Publications by authors named "Ming Jiang"

762 Publications

Preoperative assessment clinics and case cancellations: a prospective study from a large medical center in China.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Oct;9(19):1501

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Preoperative assessment clinics have great benefits in reducing surgical cancellations, saving hospital resources and improving patient satisfaction. However, previous studies did not focus on patients with comorbidities. With advancements in medicine and aging population, the number of elderly patients with multiple comorbidities is increasing. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a preoperative assessment clinic for patients with multiple comorbidities.

Methods: This prospective, observational study enrolled patients with multiple comorbidities from Nov 1, 2019 to Oct 31, 2020 in a tertiary teaching hospital in China. Patients either visited the preoperative assessment clinic before admission or received an anesthesia consultation after admission. The impact of clinic visits on operating room cancellations, length of hospital stay before surgery, length of hospital stay after surgery, major postoperative complications, incidence of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission, readmission to any hospital within 30 days after surgeries and total in-hospital costs were analyzed.

Results: A total of 326 eligible cases were included. Eighty-seven of 108 cases who visited the clinic before admission were scheduled for selective surgeries. In all, 218 patients received an anesthesia consultation after admission. The cancellation rate in the inpatient group was 7.80%, while no surgeries were cancelled in preclinic group (P=0.016). A preoperative assessment clinic visit statistically decreased the length of in-hospital stays before surgery from 93.02 to 76.11 h (P=0.010). After propensity score matching, significant differences in operating room cancellations (0 6.48%; P=0.015) and length of stay before surgery (76.11 92.22 h; P=0.038) persisted between two groups. No significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of prognosis, including major postoperative complications, incidence of postoperative ICU admissions, and readmissions to any hospital within 30 days (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Among patients with comorbidities undergoing major surgeries, a preoperative assessment clinic visit was more efficient than an anesthesia consultation after admission. These findings may provide impetus for the opening of preoperative assessment clinics for critical patients in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-4665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573447PMC
October 2021

Multiscale Aggregate Networks with Dense Connections for Crowd Counting.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 11;2021:9996232. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Hangzhou Dianzi University, Baiyang Road No. 2, Hangzhou, China.

The most advanced method for crowd counting uses a fully convolutional network that extracts image features and then generates a crowd density map. However, this process often encounters multiscale and contextual loss problems. To address these problems, we propose a multiscale aggregation network (MANet) that includes a feature extraction encoder (FEE) and a density map decoder (DMD). The FEE uses a cascaded scale pyramid network to extract multiscale features and obtains contextual features through dense connections. The DMD uses deconvolution and fusion operations to generate features containing detailed information. These features can be further converted into high-quality density maps to accurately calculate the number of people in a crowd. An empirical comparison using four mainstream datasets (ShanghaiTech, WorldExpo'10, UCF_CC_50, and SmartCity) shows that the proposed method is more effective in terms of the mean absolute error and mean squared error. The source code is available at https://github.com/lpfworld/MANet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9996232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8601827PMC
November 2021

Efficient biosynthesis of nucleoside cytokinin angustmycin A containing an unusual sugar system.

Nat Commun 2021 Nov 17;12(1):6633. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education, and School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan University, 430071, Wuhan, China.

Angustmycin A has anti-mycobacterial and cytokinin activities, and contains an intriguing structure in which an unusual sugar with C5'-C6' dehydration is linked to adenine via an N-glycosidic bond. However, the logic underlying the biosynthesis of this molecule has long remained obscure. Here, we address angustmycin A biosynthesis by the full deciphering of its pathway. We demonstrate that AgmD, C, A, E, and B function as D-allulose 6-phosphate 3-epimerase, D-allulose 6-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, adenine phosphoallulosyltransferase, phosphoribohydrolase, and phosphatase, respectively, and that these collaboratively catalyze the relay reactions to biosynthesize angustmycin C. Additionally, we provide evidence that AgmF is a noncanonical dehydratase for the final step to angustmycin A via a self-sufficient strategy for cofactor recycling. Finally, we have reconstituted the entire six-enzyme pathway in vitro and in E. coli leading to angustmycin A production. These results expand the enzymatic repertoire regarding natural product biosynthesis, and also open the way for rational and rapid discovery of other angustmycin related antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26928-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599513PMC
November 2021

Neural Circuits for Social Interactions: From Microcircuits to Input-Output Circuits.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 29;15:768294. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Shaanxi Engineering and Technological Research Center for Conversation and Utilization of Regional Biological Resources, College of Life Sciences and Research Center for Resource Peptide Drugs, Yanan University, Yanan, China.

