Publications by authors named "Ming Huang"

425 Publications

Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognosis and Immune Cell Infiltration Using Gene Signature Associated with Inflammatory Response.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 7;2022:2415129. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Vascular Surgery, Kunming First People's Hospital, Kunming 650031, China.

It has been demonstrated that the inflammatory response influences cancer development and can be used as a prognostic biomarker in various tumors. However, the relevance of genes associated with inflammatory responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was analyzed using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) and differential analysis to discover essential inflammatory response-related genes (IFRGs). Cox regression studies, both univariate and multivariate, were employed to develop a prognostic IFRGs signature. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to deduce the biological function of the IFRGs signature. Finally, we estimated immune cell infiltration using a single sample GSEA (ssGSEA) and x-cell. Our results revealed that, among the major HCC IFRGs, two (DNASE1L3 and KLKB1) were employed to create a predictive IFRG signature. The IFRG signature could correctly predict overall survival (O.S) as per Kaplan-Meier time-dependent roc curves analysis. It was also linked to pathological tumor stage and T stage and might be used as a prognostic predictor in HCC. GSEA analysis concluded that the IFRG signature might influence the immune response in HCC. Immunological cell infiltration and immune checkpoint molecule expression differed in the high-risk and low-risk groups. As a result of our findings, DNASILE may play a role in the tumor microenvironment. However, more research is necessary to confirm the role of DNASE1L3 and KLKB1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2415129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759924PMC
January 2022

Duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia has predictive value in recurrent fistula after major definitive surgery for intestinal fistula.

BMC Surg 2022 Jan 15;22(1):14. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: The present study aimed to identify the predictive value of duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia in screening patients at high risk of recurrent fistula after major definitive surgery (DS) for intestinal fistula.

Methods: If the initial postoperative lactate (IPL) > 2 mmol/L, DS was defined as major definitive surgery. The 315 enrolled patients with major DS were divided into group A (2 mmol/L < IPL ≤ 4 mmol/L), group B (mmol/L < IPL ≤ 6 mmol/L), and group C (IPL > 6 mmol/L). The characteristics of patients were collected, and the duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia was analyzed. According to the occurrence of recurrent fistula (RF), patients were further divided into RF group A, and Non-RF group A; RF group B, and Non-RF group B; and RF group C, and Non-RF group C.

Results: The duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia was comparable between the RF group A and the Non-RF group A [12 (IQR: 12-24) vs 24 (IQR: 12-24), p = 0.387]. However, the duration of hyperlactatemia was associated with RF in group B (adjusted OR = 1.061; 95% CI: 1.029-1.094; p < 0.001) and group C (adjusted OR = 1.059; 95% CI: 1.012-1.129; p = 0.017). In group B, the cutoff point of duration of 42 h had the optimal predictive value (area under ROC = 0.791, sensitivity = 0.717, specificity = 0.794, p < 0.001). In group C, the cutoff point of duration of 54 h had the optimal predictive value (area under ROC = 0.781, sensitivity = 0.730, specificity = 0.804, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The duration of postoperative hyperlactatemia has a value in predicting RF in patients with an IPL of more than 4 mmol/L after major definitive surgery for intestinal fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-022-01465-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8761294PMC
January 2022

Characterizing Patient-Clinician Communication in Secure Medical Messages: Retrospective Study.

J Med Internet Res 2022 01 11;24(1):e17273. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Artificial Intelligence and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Background: Patient-clinician secure messaging is an important function in patient portals and enables patients and clinicians to communicate on a wide spectrum of issues in a timely manner. With its growing adoption and patient engagement, it is time to comprehensively study the secure messages and user behaviors in order to improve patient-centered care.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to analyze the secure messages sent by patients and clinicians in a large multispecialty health system at Mayo Clinic, Rochester.

Methods: We performed message-based, sender-based, and thread-based analyses of more than 5 million secure messages between 2010 and 2017. We summarized the message volumes, patient and clinician population sizes, message counts per patient or clinician, as well as the trends of message volumes and user counts over the years. In addition, we calculated the time distribution of clinician-sent messages to understand their workloads at different times of a day. We also analyzed the time delay in clinician responses to patient messages to assess their communication efficiency and the back-and-forth rounds to estimate the communication complexity.

Results: During 2010-2017, the patient portal at Mayo Clinic, Rochester experienced a significant growth in terms of the count of patient users and the total number of secure messages sent by patients and clinicians. Three clinician categories, namely "physician-primary care," "registered nurse-specialty," and "physician-specialty," bore the majority of message volume increase. The patient portal also demonstrated growing trends in message counts per patient and clinician. The "nurse practitioner or physician assistant-primary care" and "physician-primary care" categories had the heaviest per-clinician workload each year. Most messages by the clinicians were sent from 7 AM to 5 PM during a day. Yet, between 5 PM and 7 PM, the physicians sent 7.0% (95,785/1,377,006) of their daily messages, and the nurse practitioner or physician assistant sent 5.4% (22,121/408,526) of their daily messages. The clinicians replied to 72.2% (1,272,069/1,761,739) patient messages within 1 day and 90.6% (1,595,702/1,761,739) within 3 days. In 95.1% (1,499,316/1,576,205) of the message threads, the patients communicated with their clinicians back and forth for no more than 4 rounds.

