Publications by authors named "Ming Guan"

237 Publications

Six-photon upconverted excitation energy lock-in for ultraviolet-C enhancement.

Nat Commun 2021 07 16;12(1):4367. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute for Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD), Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Photon upconversion of near-infrared (NIR) irradiation into ultraviolet-C (UVC) emission offers many exciting opportunities for drug release in deep tissues, photodynamic therapy, solid-state lasing, energy storage, and photocatalysis. However, NIR-to-UVC upconversion remains a daunting challenge due to low quantum efficiency. Here, we report an unusual six-photon upconversion process in Gd/Tm-codoped nanoparticles following a heterogeneous core-multishell architecture. This design efficiently suppresses energy consumption induced by interior energy traps, maximizes cascade sensitizations of the NIR excitation, and promotes upconverted UVC emission from high-lying excited states. We realized the intense six-photon-upconverted UV emissions at 253 nm under 808 nm excitation. This work provides insight into mechanistic understanding of the upconversion process within the heterogeneous architecture, while offering exciting opportunities for developing nanoscale UVC emitters that can be remotely controlled through deep tissues upon NIR illumination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24664-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285497PMC
July 2021

lncRNA GAU1 Induces GALNT8 Overexpression and Potentiates Colorectal Cancer Progression.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 17;2021:5960821. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

lncRNA is a key epigenetic regulator in biological processes. In the human cancer transcriptome library MiTranscriptome, we identified as the top upregulated lncRNA in colorectal cancer (CRC) by sample set enrichment analysis (overexpression ranking percentile = 99.75%, < 10), which is coexpressed with the potential oncogene (Spearman rho = 0.67, = 2.44 × 10, TCGA dataset = 184). Experimental data revealed that regulates the expression of . The overexpression of either or significantly promotes the cell cycle and proliferation of CRC cell lines and correlates with poor prognosis in patients with CRC ( = 3.04 × 10), while silencing of or suppressed the cancer cell proliferation and induced the CRC cell line resistance to oxaliplatin treatment. Our results suggested that the previously less studied and may play as CRC prognosis markers and potential targets for chemotherapy treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5960821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233076PMC
June 2021

Octadecylimidazolium ionic liquids-functionalized carbon dots and their precursor co-immobilized silica as hydrophobic chromatographic stationary phase with enhanced shape selectivity.

Talanta 2021 Oct 13;233:122513. Epub 2021 May 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China; College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

In this work, 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquids ([CVIm]Br) and their derived carbon dots (ImCCDs) were prepared, [CVIm]Br and ImCCDs were grafted on the silica to obtain Sil-ImC and Sil-ImCCDs, respectively, and they were also co-grafted on silica which named Sil-ImC/CDs. Compared with Sil-ImC and Sil-ImCCDs columns, Sil-ImC/CDs column exhibited enhanced selectivity for separation of tetracyclic/tricyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers, and butylbenzene isomers in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, which may be due to the synergistic effect between ImCCDs and [CVIm]Br, the π-π interaction between imidazolium and analytes, etc. Meanwhile, the retention behavior of Sil-ImC/CDs was further evaluated and compared with the commercial C column using different classes of analytes, including standard test mixtures of Tanaka, Engelhardt, SRM869b, SRM870. The results demonstrated that co-grafted column exhibited superior separation performance. And this column was applied to determine the contents of calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin in the extract of Radix Astragali, which were found that the concentration was 0.25 mg mL, 0.15 mg mL, 0.13 mg mL and 0.30 mg mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122513DOI Listing
October 2021

Could the Associations of Changes in Living Arrangement with Mental Disorders Be Moderated or Mediated During COVID-19 Pandemic?