Social behaviors entail responses to social information and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition process that involves attention, memory, motivation, and emotion. Neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior are highly conserved across species, and inter- and intra-specific variability observed in social behavior can be explained to large extent by differential activity of a conserved neural network. However, neural microcircuits and precise networks involved in social behavior remain mysterious. In this review, we summarize the microcircuits and input-output circuits on the molecular, cellular, and network levels of different social interactions, such as social exploration, social hierarchy, social memory, and social preference. This review provides a broad view of how multiple microcircuits and input-output circuits converge on the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala to regulate complex social behaviors, as well as a potential novel view for better control over pathological development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2021.768294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585935PMC
October 2021

Clinical Features and Temporal Lung Radiographic Changes in 25 Patients Recovering from COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Nov 14;27:e933381. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Xiangtan Central Hospital, Xiangtan, Hunan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Little is known of the changes in lung radiographic characteristics over time in patients recovering from COVID-19. This study analyzed the clinical features and temporal lung radiographic changes in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pneumonia who did not require invasive mechanical ventilation during the acute and convalescent periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS The data of 25 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from January 29, 2020, to November 24, 2020, who did not require invasive mechanical ventilation and who were followed up were retrospectively collected. The 25 patients were divided into severe and moderate groups. Clinical characteristics and computed tomography (CT) manifestations were compared. A total of 121 consecutive thin-slice CT scans were collected at 4 weeks, 2 months, and 5 months after admission to evaluate lung abnormalities in the patients. The CT score was used to assess disease severity. RESULTS The severe group had a lower rate of nucleic acid conversion within 10 days of admission and higher D-dimer, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase values. In the severe group, hospital stay was longer and hospitalization costs were higher. The average CT score of the severe group peaked in the second week, while the moderate group peaked in the first week and then decreased over time. There were no statistically significant differences in the average CT score between the 2 groups at the 5-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The pulmonary lesions of patients recovering from COVID-19 and who do not require invasive mechanical ventilation were gradually absorbed and resolved over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.933381DOI Listing
November 2021

Ligand Engineering of Titanium-Oxo Nanoclusters for Cerenkov Radiation-Reinforced Photo/Chemodynamic Tumor Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 12;13(46):54727-54738. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics & Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

The therapeutic effect of general photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gravely limited by the poor penetration depth of exogenous light radiation. In recent years, Cerenkov radiation (CR) has been exploringly applied to overcome this critical defect. However, the currently reported type I photosensitizers for CR-induced PDT (CRIT) are only TiO nanoparticle-based agents with numerous fatally intrinsic drawbacks. Herein, we developed NH-TiO nanocluster (NTOC)-derived ultrasmall nanophotosensitizers (NPSs, denoted as TDPs) via innovate ligand engineering. The introduced dopamine (DA) ligands not only facilitate the water solubility and photocatalytic properties of NPSs but also involve the tumor-targeting behavior through the binding affinity with DA receptors on cancer cells. Under CR irradiation, TDPs enable efficient hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation benefiting from the enhanced separation of hole (h)-electron (e) pairs, where the h will react with HO to execute type I PDT and the transferred e can realize the augmentation of Ti to substantially promote the therapeutic index of chemodynamic therapy. This study provides an easy but feasible strategy for constructing versatile NPSs with an ultrasmall framework structure, propounding a refreshing paradigm for implementing efficient CR-induced combined therapy (CRICT) and spurring the development of CR and titanium-familial nanoplatforms in the fields of photocatalysis and nanocatalytic medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c16213DOI Listing
November 2021

BRD4 drives esophageal squamous cell carcinoma growth by promoting RCC2 expression.

Oncogene 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

The Pathophysiology Department, The School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.

The low survival rate of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients is primarily attributed to technical limitations and a lack of insight regarding the molecular mechanisms contributing to its progression. Alterations in epigenetic modulators are critical to cancer development and prognosis. BRD4, a chromatin reader protein, plays an essential role in regulating oncogene expression. Here, we investigated the contributing role of BRD4 and its related mechanisms in the context of ESCC tumor progression. Our observations showed that BRD4 transcript and protein expression levels are significantly increased in ESCC patient tissues. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 suppressed ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses were subsequently used to deduce the potential targets of BRD4. Mechanistic studies showed that RCC2 is a downstream target of BRD4. Inhibition of either BRD4 or RCC2 resulted in decreased ESCC cell proliferation. The BRD4-TP73 interaction facilitated the binding of BRD4 complex to the promoter region of RCC2, and subsequently modulated RCC2 transcription. Furthermore, targeting BRD4 with inhibitors significantly decreased tumor volume in ESCC PDX models, indicating that BRD4 expression may contribute to tumor progression. Collectively, these findings suggest that BRD4 inhibition could be a promising strategy to treat ESCC by downregulating RCC2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-02099-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Formononetin represses cervical tumorigenesis by interfering with the activation of PD-L1 through MYC and STAT3 downregulation.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Nov 5:108899. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Astragalus membranaceus is a traditional Chinese medicine that regulates blood sugar levels, suppresses inflammation, protects the liver, and enhances immunity. In addition, A. membranaceus is also widely used in diet therapy and is a well-known health tonic. Formononetin is a natural product isolated from A. membranaceus that has multiple biological functions, including anti-cancer activity. However, the mechanism by which formononetin inhibits tumor growth is not fully understood. In this present study, we demonstrated that formononetin suppresses PD-L1 protein synthesis via reduction of MYC and STAT3 protein expression. Furthermore, formononetin markedly reduced the expression of MYC protein via the RAS/ERK signaling pathway and inhibited STAT3 activation through JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments illustrated that formononetin suppresses protein expression of PD-L1 by interfering with the interaction between MYC and STAT3. Meanwhile, formononetin promoted PD-L1 protein degradation via TFEB and TFE3-mediated lysosome biogenesis. T cell killing assay revealed that formononetin could enhance the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and restore ability to kill tumor cells in a co-culture system of T cells and tumor cells. In addition, formononetin inhibited cell proliferation, tube formation, cell migration, and promoted tumor cell apoptosis by suppressing PD-L1. Finally, the inhibitory effect of formononetin on tumor growth was confirmed in a murine xenograft model. The present study revealed the anti-tumor potential of formononetin, and the findings should support further research and development of anti-cancer drugs for cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108899DOI Listing
November 2021