Conclusions: Our study found steady increases in patient adoption of the secure messaging system and the average workload per clinician over 8 years. However, most clinicians responded timely to meet the patients' needs. Our study also revealed differential patient-clinician communication patterns across different practice roles and care settings. These findings suggest opportunities for care teams to optimize messaging tasks and to balance the workload for optimal efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17273DOI Listing
January 2022

N-glycosylation of somatostatin receptor type 2 protects rats from acute pancreatitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Nov;9(22):1667

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: The growth hormone inhibitor somatostatin and its analogs are promising therapeutic agents for acute pancreatitis. However, the therapeutic effects remain controversial. Somatostatin analogs preferentially bind to somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), and this study aimed to investigate whether N-glycosylation affects SSTR2 stability, membrane trafficking, and signal transduction.

Methods: Western blot analysis following PNGase F digestion was performed to confirm N-glycosylation of SSTR2 in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. Rats were subjected to 4 hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg) plus LPS (5 µg/mL) to induce acute pancreatitis. Mass spectrometry was conducted to identify the glycosylation sites of SSTR2, and immunofluorescent staining was carried out to examine the localization of wild-type and asparagine 9 (N9)Q-mutant SSTR2. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 was employed to assess the stability of SSTR2, and overexpression of wild-type or N9Q-mutant SSTR2 was used to examine the role of N-glycosylation in SSTR2 signal transduction and its therapeutic effect on pancreatitis in rats.

Results: SSTR2 protein in AR42J cells was N-glycosylated at the N9 residue. Wild-type SSTR2 localized in the plasma membrane whereas N9Q-mutant SSTR2 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MG132 rapidly restored the ectopic expression of mutant but not wild-type SSTR2 protein in AR42J cells. Overexpression of wild-type but not N9Q-mutant SSTR2 activated NF-κB signaling and facilitated nuclear transportation of p65 in AR42J cells upon cerulein plus LPS stimulation. Furthermore, pretreatment with wild-type but not N9Q-mutant SSTR2-overexpressing vectors significantly ameliorated biochemical parameters and pancreatic histological impairments in rats with pancreatitis.

Conclusions: N-glycosylation of SSTR2 is essential for membrane localization, stability, and signal transduction of SSTR2 in pancreatic cells, playing a protective role in experimental acute pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-5249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8667150PMC
November 2021

Substrate Engineering for CVD Growth of Single Crystal Graphene.

Small Methods 2021 May 5;5(5):e2001213. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637457, Singapore.

Single crystal graphene (SCG) has attracted enormous attention for its unique potential for next-generation high-performance optoelectronics. In the absence of grain boundaries, the exceptional intrinsic properties of graphene are preserved by SCG. Currently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recognized as an effective method for the large-scale synthesis of graphene films. However, polycrystalline films are usually obtained and the present grain boundaries compromise the carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, optical properties, and mechanical properties. The scalable and controllable synthesis of SCG is challenging. Recently, much attention has been attracted by the engineering of large-size single-crystal substrates for the epitaxial CVD growth of large-area and high-quality SCG films. In this article, a comprehensive and comparative review is provided on the selection and preparation of various single-crystal substrates for CVD growth of SCG under different conditions. The growth mechanisms, current challenges, and future development and perspectives are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202001213DOI Listing
May 2021

Feasibility Analysis of Symbolic Representation for Single-Channel EEG-Based Sleep Stages.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:5928-5931

Sleep screening based on the construction of sleep stages is one of the major tool for the assessment of sleep quality and early detection of sleep-related disorders. Due to the inherent variability such as inter-users anatomical variability and the inter-systems differences, representation learning of sleep stages in order to obtain the stable and reliable characteristics is runoff for downstream tasks in sleep science. In this paper, we investigated feasibility of the EEG-based symbolic representation for sleep stages. By combining the Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic model and comparing with different feature extraction methods, the work proved the feasibility of multi-topics representation for sleep stages and physiological signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9629652DOI Listing
November 2021

The Crystal Plane is not the Key Factor for CO -to-Methane Electrosynthesis on Reconstructed Cu O Microparticles.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Dec 9:e202114080. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Research Center for Environmental and Energy Catalysis, Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, P.R. China.

Cu O microparticles with controllable crystal planes and relatively high stability have been recognized as a good platform to understand the mechanism of the electrocatalytic CO reduction reaction (CO RR). Herein, we demonstrate that the in situ generated Cu O/Cu interface plays a key role in determining the selectivity of methane formation, rather than the initial crystal plane of the reconstructed Cu O microparticles. Experimental results indicate that the methane evolution is dominated on all three different crystal planes with similar Tafel slopes and long-term stabilities. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further reveal that *CO is protonated via a similar bridge configuration at the Cu O/Cu interface, regardless of the initial crystal planes of Cu O. The Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) of *CHO on different reconstructed Cu O planes are close and more negative than that of *OCCOH, indicating the methane formation is more favorable than ethylene on all Cu O crystal planes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202114080DOI Listing
December 2021

Heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products, shortcomings during evaluation, factors influencing formation, risk assessment and mitigation strategies.