Authors:
Ming Guan

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 16;14:769-779. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

International Issues Center, Xuchang University, Xuchang, 461000, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Changes in living arrangement was one of the most well-established risk factors for mental disorders, but little evidence came from moderating or mediating effect during COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine whether associations of changes in living arrangement with mental disorders could be moderated or mediated during COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Data were a cross-sectional and international population-based survey data collected as part of theCOVID-19 pandemic. Participants included nationally representative general population probability samples of adults (≥18 years) during COVID-19 pandemic (N=16,784). Main mental measures were reflected by loneliness assessed by UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3, anxiety assessed by Generalised Anxiety Disorder 2-item, and depressed mood assessed by The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in the survey. With control variables, all the mediation models were conducted by Stata mode. Potential influencing effects of social contact and social support as moderators were analyzed using Hayes's PROCESS macro.

Results: Among the participants, prevalence of mental disorders was high. Logistic regression indicated that changes in living arrangement had significant associations with anxiety (AOR=1.127, 95% CI: 1.018-1.249) and depression (AOR =1.142, 95% CI: 1.027-1.269). Mediation models indicated that indirect, direct, and total effects of changes in living arrangement on mental disorders through COVID-symptoms; change in alcohol use; and social contact were significant. Indirect, direct, and total effects of changes in living arrangement on loneliness and depression through social support were significant. Moderation analysis indicated that moderation model 1 in AF Hayes Process procedure was accepted.

Conclusion: This study indicated that associations of changes in living arrangement with mental disorders could be mediated by COVID-symptoms, changes in alcohol use, social contact, and social support and moderated by social support during COVID-19 pandemic. The finding in this study might provide better understanding of the mechanisms by which social support might contribute to the resolving mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S302729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216724PMC
June 2021

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequence of (Asteraceae), a rare and endangered wild plant species in China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 7;6(7):1934-1936. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

College of Life Sciences, Taizhou University, Jiaojiang, China.

(Asteraceae) is a rare wild plant species narrowly distributed in Zhejiang province, China. In our present study, we assembled its complete chloroplast genome using high-throughput sequencing data. The results indicated that the whole chloroplast genome of was 153,396 bp in length. Its large single copy, small single copy, and inverted region sequences were 84,575 bp, 18,451 bp, and 25,185 bp. The chloroplast genome was composed of 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes, and two pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that was grouped with , with 100% bootstrap support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1936671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189106PMC
June 2021

A KLF4/PiHL/EZH2/HMGA2 regulatory axis and its function in promoting oxaliplatin-resistance of colorectal cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 13;12(5):485. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a new class of regulatory molecules implicated in therapeutic resistance, yet the mechanisms underlying lncRNA-mediated oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) are poorly understood. In this study, lncRNA P53 inHibiting LncRNA (PiHL) was shown to be highly induced in oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cells and tumor tissues. In vitro and in vivo models clarified PiHL's role in conferring resistance to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. PiHL antagonized chemosensitivity through binding with EZH2, repressing location of EZH2 to HMGA2 promoter, and downregulating methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) level in HMGA2 promoter, thus activating HMGA2 expression. Furthermore, HMGA2 upregulation induced by PiHL promotes PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, which resulted in increased oxaliplatin resistance. We also found that transcription factor KLF4 was downregulated in oxaliplatin-resistant cells, and KLF4 negatively regulated PiHL expression by binding to PiHL promoter. In vivo models further demonstrated that treatment of oxaliplatin-resistant CRC with locked nucleic acids targeting PiHL restored oxaliplatin response. Collectively, this study established lncRNA PiHL as a chemoresistance promoter in CRC, and targeting PiHL/EZH2/HMGA2/PI3K/Akt signaling axis represents a novel choice in the investigation of drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03753-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119946PMC
May 2021

Associations between socioprovincial factors and self-reported mental disorders among students from grade 4 to 8 in rural China.

Authors:
Ming Guan

Arch Public Health 2021 Apr 23;79(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

International Issues Center, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Road Bayi 88, Xuchang, Henan, China.

Background: The focus on child mental health in developing countries was increasing. However, little was known in China. This study aimed to explore the associations between socioprovincial factors and self-reported mental disorders in rural China.