T-Cell Receptor Profiling and Prognosis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy For Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:719285. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Radiotherapy is known to influence immune function, including T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. We evaluated the TCR repertoire before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explored correlations between TCR indexes and distant failure after SBRT. TCR repertoires were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected before and after SBRT from 19 patients. TCR combinational diversity in V and J genes was assessed with multiplex PCR of genomic DNA from PBMCs and tested for associations with clinical response. All patients received definitive SBRT to a biologically effective dose of >=100 Gy. The number of unique TCR clones was decreased after SBRT versus before, but clonality and the Shannon Entropy did not change. Four patients (21%) developed distant metastases after SBRT (median 7 months); those patients had lower Shannon Entropy in post-SBRT samples than patients without metastasis. Patients with a low change in Shannon Entropy from before to after SBRT [(post-SBRT Shannon Entropy minus baseline Shannon)/(baseline Shannon) * 100] had poorer metastasis-free survival than those with high change in Shannon Entropy (P<0.001). Frequencies in V/J gene fragment expression in the TCR β chain were also different for patients with or without metastases (two V fragments in baseline samples and 2 J and 9 V fragments in post-treatment samples). This comprehensive analysis of immune status before and after SBRT showed that quantitative assessments of TCRs can help evaluate prognosis in early-stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.719285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8559517PMC
October 2021

Mitochondrial DNA methylation drift and postoperative delirium in mice.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the etiopathogenesis of postoperative delirium (POD), which severely affects the prognosis of elderly patients undergoing surgery. The methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a new and incompletely described phenomenon that regulates the structure and function of mitochondria, is associated with ageing. However, the relationship between mtDNA methylation and POD has not been established.

Objective: To explore the potential roles of mitochondrial epigenetic regulation in POD.

Design: A randomised animal study.

Participants: Eighty-eight 6-month-old and one hundred seventy-six 18-month-old male C57BL/6N mice.

Interventions: POD was induced by abdominal surgery under 1.4% isoflurane for 2 h. Behavioural tests were performed at 24 h before surgery and at 6, 9 and 24 h after surgery.

Main Outcome Measures: 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) at five CpG sites of the displacement loop (D-loop) and at 60 CpG sites of coding gene loci in the mitochondrial genome after surgery of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex in 6 and 18-month-old mice were detected using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial gene expression and mtDNA copy number were also examined using Electron microscopy and real time PCR to find the association with mtDNA methylation.

Results: The mtDNA methylation drift manifested as a decrease in the methylation levels at the D-loop and an increase or decrease in the methylation levels at several coding gene loci, ultimately resulting in reduced mtDNA copy numbers, altered mitochondrial gene expression and damaged mitochondrial structures in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex after surgery. The activation of Silent information regulator-1 (SIRT1) ameliorated anaesthesia-induced and surgery-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and delirium-like behaviours by regulating mtDNA methyltransferase-mediated mtDNA methylation.

Conclusion: These data support the existence of epigenetic mtDNA regulation in POD; however, further studies are required to explore the specific mechanisms.

Trial Registration: No 20181204 Drum tower hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0000000000001620DOI Listing
November 2021

Variation and Evolution of the Whole Chloroplast Genomes of spp. (Rosaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:754209. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, China.