Meat Sci 2022 Feb 7;184:108693. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Nanjing Innovation Center of Meat Products Processing, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

At this point in time, the evidence of a link between well-done meat intake and the incidence of cancer is stronger than it was 20 years ago. Several cohort and case-control studies have confirmed this evidence, and have shown a higher odd ratio and increased exposure to heterocyclic amines (HCAs) among those who frequently consume red meat. However, in most epidemiological studies, dietary assessment, combined with analytical data, is used to estimate the intake of HCAs, which has many inconsistencies. In addition, there is a lack of findings indicating a substantial correlation between various factors, like types of raw meat, types of meat products, and cooking methods that directly or indirectly influence the occurrence of cancer. Although numerous mitigation strategies have been developed to reduce HCAs levels in meat, there is still a high prevalence of carcinogenesis caused by HCAs in humans. The aim of this review is to summarise conflicting reports, address shortcomings and identify emerging trends of cutting-edge research related to HCAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108693DOI Listing
February 2022

Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Serotoninergic Neurons Mediate Morphine Rewarding Effect and Conditioned Place Preference.

Neuroscience 2022 01 8;480:108-116. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics and Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Military Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China. Electronic address:

Morphine rewarding properties are the main reasons for drug-craving in behaviors occurring during morphine addiction. It has been suggested that morphine addiction relies on signals to the mesolimbic dopamine system, although the mechanisms outside the dopaminergic system are still unclear. Notably, the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system remains unexplored. Using in vivo electrophysiological and optogenetic approaches, we found that morphine treatment increased DRN 5-TH neurons firing rate and optogenetic activation of DRN 5-HT neurons induced a rewarding effect, indicating that morphine reward is related to DRN 5-HT neurons. Accordingly, optogenetic inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons following morphine injection reversed conditioned place preference (CPP) during chronic morphine treatment. These findings aid our understanding of the new functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons for morphine rewarding effect and provide a potential approach for the treatment of morphine addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.10.031DOI Listing
January 2022

A Real-Time Portable IoT System for Telework Tracking.

Front Digit Health 2021 10;3:643042. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Computational Systems Biology, Division of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan.

Telework has become a universal working style under the background of COVID-19. With the increased time of working at home, problems, such as lack of physical activities and prolonged sedentary behavior become more prominent. In this situation, a self-managing working pattern regulation may be the most practical way to maintain worker's well-being. To this end, this paper validated the idea of using an Internet of Things (IoT) system (a smartphone and the accompanying smartwatch) to monitor the working status in real-time so as to record the working pattern and nudge the user to have a behavior change. By using the accelerometer and gyroscope enclosed in the smartwatch worn on the right wrist, nine-channel data streams of the two sensors were sent to the paired smartphone for data preprocessing, and action recognition in real time. By considering the cooperativity and orthogonality of the data streams, a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) model was constructed to recognize the working status from a common working routine. As preliminary research, the results of the CNN model show accurate performance [5-fold cross-validation: 0.97 recall and 0.98 precision; leave-one-out validation: 0.95 recall and 0.94 precision; (support vector machine (SVM): 0.89 recall and 0.90 precision; random forest: 0.95 recall and 0.93 precision)] for the recognition of working status, suggesting the feasibility of this fully online method. Although further validation in a more realistic working scenario should be conducted for this method, this proof-of-concept study clarifies the prospect of a user-friendly online working tracking system. With a tailored working pattern guidance, this method is expected to contribute to the workers' wellness not only during the COVID-19 pandemic but also take effect in the post-COVID-19 era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fdgth.2021.643042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521791PMC
June 2021

Targeted Quantitative Profiling of GTP-Binding Proteins Associated with Metastasis of Melanoma Cells.

J Proteome Res 2021 Nov 25;20(11):5189-5195. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, United States.

Metastasis is a major obstacle in the therapeutic intervention of melanoma, and several GTP-binding proteins were found to play important roles in regulating cancer metastasis. To assess systematically the regulatory roles of these proteins in melanoma metastasis, we employed a targeted chemoproteomic method, which relies on the application of stable isotope-labeled desthiobiotin-GTP acyl phosphate probes in conjunction with scheduled multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for profiling quantitatively the GTP-binding proteins. Following probe labeling, tryptic digestion, and affinity pull-down of desthiobiotin-conjugated peptides, differences in expression levels of GTP-binding proteins in two matched pairs of primary/metastatic melanoma cell lines were measured using liquid chromatography-MRM analysis. We also showed that among the top upregulated proteins in metastatic melanoma cells, AK4 promotes the migration and invasion of melanoma cells; overexpression of AK4 in primary melanoma cells leads to augmented migration and invasion, and reciprocally, knockdown of AK4 in metastatic melanoma cells results in repressed invasiveness. In summary, we examined the relative expression levels of GTP-binding proteins in two pairs of primary/metastatic melanoma cell lines. Our results confirmed some previously reported regulators of melanoma metastasis and revealed a potential role of AK4 in promoting melanoma metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8751237PMC
November 2021

Tranilast inhibits angiotensin II-induced myocardial fibrosis through S100A11/ transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1)/Smad axis.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):8447-8456

Department of Cardiology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, China.