Methods: Data were from a publicly available survey with 54,498 students from Grade 4 to 8 in rural China. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Self-reported mental disorders included overall mental disorder, study anxiety, personal anxiety, loneliness, guilt, sensitivity, symptomatic psychosis, phobia, and impulsivity. Multiple logistic regressions and errors-in-variables regression models were employed to explore the associations between socioprovincial factors and mental disorders. Poisson regressions and errors-in-variables regression models were adopted to reveal the associations between socioprovincial factors and number of self-reported mental disorders.

Results: Descriptive statistics showed that mental health was poor in rural adolescents in China. Logistic regression showed that the odds of overall mental disorder and study anxiety were 189% (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.76, 3.02) and 92% (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.84, 2.00) in Gansu more than those in Anhui, while the odds of personal anxiety, guilt, sensitivity, symptomatic psychosis, and phobia were 92% (AOR = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.08, 0.09), 71% (AOR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.27, 0.30), 88% (AOR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.11, 0.13), 69% (AOR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.32), and 78% (AOR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.23) in Gansu less than those in Anhui. Moreover, Gansu (Poisson regression: IRR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.42-1.47; errors-in-variables regression: Coefficient = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.16, 0.36), Ningxia (Poisson regression: IRR =1.63, 95%CI: 1.60-1.67; errors-in-variables regression: Coefficient = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.32, 0.53), Qinghai (Poisson regression: IRR =1.65, 95%CI: 1.60-1.69; errors-in-variables regression: Coefficient = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.34, 0.55), and Shaanxi (Poisson regression: IRR =1.28, 95%CI: 1.25-1.30; errors-in-variables regression: Coefficient = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.21) were significantly associated with the number of self-reported mental disorders.

Conclusion: Class and provincial disparities in self-reported mental disorders were reported among the students from Grade 4 to 8 in rural China. Mental health care supported by governments and schools could be an effective way to reduce the disparities in mental disorders among the adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00580-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067348PMC
April 2021

Rapid, highly sensitive and quantitative detection of interleukin 6 based on SERS magnetic immunoassay.

Anal Methods 2021 04;13(15):1823-1831

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China.

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection, and is a common disease in intensive care units (ICUs), whereby the mortality rate is as high as 30% to 50%. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the mortality rate of patients with sepsis. We have developed a method based on SERS for the rapid and quantitative detection of IL-6. Using the principle of double antibody sandwich, the core-shell nanoparticles embedded with a Raman reporter ([email protected]@Ag NPs) are coupled to the tracer antibody, while the biotin was coupled to the capture antibody to form an antibody-antigen-antibody sandwich structure with the antigen during detection of the structure. Streptavidin (SA) and biotin had a strong affinity, and the sandwich structure was captured by SA magnetic beads and detected by Raman spectroscopy under the enrichment of an external magnetic field. The results showed a good linear relationship between the Raman signal and the concentration of IL-6 in the concentration range of 0-1000 pg mL-1 (r = 0.9997) with a limit of detection of 1.6 pg mL-1. Also, the recovery rate of standard addition was 93.9-99.1%, and the coefficient of variation intra-assay and inter-assay of the three batches of reagents was less than 15%. Furthermore, it showed excellent specificity with procalcitonin (PCT, 20 ng mL-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, 100 μg mL-1) and had no cross-reactivity. Except for bilirubin (2 mg mL-1) and hemoglobin (10 mg mL-1), other common interferences in the serum did not interfere, showing good anti-interference performance. Moreover, 57 clinical serum samples were detected via the chemiluminescence method simultaneously, and the detection results showed a good correlation (R2 = 0.9793, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two performances (P > 0.05). The proposed method has numerous advantages such as high sensitivity, wide linear range, short detection time and simple operation, which provide a new technical reference for the clinical detection of sepsis biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay02304cDOI Listing
April 2021

Primary bilateral tuberculous otitis media with peripheral facial paralysis: a case report and literature review.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 1;14(3):304-313. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Otolaryngology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China.

Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is a rare disease. This study presents our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of TOM. A 49-year-old female had repeated ear discharge, vertigo, and severe hearing loss for six years, and underwent mastoid surgery four times because she was misdiagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media. The patient had left-sided facial paralysis for two weeks when she was admitted to our hospital and was managed with radical mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression. After surgery, facial nerve function gradually improved from grade V to grade II, and the patient was diagnosed with an unusual primary bilateral TOM after tuberculosis smear culture, pathologic examination, and tuberculosis DNA testing by the PCR technique. After anti-tuberculosis therapy, the operative mastoid cavity in the patient was eventually epithelialized and dry. Therefore, this study suggests that, TOM should be actively excluded in patients with uncontrollable ear leakage, massive white granulation tissue and dead bone formation in the ear. Surgical decompression is recommended to prevent permanent facial paralysis, since opening the facial nerve sheath effectively relieves facial nerve compression and edema due to the TOM-induced persistent inflammation and granulation tissue formation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994147PMC
March 2021

Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of IL-6 and PCT Using SERS magnetic immunoassay with sandwich structure.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar 31;32(25). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, People's Republic of China.

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. The mortality rate is as high as 30%-50%. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the mortality of patients with sepsis. Therefore, we have developed a SERS-based magnetic immunoassay method that uses the principle of sandwich method to quantitatively detect Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Procalcitonin (PCT). In this article, two different Raman reporter molecules are embedded in the middle of the [email protected] shell and coupled with the tracer antibody to form a SERS immunoprobe. Biotin was coupled with capture antibody to form a sandwich structure when participating in the immune response. Streptavidin and biotin systems have extremely high binding affinity. The sandwich structure is quickly captured by SA magnetic beads and then applied with a magnetic field to enrich the magnetic beads. Finally, simultaneous quantitative detection is achieved by the intensity of the two Raman reporter characteristic peaks on the solution magnetic beads. IL-6 and PCT showed a good relationship between 0-1000 pg mland 0-20 ng ml, respectively, and the limits of detection were 0.54 pg mland 0.042 ng ml, respectively. The recovery rate was between 89.8% and 104.2%, both intra-assay and inter-assay CV were ≤20%. No cross-reaction with C-reactive protein (100g ml), showing good specificity. This method provides a new technical reference for the clinical detection of sepsis biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abee48DOI Listing
March 2021

A label-free electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for carbohydrate antigen 153 based on polypyrrole-luminol-AuNPs nanocomposites with bi-catalysis.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 7;253:119562. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Energy Storage and Photoelectrocatalytic Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, PR China. Electronic address:

Polypyrrole-luminol-AuNPs nanocomposites were prepared and used to develop a sensitive label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) detection. Firstly, polypyrrole (PPY) nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical oxidation method using FeCl as an oxidizing agent, then luminol and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were combined with PPY nanoparticles through electrostatic interaction to form PPY-luminol-AuNPs nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis absorption spectra, atomic emission spectrometry (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Especially, iron element was also detected in the nanocomposites. The PPY-luminol-AuNPs nanocomposites showed excellent ECL activity due to the bi-catalysis of iron ion and gold nanoparticles on the ECL of luminol. Furthermore, the nanocomposites showed good film-forming property, and it can be fixed on electrode surface without the assistance of other film-forming materials. On this basis, an ECL immunosensor for CA153 was constructed by covalently immobilizing anti-CA153 on PPY-luminol-AuNPs modified indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In the presence of CA153, a remarkable decrease in ECL signals was observed due to the formation of anti-CA153/CA153 complex. The immunosensor showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.001 to 700 U/mL for CA153, and the detection limit was 5.8 × 10 U/mL (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the ECL immunosensor was applied to the determination of CA153 in practical human serum sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119562DOI Listing
May 2021

Chinese Expert Consensus on the Nucleic Acid Detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Dec;8(24):1631