Species identification is vital for protecting species diversity and selecting high-quality germplasm resources. Wild spp. comprise rich and excellent germplasm resources; however, the variation and evolution of the whole chloroplast (cp) genomes in the genus have been ignored. In the present study, 27 complete chloroplast genomes of 11 wild species were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Then, the variation among complete cp genomes of was analyzed, and phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from those genome sequences. There was an overall high similarity of sequences, with some divergence. According to analysis with mVISTA, non-coding regions were more variable than coding regions. Inverted repeats (IRs) were observed to contract or expand to different degrees, which resulted in different sizes of cp genomes. Additionally, five variable loci, -, -, -, -, and -, were identified that could be used to develop DNA barcoding for identification of species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole cp genomes supported clustering all species into two groups (A and B). Group A species were mainly distributed in western China, while group B contained several species from Europe and Americas. These results support allopolyploid origins of the octoploid species and and the tetraploid species and . The complete cp genomes of these spp. provide valuable information for selecting high-quality germplasm resources in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.754209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551639PMC
October 2021

Effect of late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis on PFS after haplo-PBSCT.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 5;16(1):1493-1502. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Hematology Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Institute of Hematology, No. 137 Liyushan South Road, Urumqi 830054, China.

Introduction: This study is to investigate the effect of late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LOHC) on progression-free survival (PFS) of patients after haploidentical peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-PBSCT).

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 74 patients with hematological malignancies treated with a myeloablative conditioning regimen and haplo-PBSCT. The effect of LOHC on PFS was studied in terms of HC occurrence, grade, disease type, duration, onset time, gender, and age.

Results: There were 28 patients with LOHC, and no case was with early-onset HC. The cumulative incidence of LOHC was 37.8% (95% CI: 26.9-48.7%). The 2-year expected PFS of 74 patients and 34 AML patients was not significantly different between LOHC patients and patients without HC ( > 0.05). Among 27 ALL patients, the 2-year expected PFS of LOHC patients was 75%, significantly higher than patients without HC (54.2%) ( < 0.05). The 2-year expected PFSs of patients with mild LOHC and severe LOHC were 69.8 and 77.8%, respectively ( > 0.05). Similarly, the onset time, duration, age, and gender of LOHC patients did not show significant effects on PFS ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: After haplo-PBSCT, LOHC has a significant effect on the PFS of ALL patients. The HC grade, duration, onset time, gender, and age have no significant effect on PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494146PMC
October 2021

Feasibility of source identification by DOM fingerprinting in marine pollution events.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Oct 18;173(Pt B):113060. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Research Center for Coastal Environment Engineering Technology of Shandong Province, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, China.

Accurate source identification is the first step of pollution control in environmental emergency management, especially in marine pollution events. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrices, EEMs) analyses were applied to trace contaminant sources for a pollution event that occurred along the coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the EEMs identified four fluorescent components: terrestrial humic-like (C1), tryptophan-like (C2), and a mixture of terrestrial and marine humic-like (C3) and tyrosine-like (C4) components. The relationships among C1 to C4 and quality indices indicated that the DOM originated from terrestrial input and biological activity. The EEMs-PARAFAC results accompanied by the optical characteristics of DOM and fingerprinting demonstrated that the marine pollution event occurred was from enterprise emissions. The numerical simulation confirmed the reliability of EEMs-PARAFAC modeling for DOM fingerprinting of pollution sources in polluted regions. This study provided a feasible method for source recognition in marine pollution events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113060DOI Listing
October 2021

Adaptive resistance in tumors to anti-PD-1 therapy through re-immunosuppression by upregulation of GPNMB expression.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 19;101(Pt B):108199. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, People's Republic of China; Biomedical Research Center, Tongji University Suzhou Institute, Building 2, 198 Jinfeng Road, Wuzhong District, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215101, People's Republic of China; Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Acquired resistance to the antitumor activity of antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1): programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint in various types of cancers has increasingly been observed during treatment. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, we developed a mouse MC38 colon adenocarcinoma cell line that was made resistant to anti-PD-1 treatment through repeated in vivo selection. We compared the transcriptomic profiles of anti-PD-1 therapy-resistant and -sensitive tumors using RNA sequencing analysis. The immunosuppressive molecule transmembrane glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) was significantly upregulated in resistant tumor cells, as determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses. Furthermore, deletion of GPNMB in resistant cells successfully restored sensitivity to anti-PD-1 treatment in vivo. Collectively, our results indicate that tumors may develop resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy by upregulating their expression of the immunosuppressive molecule GPNMB. Furthermore, GPNMB is a potential, targetable biomarker for monitoring adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade, and identification of this immunosuppressive molecule may be a breakthrough for new therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108199DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification of Polyvalent Vaccine Candidates From Extracellular Secretory Proteins in .

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:736360. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Control, School of Life Sciences, Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Sun Yat-sen University, University City, Guangzhou, China.