Tranilast has an ameliorative effect on myocardial fibrosis (MF), but the specific mechanism has not been studied. S100A11 is a key regulator of collagen expression in MF. In this paper, we will study the regulatory roles of Tranilast and S100A11 in MF. After the introduction of angiotensin II (AngII) to Human cardiac fibroblasts (HCF), Tranilast was administered. CCK-8 kit was used to detect cell viability. Wound Healing assay detected cell migration, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of migration-related proteins and proteins related to extracellular matrix synthesis. The expression of α-SMA was detected by immunofluorescence (IF). The expression of S100A11 was detected by qPCR and Western blot, and then S100A11 was overexpressed by cell transfection technology, so as to explore the mechanism by which Tranilast regulated MF. In addition, the expression of TGF-β1/Smad pathway related proteins was detected by Western blot. Tranilast inhibited Ang II-induced over-proliferation, migration and fibrosis of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCF), and simultaneously significantly decreased S100A11 expression was observed. Overexpression of S100A11 reversed the inhibition of Tranilast on AngII-induced over-proliferation, migration, and fibrosis in HCF, accompanied by activation of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Overall, Tranilast inhibits angiotensin II-induced myocardial fibrosis through S100A11/TGF-β1/Smad axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1982322DOI Listing
December 2021

Effects of Diluent pH on Enrichment and Performance of Dairy Goat X/Y Sperm.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:747722. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, China.

In this paper, on the basis of the differences in the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of the diluent dairy goat semen on X/Y sperm motility, an X/Y sperm enrichment study was conducted to establish a simple and effective method for gender control in dairy goats. Dairy goat semen was diluted using different pH dilutions and was incubated. Then, the X/Y sperm ratio in the isolated upper sperm was determined using the double TaqMan qPCR method. The internal pH change pattern of sperm cells at different pH dilutions was measured using BCECF-AM probe, and the functional parameters of the isolated sperm were tested with the corresponding kit. Next, an fertilization test was conducted using isolated spermatozoa and oocytes to determine their fertilization rates, the percentages of female embryos, and the expression of genes related to developing potentially fertilized embryos. Results showed that the percentages of the X sperm cells in the upper sperm layer were 67.24% ± 2.61% at sperm dilution pH of 6.2 and 30.45% ± 1.03% at sperm dilution pH of 7.4, which was significantly different from 52.35% ± 1.72% of the control group (pH 6.8) ( < 0.01). Results also showed that there is a relationship between the external pHo and internal pHi of sperm cells. Furthermore, the percentages of female embryos after the fertilization of the isolated upper sperm with mature oocytes at pH 6.2 and 7.4 were 66.67% ± 0.05 and 29.73% ± 0.04%, respectively, compared with 48.57% ± 0.02% in the control group (pH 6.8). Highly significant differences occurred between groups ( < 0.01). Additionally, no significant difference was observed during the expression of genes related to embryonic development between the blastocysts formed from sperm isolated by changing the pH of the diluent and the control sperm ( > 0.05). Therefore, this study successfully established a simple and effective method for enriched X/Y sperms from dairy goats, which is important for regulating the desired sex progeny during dairy goat breeding and for guiding dairy goat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.747722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517142PMC
October 2021

Sanye Tablet Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:713750. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Sanye Tablet (SYT) is a patent prescription widely used in treating T2D and pre-diabetes, especially T2D comorbid with hypertriglyceridemia, for many years in China. However, the underlying mechanism that accounts for the anti-diabetic potential of SYT by regulating lipid-related intermediates remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of SYT on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice by means of combining lipidomics and proteomics. The obese mice models were developed via HFD feeding for 20 consecutive weeks. Mice in the treatment group were given metformin and SYT respectively, and the effects of SYT on body weight, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation in the organs, and pathological changes in the liver were monitored. Lipid metabolism was examined by lipidomics. Further determination of signaling pathways was detected by proteomics. The biological contributions of the compounds detected in SYT's chemical fingerprint were predicted by network pharmacology. SYT treatment reduced body weight, inhibited viscera and hepatic steatosis lipid accumulation, and prevented insulin resistance. Furthermore, it was found that circulatory inflammatory cytokines were reduced by SYT treatment. In addition, lipidomics analysis indicated that SYT targets lipid intermediates, including diacylglycerol (DAG) and Ceramide (Cer). Mechanistically, SYT positively affected these lipid intermediates by suppressing liver lipogenesis via downregulation of SREBP1/ACC and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Our results predicted that astragalin and rosmarinic acid might regulate the JAK-STAT pathway by targeting PIM2 and STAT1, respectively, while paeoniflorin and rosmarinic acid were likely to regulate inflammatory responses by targeting TNFα, IL-6, and IL-4 during T2D. Overall, our study provides supportive evidence for the mechanism of SYT's therapeutic effect on dysregulated lipid metabolism in diabesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.713750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511530PMC
September 2021

Multifunctional Macroassembled Graphene Nanofilms with High Crystallinity.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 8:e2104195. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou, 310027, P. R. China.