Laboratory of Suzhou Branch of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Suzhou, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already become a pandemic wherein the infection's timely diagnosis has proven beneficial to patient treatment and disease control. Nucleic acid detection has been the primary laboratory diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To ensure laboratory staff safety and quality nucleic acid testing, the Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine formulated this consensus, based on the Chinese National Recommendations and previous literature for nucleic acid detection. A working group comprises 34 hospital professionals experience with real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 drafted guidance statements during online discussions. A modified Delphi methodology was used in forming a consensus among a wider group of hospital professionals with SARS-CoV-2 detection experience. Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (I) specimen type, priority, collecting, transportation and receiving; (II) nucleic acid isolation and amplification; (III) quality control; (IV) biosafety management and decontamination. The modified Delphi voting process included a total of 29 guidance statements and final agreement. Consensus was reached after two rounds of voting. Recommendations were established for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real time PCR testing based on evidence and group consensus. The manuscript was evaluated against The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) and was developed to aid medical laboratory staff in the detection of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812184PMC
December 2020

The diagnostic value of IL-10 and IL-6 level in vitreous fluid and aqueous humor for vitreoretinal lymphoma.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Apr 31;515:21-26. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Deptartment of Clinical Laboratory, Huashan Hospital North, Fudan University, Shanghai 201907, China. Electronic address:

Background: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a subtype of central lymphoma, which at present is hard to diagnose. The gold standard of VRL diagnosis is vitreous cytology, but the vitreous specimen needs to be obtained by the invasive surgery of vitrectomy. Aqueous humor is easier to obtain, has better stability, and has a lower operating risk than vitreous specimens.

Methods: We studied the diagnostic value of interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-10/ IL-6 ratio and interleukin score for intraocular lymphoma diagnosis (ISOLD) in both vitreous and aqueous humor for vitreoretinal lymphoma, to determine if aqueous humor could be used to assist in the diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) by detecting IL-6 and IL-10.

Results: The area under ROC curve (AUC) of vitreous fluid IL-10, IL-10/IL-6 ratio and ISOLD at the diagnosis of VRL diagnosis were 93.5%, 93.6% and 93.8%, respectively. The AUC of the aqueous humor IL-10, IL-10/IL-6 and ISOLD for VRL diagnosis were 83.8%, 72.8% and 85.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: Aqueous humor can thus replace vitreous humor as a potential sample type for the diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.12.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Circulating tumor cell characterization of lung cancer brain metastases in the cerebrospinal fluid through single-cell transcriptome analysis.

Clin Transl Med 2020 Dec;10(8):e246

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Brain metastases explain the majority of mortality associated with lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death. Cytology analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the diagnostic gold standard, however, the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in CSF (CSF-CTCs) are not well defined at the molecular and transcriptome levels.

Methods: We established an effective CSF-CTCs collection procedure and isolated individual CSF cells from five lung adenocarcinoma leptomeningeal metastases (LUAD-LM) patients and three controls. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-two single-cell transcriptomes were sequenced, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) gene expression analysis was used to perform a comprehensive characterization of CSF cells.

Results: Through clustering and expression analysis, we defined CSF-CTCs at the transcriptome level based on epithelial markers, proliferation markers, and genes with lung origin. The metastatic-CTC signature genes are enriched for metabolic pathway and cell adhesion molecule categories, which are crucial for the survival and metastases of tumor cells. We discovered substantial heterogeneity in patient CSF-CTCs. We quantified the degree of heterogeneity and found significantly greater among-patient heterogeneity compared to among-cell heterogeneity within a patient. This observation could be explained by spatial heterogeneity of metastatic sites, cell-cycle gene, and cancer-testis antigen (CTA) expression profiles as well as the proportion of CTCs displaying mesenchymal and cancer stem cell properties. In addition, our CSF-CTCs transcriptome profiling allowed us to determine the biomarkers during the progression of an LM patient with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP).

Conclusions: Our results will provide candidate genes for an RNA-based digital detection of CSF-CTCs from LUAD-LM and CUP-LM cases, and shed light on the therapy and mechanism of LUAD-LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737787PMC
December 2020

Associations Between Geodemographic Factors and Access to Public Health Services Among Chinese Floating Population.

Authors:
Ming Guan

Front Public Health 2020 10;8:563180. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

International Issues Center, Xuchang University, Xuchang, China.