Bacterial infections cause huge losses in aquaculture and a wide range of health issues in humans. A vaccine is the most economical, efficient, and environment-friendly agent for protecting hosts against bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify broad, cross-protective antigens from the extracellular secretory proteome of the marine bacterium . Of the 69 predicted extracellular secretory proteins in its genome, 16 were randomly selected for gene cloning to construct DNA vaccines, which were used to immunize zebrafish The innate immune response genes were also investigated. Among the 16 DNA vaccines, 3 (AT730_21605, AT730_22220, and AT730_22910) were protective against infection with 47-66.7% increased survival compared to the control, while other vaccines had lower or no protective effects. Furthermore, AT730_22220, AT730_22910, and AT730_21605 also exhibited cross-immune protective effects against and/or infection. Mechanisms for cross-protective ability was explored based on conserved epitopes, innate immune responses, and antibody neutralizing ability. These results indicate that AT730_21605, AT730_22220, and AT730_22910 are potential polyvalent vaccine candidates against bacterial infections. Additionally, our results suggest that the extracellular secretory proteome is an antigen pool that can be used for the identification of cross-protective immunogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.736360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521057PMC
October 2021

A Novel Cascade Nanoreactor Integrating Two-Dimensional Pd-Ru Nanozyme, Uricase and Red Blood Cell Membrane for Highly Efficient Hyperuricemia Treatment.

Small 2021 Nov 19;17(46):e2103645. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, and Engineering Research Center for Nano-Preparation Technology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Nanozyme-based cascade reaction has emerged as an effective strategy for disease treatment because of its high efficiency and low side effects. Herein, a new and highly active two-dimensional Pd-Ru nanozyme is prepared and then integrated with uricase and red blood cell (RBC) membrane to fabricate a tandem nanoreactor, Pd-Ru/[email protected], for hyperuricemia treatment. The designed Pd-Ru/[email protected] nanoreactor displayed not only good stability against extreme pH, temperature and proteolytic degradation, but also long circulation half-life and excellent safety. The nanoreactor can effectively degrade UA by uricase to allantoin and H O and remove H O by using Pd-Ru nanosheets (NSs) with the catalase (CAT)-like activity. More importantly, the finally produced O from H O decomposition can in turn facilitate the catalytic oxidation of UA, as the degradation of UA is an O consumption process. By integrating the high-efficiency enzymatic activity, long circulation capability, and good biocompatibility, the designed Pd-Ru/[email protected] can effectively and safely treat hyperuricemia without side effects. The study affords a new alternative for the exploration of clinical treatment of hyperuricemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103645DOI Listing
November 2021

[Effect and Mechanism of Epimedium Polysaccharide on Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Function and Th17/Treg Balance in Aplastic Anemia].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Oct;29(5):1548-1554

Hematologic Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China E-mail:

Objective: To observe the effects of Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS) on bone marrow hematopoietic function and Th17/Treg balance in aplastic anemia (AA) mice, and preliminarily explore its therapeutic mechanism.

Methods: Forty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control (control), model (model), stanozolol (stanozolol) and epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) group, with 10 mice in each group. Except for the control group, Acetophenazine, Gy irradiation and cyclophosphamide triple application were used to establish AA models for the other groups. After the model was established, the stanozolol group was intragastrically administered with 4 mg/kg stanozolol suspension, the EPS group was intragastrically administered with 100 mg/kg epimedium polysaccharide, while the control group and the model group were given an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by gavage once a day, for 14 consecutive days. The automatic animal blood analyzer was used to detect the changes in peripheral blood hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT), flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Treg and Th17 cells, the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA, the number of nucleated bone marrow cells was counted, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the number, the proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow cells, Western blot was used to detect the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (RORγt), transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and fork head transcription factor 3 (Foxp3).

Results: Compared with the model group, the levels of Hb, RBC, WBC and PLT in the peripheral blood of mice in stanozolol and EPS group significantly increased, the proportion of Th17 cells was significantly reduced, and the proportion of Treg cells significantly increased. The levels of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum were significantly reduced (P<0.05), the level of IL-11 significantly increased (P<0.05), the number of bone marrow nucleated cells significantly increased (P<0.05), the positive rate of Ki-67 significantly increased (P<0.05) and the positive rate of Caspase-3 was significantly reduced (P<0.05). At the same time, the protein expression of STAT3 and RORγt significantly decreased, and the protein expression of STAT5 and Foxp3 increased, the difference showed statistically significant (P<0.05).

Conclusion: EPS can promote the recovery of bone marrow hematopoietic function in AA mice and improve Th17/Treg imbalance, the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of STAT3/RORγt expression and promotion of STAT5/Foxp3 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.05.027DOI Listing
October 2021

Developing a Novel Indium(III) Agent Based on Liposomes to Overcome Cisplatin-Induced Resistance in Breast Cancer by Multitargeting the Tumor Microenvironment Components.

J Med Chem 2021 Oct 5;64(19):14587-14602. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

State Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, China.

To overcome the resistance of cancer cells to platinum-based drugs and effectively suppress tumor growth, we developed a novel indium (In) agent based on liposomes (Lips). Thus, we not only obtained an In(III) thiosemicarbazone agent () with remarkable cytotoxicity by optimizing a series of In(III) thiosemicarbazone agents () but also successfully constructed a novel -loaded Lip () delivery system. Importantly, and results revealed that / overcame the tumor cell resistance and effectively inhibited MCF-7/DDP tumor growth. In addition, Lips improved the intracellular accumulation of . We also confirmed the mechanism by which / overcomes breast cancer cell resistance. / cannot act against DNA in cancer cells but attacks the two cell components in the tumor microenvironment, namely, by inducing apoptosis and lethal autophagy of cancer cells and resetting tumor-promoting M2 macrophages to the tumor-killing M1 phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c01068DOI Listing
October 2021

Physiological and metabolic responses of Microcystis aeruginosa to a salinity gradient.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Chunhui Road, Yantai, 264003, People's Republic of China.