A "cooling-contraction" method to separate large-area (up to 4.2 cm in lateral size) graphene oxide (GO)-assembled films (of nanoscale thickness) from substrates is reported. Heat treatment at 3000 °C of such free-standing macroscale films yields highly crystalline "macroassembled graphene nanofilms" (nMAGs) with 16-48 nm thickness. These nMAGs present tensile strength of 5.5-11.3 GPa (with ≈3 µm gauge length), electrical conductivity of 1.8-2.1 MS m , thermal conductivity of 2027-2820 W m K , and carrier relaxation time up to ≈23 ps. As a demonstration application, an nMAG-based sound-generator shows a 30 µs response and sound pressure level of 89 dB at 1 W cm . A THz metasurface fabricated from nMAG has a light response of 8.2% for 0.159 W mm and can detect down to 0.01 ppm of glucose. The approach provides a straightforward way to form highly crystallized graphene nanofilms from low-cost GO sheets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202104195DOI Listing
October 2021

Using a mixed methods approach to identify public perception of vaping risks and overall health outcomes on Twitter during the 2019 EVALI outbreak.

Int J Med Inform 2021 11 14;155:104574. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Introduction: Vaping product use (i.e., e-cigarettes) has been rising since 2000 in the United States. Negative health outcomes associated with vaping products have created public uncertainty and debates on social media platforms. This study explores the feasibility of using social media as a surveillance tool to identify relevant posts and at-risk vaping users.

Methods: Using an interdisciplinary method that leverages natural language processing and manual content analysis, we extracted and analyzed 794,620 vaping-related tweets on Twitter. After observing significant increases in vaping-related tweets in July, August, and September 2019, additional human coding was completed on a subset of these tweets to better understand primary themes of vaping-related discussions on Twitter during this time frame.

Results: We found significant increases in tweets related to negative health outcomes such as acute lung injury and respiratory issues during the outbreak of e-cigarette/vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) in the fall of 2019. Positive sentiment toward vaping remained high, even across the peak of this outbreak in July, August, and September. Tweets mentioning the public perceptions of youth risk were concerning, as were increases in marketing and marijuana-related tweets during this time.

Discussion: The preliminary results of this study suggest the feasibility of using Twitter as a means of surveillance for public health crises, and themes found in this research could aid in specifying those groups or populations at risk on Twitter. As such, we plan to build automatic detection algorithms to identify these unique vaping users to connect them with a digital intervention in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497442PMC
November 2021

Nerve bundle formation during the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration: collagen VI-neural cell adhesion molecule 1 interaction.

Neural Regen Res 2022 May;17(5):1023-1033

Institute of Neuroscience and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China; Key Laboratory of Neurological Function and Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

The formation of nerve bundles, which is partially regulated by neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1), is important for neural network organization during peripheral nerve regeneration. However, little is known about how the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment affects this process. Here, we seeded dorsal root ganglion tissue blocks on different ECM substrates of peripheral nerve ECM-derived matrix-gel, Matrigel, laminin 521, collagen I, and collagen IV, and observed well-aligned axon bundles growing in the peripheral nerve ECM-derived environment. We confirmed that NCAM1 is necessary but not sufficient to trigger this phenomenon. A protein interaction assay identified collagen VI as an extracellular partner of NCAM1 in the regulation of axonal fasciculation. Collagen VI interacted with NCAM1 by directly binding to the FNIII domain, thereby increasing the stability of NCAM1 at the axolemma. Our in vivo experiments on a rat sciatic nerve defect model also demonstrated orderly nerve bundle regeneration with improved projection accuracy and functional recovery after treatment with 10 mg/mL Matrigel and 20 μg/mL collagen VI. These findings suggest that the collagen VI-NCAM1 pathway plays a regulatory role in nerve bundle formation. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Guangzhou Medical University (approval No. GY2019048) on April 30, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.324861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8552870PMC
May 2022

Transgelin-2 interacts with CD44 to regulate Notch1 signaling pathway and participates in colorectal cancer proliferation and migration.

J Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Yunnan Cancer Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, No. 519, Kunzhou Road, Xishan District, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

The abnormal expression of transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is related to tumor occurrence and progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of TAGLN2 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) is still poorly understood. Compared with adjacent tissues, TAGLN2 is overexpressed in CRC tissues. Its expression level is negatively correlated with the overall survival rate of patients with CRC. In addition, knockdown of TAGLN2 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells. We also showed that TAGLN2 could interact with CD44 to regulate the Notch-1 signaling pathway. Our findings indicate there is increased TAGLN2 expression in CRC and that it may serve as a promising potential therapeutic target for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-021-00843-8DOI Listing
September 2021

History and Epidemiology of Cancer Pain.

