomics 2021 Jun 5;245:104283. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Human milk is the first source of nutrition for infants, which delivers an array of unique bioactive components to offspring. Modern bovine-milk-based infant formulas are good substitutes when mother's milk is not available. As the third most abundant component in human milk, human free oligosaccharides (HMOs) may interference the analysis of total N-glycans on the glycoproteins in human milk. Herein, we combined acetone precipitation protein with the filter aided sample preparation method (FASP) to thoroughly remove HMOs and purify N-glycans. Furthermore, we also compared both N-glycosylation and glycoproteins between human and bovine milk, which may provide new ideas for the composition adjustment of infant formula in the food industry. SIGNIFICANCE: We described a new method, which can successfully remove HMOs, further extract and purify the N-glycans on glycoproteins from pooled human milk for MALDI-TOF MS analysis by applying acetone precipitation and FASP together. We applied the new method to purify the N-glycans from whey proteins in pooled bovine milk and compared the N-glycosylation differences between pooled human and bovine milk by MALDI-TOF MS. We first reported the difference of N-glycan pattern of glycoproteins between pooled bovine and human milk by lectin blotting, and found significant differences in types and abundance of glycoproteins between the two sourced milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104283DOI Listing
June 2021

Intracellular Ca2+ signaling and ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) are associated with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang, China.

Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder afflicting dairy cows during the periparturient period and is closely associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The onset of ER stress in humans and mice alters hepatic lipid metabolism, but it is unknown if such event contributes to fatty liver in dairy cows soon after parturition. ORAI1 is a key component of the store-operated Ca2+ entry mechanism regulating cellular Ca2+ balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ORAI1 on hepatic lipidosis via ER stress in dairy cows. Liver tissue biopsies were collected from Holstein cows diagnosed as healthy (n=6) or with hepatic lipidosis (n=6). Protein and mRNA abundance of ER stress-related targets, lipogenic targets or the transcription regulator SREBP1 and ORAI1 were greater in cows with lipidosis. In vitro, hepatocytes were isolated from four healthy female calves and used for culture with a 1.2 mM mixture of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, and palmitoleic acid) for various times (0, 3, 6, 9 or 12 h). As incubation time progressed, increases in concentration of Ca2+ and abundance of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol requiring protein-1α (IRE1α), and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) protein in response to exogenous fatty acids underscored a mechanistic link among Ca2+, fatty acids and ER stress. In a subsequent study, hepatocytes were transfected with small interfering RNA (siORAI1) or the ORAI1 inhibitor BTP2 for 48 h or 2 h followed by a challenge with the 1.2 mM mixture of fatty acids for 6 h. Compared with control group, silencing or inhibition of ORAI1 led to decreased abundance of fatty acid synthesis (FASN, SREBP1 and ACACA) and ER stress-related proteins in bovine hepatocytes. Overall, data suggested that NEFA through ORAI1 regulate intracellular Ca2+ signaling, induce ER stress, and lead to lipidosis in isolated hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab184DOI Listing
June 2021

[Genetic testing and genotype-phenotype analysis for a child with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(6):557-560

Department of Dermatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Henan University People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003, China.

Objective: To carry out genetic testing for a Chinese patient with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and explore its genotype-phenotype correlation.

Methods: Clinical data of the patient was collected. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the patient, his parents and 100 unrelated healthy controls. Genetic variants were detected by using next-generation sequencing using a skin-disease panel through targeted capture and next generation sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. All literature related to genetic testing of XLHED patients in China was searched in the database, and the genotypes and phenotypes of patients in the literature and the correlation between them were statistically analyzed.

Results: A novel splice site variant c.655_689del was detected in the patient but not among his parents and the 100 unrelated healthy controls. So far 61 variants of the EDA gene have been identified among Chinese patients with XLHED, which suggested certain degree of genotype-phenotype correlation.

Conclusion: A novel c.655_689del variant has been identified in the EDA gene, which has expanded the spectrum of EDA gene variant and facilitated delineation of the genotype-phenotype correlation of XLHED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200622-00464DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Utility of F-APN-1607 Tau PET Imaging in Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

Mov Disord 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

PET Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: F-APN-1607 is a novel tau PET tracer characterized by high binding affinity for 3- and 4-repeat tau deposits. Whether F-APN-1607 PET imaging is clinically useful in PSP remains unclear.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of F-APN-1607 PET in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and assessment of disease severity in patients with PSP.

Methods: We enrolled 3 groups consisting of patients with PSP (n = 20), patients with α-synucleinopathies (MSA with predominant parkinsonism, n = 7; PD, n = 10), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 13). The binding patterns of F-APN-1607 in PET/CT imaging were investigated. Regional standardized uptake ratios were compared across groups and examined in relation to their utility in the differential diagnosis of PSP versus α-synucleinopathies. Finally, the relationships between clinical severity scores and F-APN-1607 uptake were investigated after adjustment for age, sex, and disease duration.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with PSP showed increased F-APN-1607 binding in several subcortical regions, including the striatum, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, midbrain, tegmentum, substantia nigra, pontine base, red nucleus, raphe nuclei, and locus coeruleus. We identified specific regions that were capable of distinguishing PSP from α-synucleinopathies. The severity of PSP was positively correlated with the amount of F-APN-1607 uptake in the subthalamic nucleus, midbrain, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pontine base, and raphe nuclei.

Conclusions: F-APN-1607 PET imaging holds promise for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and assessment of disease severity in patients with PSP. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28672DOI Listing
June 2021