Microcystis is a well-known toxic cyanobacterium in eutrophic environments, and an increasing number of Microcystis blooms have emerged in salty reservoirs and coastal rivers. This study observed that many Microcystis were identified in a coastal river in June 2020. The relative abundance of Microcystis decreased from 81.2 to 10.2% in the sampling sites from a salinity of 0 (Sal. 0) to a salinity of 12 (Sal. 12). Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) were identified in the coastal river and its estuary. Of the samples, those with a salinity of 5 (Sal. 5) had the highest concentration of MCs at 7.81 ± 0.67 μg L. In a saline water simulation experiment, the results showed that salt inhibited Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa growth, enhanced the activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and stimulated microcystin production. Transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of the psaB and rbcL genes controlling photosymbiotic processes were downregulated, and capD and csaBgene-related polysaccharide productions were upregulated by salt incubation. Notably, metabolism analysis showed that the total polysaccharides, proteins and small molecular matter, such as sucrose, methionine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, in the Microcystis cells increased substantially to resist the extracellular hyperosmotic pressure caused by the high salinity levels in culture. These findings indicate that increased salt in a natural aquatic body shifts the phytoplankton community by influencing the physiological metabolism of cyanobacteria and poses a high risk of microcystin exposure during cyanobacterial blooms in coastal rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16590-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Two-Dimensional Graphdiyne-Confined Platinum Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 28;13(40):47541-47548. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4, Canada.

Pt-based materials are the state-of-the-art catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR); however, there is still much room to improve the catalytic activity and enhance the stability of Pt-based catalysts. In this work, two-dimensional (2D) graphdiyne (GDY) with uniform distributed pores was applied to cover the Pt surface for catalyzing HER and ORR through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The 2D confinement induced by GDY was found to improve the catalytic performance of the Pt catalyst from three aspects: (1) the 2D covering layer increases the stability of the Pt catalyst through forming the heterogeneous interface of GDY/Pt(111); (2) GDY/Pt(111) shows better catalytic activities of HER and ORR, with the smaller average overpotential values of 0.26 and 0.51 V, respectively, compared with those (0.29 V for HER, 0.62 V for ORR) on the Pt catalyst; (3) the confinement effect of GDY weakens the adsorption energy of CO to -1.81 eV (average value) from -2.14 eV on Pt(111), inhibiting CO poisoning. This work sheds new light on 2D confinement effects for HER and ORR, which opens up a new strategy for improving the catalytic performance of Pt-based catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12054DOI Listing
October 2021

Overexpression of from Fine-Stem Stylo ( var. ) Enhances Chilling and Cold Tolerance in .

Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

(stylo) species are commercially significant tropical and subtropical forage and pasture legumes that are vulnerable to chilling and frost. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind stylos' responses to low temperature stress. Gretchen-Hagen 3 (GH3) proteins have been extensively investigated in many plant species for their roles in auxin homeostasis and abiotic stress responses, but none have been reported in stylos. , a cold-responsive gene identified in a whole transcriptome profiling study of fine-stem stylo ( var. ) was further investigated for its involvement in cold stress tolerance. shared a high percentage of identity with 14 leguminous GH3 proteins, ranging from 79% to 93%. Phylogenetic analysis classified SgGH3.1 into Group Ⅱ of GH3 family, which have been proven to involve with auxins conjugation. Expression profiling revealed that responded rapidly to cold stress in stylo leaves. Overexpression of in altered sensitivity to exogenous IAA, up-regulated transcription of genes, activated physiological responses against cold stress, and enhanced chilling and cold tolerances. This is the first report of a gene in stylos, which not only validated its function in IAA homeostasis and cold responses, but also gave insight into breeding of cold-tolerant stylos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12091367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469043PMC
August 2021

A portable, self-contained neuroprosthetic hand with deep learning-based finger control.