Cancer Treat Res 2021 ;182:3-15

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, UC Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 2700, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Pain is indelibly associated with the cancer experience. A systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that the prevalence of cancer pain is 55% during anticancer treatment, 66.4% in advanced, metastatic, or terminal disease, and 39.3% after curative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81526-4_1DOI Listing
November 2021

Hepatic artery injection of I-metuximab combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective non-randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

J Nucl Med 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

College of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University,, China.

This prospective non-randomized, multicenter clinical trial was performed to investigate efficacy and safety of I-labeled metuximab in adjuvant treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients were assigned to treatment with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with I-metuximab or TACE alone. The primary outcome was overall tumor recurrence. The secondary outcomes were safety and overall survival. The median time to tumor recurrence was 6 months in the TACE+I-metuximab group ( = 160) and 3 months in the TACE group ( = 160) (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.70; < 0.001). The median overall survival was 28 months in the TACE+I-metuximab group and 19 months in the TACE group (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.82; = 0.001). TACE+I-metuximab showed a greater anti-recurrence benefit, significantly improved the 5-year survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, and was well tolerated by patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.121.262136DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of Targeted Proteins by Jamu Formulas for Different Efficacies Using Machine Learning Approach.

Life (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Computational Systems Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma 630-0192, Nara, Japan.

Background: We performed in silico prediction of the interactions between compounds of Jamu herbs and human proteins by utilizing data-intensive science and machine learning methods. Verifying the proteins that are targeted by compounds of natural herbs will be helpful to select natural herb-based drug candidates.

Methods: Initially, data related to compounds, target proteins, and interactions between them were collected from open access databases. Compounds are represented by molecular fingerprints, whereas amino acid sequences are represented by numerical protein descriptors. Then, prediction models that predict the interactions between compounds and target proteins were constructed using support vector machine and random forest.

Results: A random forest model constructed based on MACCS fingerprint and amino acid composition obtained the highest accuracy. We used the best model to predict target proteins for 94 important Jamu compounds and assessed the results by supporting evidence from published literature and other sources. There are 27 compounds that can be validated by professional doctors, and those compounds belong to seven efficacy groups.

Conclusion: By comparing the efficacy of predicted compounds and the relations of the targeted proteins with diseases, we found that some compounds might be considered as drug candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11080866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398944PMC
August 2021

Single-crystal, large-area, fold-free monolayer graphene.

Nature 2021 08 25;596(7873):519-524. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan, Republic of Korea.

Chemical vapour deposition of carbon-containing precursors on metal substrates is currently the most promising route for the scalable synthesis of large-area, high-quality graphene films. However, there are usually some imperfections present in the resulting films: grain boundaries, regions with additional layers (adlayers), and wrinkles or folds, all of which can degrade the performance of graphene in various applications. There have been numerous studies on ways to eliminate grain boundaries and adlayers, but graphene folds have been less investigated. Here we explore the wrinkling/folding process for graphene films grown from an ethylene precursor on single-crystal Cu-Ni(111) foils. We identify a critical growth temperature (1,030 kelvin) above which folds will naturally form during the subsequent cooling process. Specifically, the compressive stress that builds up owing to thermal contraction during cooling is released by the abrupt onset of step bunching in the foil at about 1,030 kelvin, triggering the formation of graphene folds perpendicular to the step edge direction. By restricting the initial growth temperature to between 1,000 kelvin and 1,030 kelvin, we can produce large areas of single-crystal monolayer graphene films that are high-quality and fold-free. The resulting films show highly uniform transport properties: field-effect transistors prepared from these films exhibit average room-temperature carrier mobilities of around (7.0 ± 1.0) × 10 centimetres squared per volt per second for both holes and electrons. The process is also scalable, permitting simultaneous growth of graphene of the same quality on multiple foils stacked in parallel. After electrochemical transfer of the graphene films from the foils, the foils themselves can be reused essentially indefinitely for further graphene growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03753-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Mitigation of heterocyclic amines by phenolic compounds in allspice and perilla frutescens seed extract: The correlation between antioxidant capacities and mitigating activities.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 12;368:130845. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Nanjing Innovation Center of Meat Products Processing, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, and College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.

The effect of different levels of allspice and perilla frutescens seed extract (ASE and PSE) on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in pan-fried chicken meat patties and the bioactive components found in ASE and PSE that contribute to the mitigation of HCAs were investigated in this study. DPPH radical scavenging activity was evaluated and the results indicated that APSE (ASE + PSE) showed the highest capacity to scavenge free radicals, and the most effective inhibition of HCAs formation. Furthermore, Single and mixed phenolic compounds exhibited a positive effect in scavenging free radicals and mitigating HCAs. The radical scavenging activity and HCAs inhibition effect of single phenolic compounds were highly correlated, whereas mixed phenolic compounds exhibited poor correlation. PCA analysis indicated that phenolic compounds had the maximum inhibitory effect on IQ, followed by Norharman and harman and the minimal effect on PhIP and 7,8-DiMeIQx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130845DOI Listing
January 2022

Neurolytic Splanchnic Nerve Block and Pain Relief, Survival, and Quality of Life in Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesthesiology 2021 10;135(4):686-698

From the Department of Pain Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Neurolytic splanchnic nerve block is used to manage pancreatic cancer pain. However, its impact on survival and quality of life remains controversial. The authors' primary hypothesis was that pain relief would be better with a nerve block. Secondarily, they hypothesized that analgesic use, survival, and quality of life might be affected.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, parallel-armed trial was conducted in five Chinese centers. Eligible patients suffering from moderate to severe pain conditions were randomly assigned to receive splanchnic nerve block with either absolute alcohol (neurolysis) or normal saline (control). The primary outcome was pain relief measured on a visual analogue scale. Opioid consumption, survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were also documented. Analgesics were managed using a protocol common to all centers. Patients were followed up for 8 months or until death.