J Neural Eng 2021 10 11;18(5). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Deep learning-based neural decoders have emerged as the prominent approach to enable dexterous and intuitive control of neuroprosthetic hands. Yet few studies have materialized the use of deep learning in clinical settings due to its high computational requirements.Recent advancements of edge computing devices bring the potential to alleviate this problem. Here we present the implementation of a neuroprosthetic hand with embedded deep learning-based control. The neural decoder is designed based on the recurrent neural network architecture and deployed on the NVIDIA Jetson Nano-a compacted yet powerful edge computing platform for deep learning inference. This enables the implementation of the neuroprosthetic hand as a portable and self-contained unit with real-time control of individual finger movements.A pilot study with a transradial amputee is conducted to evaluate the proposed system using peripheral nerve signals acquired from implanted intrafascicular microelectrodes. The preliminary experiment results show the system's capabilities of providing robust, high-accuracy (95%-99%) and low-latency (50-120 ms) control of individual finger movements in various laboratory and real-world environments.This work is a technological demonstration of modern edge computing platforms to enable the effective use of deep learning-based neural decoders for neuroprosthesis control as an autonomous system.The proposed system helps pioneer the deployment of deep neural networks in clinical applications underlying a new class of wearable biomedical devices with embedded artificial intelligence.Clinical trial registration: DExterous Hand Control Through Fascicular Targeting (DEFT). Identifier: NCT02994160.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac2a8dDOI Listing
October 2021

-Inositol Restores Tilapia's Ability Against Infection by in Higher Water Temperature.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:682724. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Control, School of Life Sciences and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, Sun Yat-sen University, University City, Guangzhou, China.

Bacterial infection presents severe challenge to tilapia farming, which is largely influenced by water temperature. However, how water temperature determines tilapias' survival to infection is not well understood. Here, we address this issue from the perspective of metabolic state. Tilapias were more susceptible to infection at 33°C than at 18°C, which is associated with differential metabolism of the fish. Compared to the metabolome of tilapia at 18°C, the metabolome at 33°C was characterized with increased an tricarboxylic acid cycle and a reduced level of -inositol which represent the most impactful pathway and crucial biomarker, respectively. These alterations were accompanied with the elevated transcriptional level of 10 innate immune genes with infection time, where , , , and exhibited a higher expression at 33°C than at 18°C and was attenuated by exogenous -inositol in both groups. Interestingly, exogenous -inositol inactivated the elevated TCA cycle inhibiting the enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase. Thus, tilapias showed a higher survival ability at 33°C. Our study reveals a previously unknown relationship among water temperature, metabolic state, and innate immunity and establishes a novel approach to eliminate bacterial pathogens in tilapia at higher water temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.682724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462736PMC
November 2021

Unexpected Favorable Outcome to PD-1 Antibody Plus Lenvatinib in a Patient With Recurrent Intestinal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:653319. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Center of Medical Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an uncommon malignant cancer, and there is no standard treatment to date. Resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation is considered the most commonly used strategy for treatment. However, the treatment for patients who have progressed after systemic treatment is more controversial.

Case Summary: In this case report, we describe a 57-year-old man with primary small intestine FDCS where surgery and second-line systemic chemotherapy failed. After disease progression (PD), the patient received sintilimab plus lenvatinib as third-line treatment and achieved a progression-free survival (PFS) with 7 months.

Conclusion: This is the first report of a FDCS patient treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and antiangiogenic agents, sintilimab and lenvatinib, as third-line therapy. Our case provides a potential therapeutic option for patients with FDCS who progressed after multiline therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.653319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456086PMC
October 2021

Attention in Reasoning: Dataset, Analysis, and Modeling.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Sep 22;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

While attention has been an increasingly popular component in deep neural networks to both interpret and boost the performance of models, little work has examined how attention progresses to accomplish a task and whether it is reasonable. In this work, we propose an Attention with Reasoning capability (AiR) framework that uses attention to understand and improve the process leading to task outcomes. We first define an evaluation metric based on a sequence of atomic reasoning operations, enabling a quantitative measurement of attention that considers the reasoning process. We then collect human eye-tracking and answer correctness data, and analyze various machine and human attention mechanisms on their reasoning capability and how they impact task performance. To improve the attention and reasoning ability of visual question answering models, we propose to supervise the learning of attention progressively along the reasoning process and to differentiate the correct and incorrect attention patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in analyzing and modeling attention with better reasoning capability and task performance. The code and data are available at \url{https://github.com/szzexpoi/AiR}.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3114582DOI Listing
September 2021

Struggling With Business Corporate Cynical Impression? Powerful Methods of CSR to Enhance Corporate Image and Consumer Purchase Intention.

Front Public Health 2021 3;9:726727. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Business School, University of International Business and Economics, Business School, Beijing, China.

This study focuses on the perception of Chinese students about the image of the company and their purchase intention if the organization has a business cynical impression in the minds of its targeted customers. The study proposed three different types of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to cope up with the organizational cynical impression. These types are Economic and Legal CSR, Philanthropic CSR, and Ethical CSR. The main objective of this study is to determine which CSR type is better to reduce the corporate cynical impression on corporate image and the purchase intentions of consumers. In the study design, the bootstrap approach and AMOS 24 were employed to deal with mediation. The researchers recruited 500 individuals from different educational institutions in China using a simple random selection process. The outcomes of this study indicated that all three types of CSR are successful in mitigating the detrimental effects of corporate cynicism on the image of a firm and the purchase intentions of consumers. A more effective technique of boosting the corporate image of a company and purchase intention of a consumer is charitable CSR, which may help restore the image of a company and the purchase intention of a consumer that has been affected by corporate cynicism among its target customers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.726727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446375PMC
October 2021

Complete chloroplast genome of a rare and endangered plant species : genomic features and phylogenetic relationship within Orchidaceae.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 9;6(10):2872-2879. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Taizhou, PR China.

is a rare and endangered plant species with extremely small populations. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of was assembled, its structural organization was described and comparative genomic analyses was carried out. The cp genome of is 143,547 bp in length, with a GC content of 37.2%, which includes a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,464 bp separated by a small single-copy region of 10,764 bp and a large single-copy region of 83,856 bp. The cp genome contains 126 genes, consisting of 80 protein-coding genes, 38 transfer RNAs, and eight ribosomal RNAs. Six protein-coding genes, including (two copies), , , , and , are identified as pseudogenes. Another six genes, , , , , , and , are missing from the plastid genome. A total of 41 cp simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, including 40 mono-nucleotides and one di-nucleotides. Phylogenic analysis revealed was nested inside the species and sister to . The assembly and analysis of cp genome will provide essential data for further study of taxonomy and systematics of Orchidaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1972049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439234PMC
September 2021

The consensus from The Chinese Society of Hematology on indications, conditioning regimens and donor selection for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: 2021 update.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 09 15;14(1):145. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing, China.

The consensus recommendations in 2018 from The Chinese Society of Hematology (CSH) on indications, conditioning regimens and donor selection for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) facilitated the standardization of clinical practices of allo-HSCT in China and progressive integration with the world. There have been new developments since the initial publication. To integrate recent developments and further improve the consensus, a panel of experts from the CSH recently updated the consensus recommendations, which are summarized as follows: (1) there is a new algorithm for selecting appropriate donors for allo-HSCT candidates. Haploidentical donors (HIDs) are the preferred donor choice over matched sibling donors (MSDs) for patients with high-risk leukemia or elderly patients with young offspring donors in experienced centers. This replaces the previous algorithm for donor selection, which favored MSDs over HIDs. (2) Patients with refractory/relapsed lymphoblastic malignancies are now encouraged to undergo salvage treatment with novel immunotherapies prior to HSCT. (3) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the application of allo-HSCT in specific groups of patients with hematological malignancies (intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), favorable-risk AML with positive minimal residual disease, and standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia). (4) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the application of HSCT in patients with nonmalignant diseases, such as severe aplastic anemia and inherited diseases. (5) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the administration of anti-thymocyte globulin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide in HID-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01159-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441240PMC
September 2021

Defect evolution behaviors from single sulfur point vacancies to line vacancies in monolayer molybdenum disulfide.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19525-19536. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4, Canada.

Two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising candidates for many novel nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications due to their exceptional electronic, optical, chemical and mechanical properties. Experimentally, single chalcogen point vacancies caused by electron beam irradiation are found to agglomerate into line vacancy defects in monolayer TMDs. Herein, the corresponding defect evolution behaviors from single sulfur point vacancies to line vacancies in the monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS) have been systematically studied using molecular dynamics and first principles calculations. The experimental observations of the defect evolution from single sulfur point vacancies to line vacancies are reproduced at the atomic level. The results indicate that the di-vacancy line defect and a point vacancy separated by a sulfur atom in a line evolve into tri-vacancy line defects, and the di-vacancy line defects can rotate 60° clockwise or counterclockwise. Moreover, two adjacent di-vacancy line defects with an angle of 120° can evolve into tri-vacancy line defects. High temperature and large vacancy concentrations promote the defect evolution from point vacancies to line vacancies. Intriguingly, compared with the randomly distributed point vacancy defects, the line vacancy defects formed after the defect evolution significantly decrease the mechanical properties, such as the ultimate strength, ultimate strain and Young's modulus of monolayer MoS. In addition, the mechanical properties decrease with increasing vacancy concentration and temperature for the final configurations after defect evolution in monolayer MoS with different vacancy concentrations at different temperatures. The band gaps of monolayer MoS with line vacancy defects are smaller than those with randomly distributed point vacancy defects. Therefore, our study clarifies the defect evolution behaviors from single sulfur point vacancies to line vacancies in monolayer MoS and opens an opportunity for the novel nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications of monolayer TMDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02852aDOI Listing
September 2021

Role of the Extracellular Matrix in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 27;13:707466. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

College of Life Sciences and Research Center for Resource Peptide Drugs, Shaanxi Engineering and Technological Research Center for Conversation and Utilization of Regional Biological Resources, Yanan University, Yanan, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with complex pathological characteristics, whose etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Over the past few decades, the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has gained importance in neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we describe the role of the ECM in AD, focusing on the aspects of synaptic transmission, amyloid-β-plaque generation and degradation, Tau-protein production, oxidative-stress response, and inflammatory response. The function of ECM in the pathological process of AD will inform future research on the etiology and pathogenesis of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.707466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430252PMC
August 2021
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