Results: Ninety-six patients (48 for each group) were included in the analysis. Pain relief with neurolysis was greater for the first 3 months (largest at the first month; mean difference, 0.7 [95% CI, 0.3 to 1.0]; adjusted P < 0.001) compared with placebo injection. Opioid consumption with neurolysis was lower for the first 5 months (largest at the first month; mean difference, 95.8 [95% CI, 67.4 to 124.1]; adjusted P < 0.001) compared with placebo injection. There was a significant difference in survival (hazard ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.03 to 2.35]; P = 0.036) between groups. A significant reduction in survival in neurolysis was found for stage IV patients (hazard ratio, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29 to 2.93]; P = 0.001), but not for stage III patients (hazard ratio, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.97]; P = 0.809). No differences in quality of life were observed.

Conclusions: Neurolytic splanchnic nerve block appears to be an effective option for controlling pain and reducing opioid requirements in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

Editor’s Perspective:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003936DOI Listing
October 2021

Compound Danshen Dripping Pill ameliorates post ischemic myocardial inflammation through synergistically regulating MAPK, PI3K/AKT and PPAR signaling pathways.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Dec 11;281:114438. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 10 Poyanghu Road, Jinghai District,Tianjin 301617, China; State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China; Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (CDDP), composed of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen and Borneol, is a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula which has made great achievements in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, but the profound mechanism of CDDP improving post ischemic myocardial inflammation hasn't been clearly discussed.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to explore the biological mechanism of constituents in CDDP synergistically improving post ischemic myocardial inflammation.

Materials And Methods: The pharmacologic studies were applied to assess the cardio protection effect of CDDP in acute myocardial ischemic rats. To identify the anti-inflammatory ingredients in CDDP, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for NF-κB inhibition were used. The network pharmacology and molecular docking assay were adopted to predict targets of anti-inflammatory ingredients and then the regulation effects of these active components on their targets were also verified.

Results: Our results indicated that CDDP exerted an excellent cardio protection effect by reversing echocardiographic abnormalities, attenuating histopathological lesion, ameliorating circulating myocardial markers and inflammation cytokines. Tanshinol, salvianolic acid B (Sal B), tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) and notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) were the pivotal anti-inflammatory ingredients in CDDP. The anti-inflammatory mechanism is that tanshinol and Sal B respectively targeted on PPARγ and JNK, while Tan IIA worked on AKT1 and NGR1 bound to PI3K.

Conclusions: Our results firstly demonstrated that CDDP effectively ameliorated post ischemic myocardial inflammation through simultaneously modulating MAPK, PI3K/AKT and PPAR pathways in a multi-components synergetic manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114438DOI Listing
December 2021

A Case of Parturient with Hereditary Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Case Report of a Novel Variant.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1732466DOI Listing
August 2021

Characteristics of Fertility Transition Response to the Cumulative Effective Low Temperature in a Two-Line Male Sterile Rice Cultivar.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Aug 3;14(1):71. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

National Engineering Research Center of Plant Space Breeding, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Background: Photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.) is usually considered two-line male sterile rice because of its dual-purpose in two-line hybrid rice system: under short days and low temperatures, it is fertile and used for self-propagation, but under long days and high temperatures, it is sterile and used for hybrid seed production. Therefore, photoperiod and temperature conditions are extremely important for the fertility transition of two-line male sterile rice. In recent years, there have been frequent occurrences of abnormally low-temperature (ALT) resulting in failure of two-line hybrid rice seed production. The daily average temperature (DAT) during ALT events is sometimes higher than the critical sterility-inducing temperature (CSIT) of two-line male sterile rice, of which the night temperature is lower than the CSIT. DAT has been traditionally used as the single indicator of pollen fertility transition, but it is unknown why the fertility of two-line male sterile rice in seed production restored fertility under ALT conditions.

Results: For Hang93S (H93S), a newly released PTGMS line, we hypothesized fertility transition is determined mainly by the cumulative effective low temperature (ELT) and only a certain duration of low temperature is required every day during the fertility-sensitive period. This study simulated ALTs where the DAT was higher than the CSIT while some segments of night temperature were lower than the CSIT. The results showed H93S exhibited a fertility transition to varying degrees. Moreover, fertility was restored under simulated ALT conditions and pollen fertility increased with increasing cumulative ELT, indicating that the fertility transition was affected primarily by the cumulative ELT. Results also indicated that pollen fertility increased as the number of treatment days increased.

Conclusions: The fertility transition is caused mainly by the cumulative ELT. In two-line male sterile rice breeding, the effects of day length, ALT at night, and continuous response days should be considered together. The present study provides new insight into fertility transition so breeders can more effectively utilize the two-line male sterile rice, H93S, in breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00514-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8333178PMC
August 2021

Genetics of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:652091. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Dermatology, Xiamen Chang Gung Allergology Consortium, Xiamen Chang Gung Hospital, Xiamen, China.

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are T cells-mediated life-threatening immune reactions, most commonly induced by drug. The last decade has seen significant progress in SCARs research. Recent studies have unveiled the pathogenesis of SCARs involved in susceptible genes, including human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and drugs-T cell receptor (TCR) interaction that may trigger T cell activation with downstream immune signaling of cytokines/chemokines and specific cytotoxic proteins releases. Advances in identification of multiple genetic alleles associated with specific drugs related SCARS in different populations is an important breakthrough in recent years for prevention of SCARs. This article summarized the findings on genetic factors related to SJS/TEN, especially for HLA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.652091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319741PMC
July 2021

Analyzing Patient Secure Messages Using a Fast Health Care Interoperability Resources (FIHR)-Based Data Model: Development and Topic Modeling Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 07 30;23(7):e26770. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Artificial Intelligence and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Background: Patient portals tethered to electronic health records systems have become attractive web platforms since the enacting of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and the introduction of the Meaningful Use program in the United States. Patients can conveniently access their health records and seek consultation from providers through secure web portals. With increasing adoption and patient engagement, the volume of patient secure messages has risen substantially, which opens up new research and development opportunities for patient-centered care.

Objective: This study aims to develop a data model for patient secure messages based on the Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard to identify and extract significant information.

Methods: We initiated the first draft of the data model by analyzing FHIR and manually reviewing 100 sentences randomly sampled from more than 2 million patient-generated secure messages obtained from the online patient portal at the Mayo Clinic Rochester between February 18, 2010, and December 31, 2017. We then annotated additional sets of 100 randomly selected sentences using the Multi-purpose Annotation Environment tool and updated the data model and annotation guideline iteratively until the interannotator agreement was satisfactory. We then created a larger corpus by annotating 1200 randomly selected sentences and calculated the frequency of the identified medical concepts in these sentences. Finally, we performed topic modeling analysis to learn the hidden topics of patient secure messages related to 3 highly mentioned microconcepts, namely, fatigue, prednisone, and patient visit, and to evaluate the proposed data model independently.

Results: The proposed data model has a 3-level hierarchical structure of health system concepts, including 3 macroconcepts, 28 mesoconcepts, and 85 microconcepts. Foundation and base macroconcepts comprise 33.99% (841/2474), clinical macroconcepts comprise 64.38% (1593/2474), and financial macroconcepts comprise 1.61% (40/2474) of the annotated corpus. The top 3 mesoconcepts among the 28 mesoconcepts are condition (505/2474, 20.41%), medication (424/2474, 17.13%), and practitioner (243/2474, 9.82%). Topic modeling identified hidden topics of patient secure messages related to fatigue, prednisone, and patient visit. A total of 89.2% (107/120) of the top-ranked topic keywords are actually the health concepts of the data model.

Conclusions: Our data model and annotated corpus enable us to identify and understand important medical concepts in patient secure messages and prepare us for further natural language processing analysis of such free texts. The data model could be potentially used to automatically identify other types of patient narratives, such as those in various social media and patient forums. In the future, we plan to develop a machine learning and natural language processing solution to enable automatic triaging solutions to reduce the workload of clinicians and perform more granular content analysis to understand patients' needs and improve patient-centered care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/26770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367168PMC
July 2021

The Wet-Oxidation of a Cu(111) Foil Coated by Single Crystal Graphene.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 26;33(37):e2102697. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

The wet-oxidation of a single crystal Cu(111) foil is studied by growing single crystal graphene islands on it followed by soaking it in water. O-labeled water is also used; the oxygen atoms in the formed copper oxides in both the bare and graphene-coated Cu regions come from water. The oxidation of the graphene-coated Cu regions is enabled by water diffusing from the edges of graphene along the bunched Cu steps, and along some graphene ripples where such are present. This interfacial diffusion of water can occur because of the separation between the graphene and the "step corner" of bunched Cu steps. Density functional theory simulations suggest that adsorption of water in this gap is thermodynamically stable; the "step-induced-diffusion model" also applies to graphene-coated Cu surfaces of various other crystal orientations. Since bunched Cu steps and graphene ripples are diffusion pathways for water, ripple-free graphene is prepared on ultrasmooth Cu(111) surfaces and it is found that the graphene completely shields the underlying Cu from wet-oxidation. This study greatly deepens the understanding of how a graphene-coated copper surface is oxidized, and shows that graphene completely prevents the oxidation when that surface is ultrasmooth and when the graphene has no ripples or wrinkles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102697DOI Listing
September 2021
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