The floating population in urban China is facing multiple barriers to access to comprehensive, affordable, and culturally effective public health services. However, little is known about the role of geodemographic factors. This study aimed to assess the associations between geodemographic factors and access to public health services among the Chinese floating population. This study employed the data from the 2015 Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey data in China. Descriptive statistical analysis and principal component analysis were used to provide basic characteristics of the main variables. Multiple logistic models were used to analyze how province-level units, economic regions, and economic zones had significant associations with residential health records establishment, social medical insurance, and types and methods of health knowledge attainment in urban China. Using multiple indicator multiple cause models, the association between geodemographic factors and types and methods of health knowledge attainment was studied. The results indicated that there was regional unbalance in the case of residential health records. Regional differences were significantly associated with social medical insurance. Provincial differences were significantly associated with health knowledge attainment. There were regional differences in the methods of health knowledge attainment. In the most provincial units, geodemographic factors had significant associations with types and methods of health knowledge attainment. This study confirmed empirical associations between geodemographic factors and access to public health services among Chinese floating population. The relevant suggestion was that provincial units with less-developed public health services should enhance their capabilities to equalize public health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.563180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758272PMC
May 2021

Application of lectin-based biosensor technology in the detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria: a review.

Analyst 2021 Jan 24;146(2):429-443. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang normal University, Urumqi, 830017, China.

Foodborne diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria pose a serious threat to human health. Early and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is urgently needed. The use of biosensors to identify and detect pathogenic bacteria has attracted ample attention because of their high sensitivity, near real-time quantification without enrichment, on-site detection, simple operation, and so on. As a promising alternative recognition element in biosensors, lectins have been widely studied in bacterial detection because of their high stability and low cost. In this review, we highlight the progress of lectin-based pathogen detection methods, including various electrochemical methods, optical methods and quartz crystal microbalance methods, as well as lectin based microfluidic methods. The interaction mechanism between lectins and bacterial recognition site-sugars is also studied. Finally, the future prospects and challenges in the development of lectin-based biosensors are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an01459aDOI Listing
January 2021

Target-Induced Core-Satellite Nanostructure Assembly Strategy for Dual-Signal-On Fluorescence Imaging and Raman Quantification of Intracellular MicroRNA Guided Photothermal Therapy.

Small 2020 12 12;16(49):e2005511. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221004, P. R. China.

Integrating biological detection and treatment into one system is a smart therapeutic maneuver for efficient cancer treatment. Herein, a target-activated core-satellite nanostructure (CS nanostructure) assembly built on gold nanobipyramids motor (AuNBPs motor)/gold nanoparticle probe (AuNP probe) exhibiting simultaneous dual signal-on imaging, quantification of intracellular microRNA-21 (miR-21), and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer is designed. Of note, when the AuNBPs motor/AuNP probe enters into cells, miR-21 triggers the reaction between AuNBPs motor and AuNP probe, resulting in the formation of CS nanostructure assembly. The process of assembling the CS nanostructure is accompanied with strong fluorescent signals from TAMRA and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals from adenine. The fluorescent signal is leveraged to image the intracellular miR-21 level, whereas the SERS signal is utilized for absolute quantification of intracellular miR-21, and the CS nanostructure acts as the photosensitizer for PTT. This strategy can successfully image and quantify miR-21 in a single cell, and also distinguish normal cells from tumor cells. Moreover, under the guidance of fluorescence signal, the assembly kills tumor cells and inhibits tumor growth via PTT. In vitro and in vivo results prove that the proposed strategy possesses enormous potential for application in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005511DOI Listing
December 2020

Deep eutectic solvents-assisted synthesis of ZnCoO nanosheets as peroxidase-like nanozyme and its application in colorimetric logic gate.

Talanta 2021 Jan 18;222:121680. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China; College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

Pyrophosphate (PPi) and pyrophosphatase (PPase) play a significant role in the therapy of arthritic and clinical diagnosis. In this study, we quickly synthesized ZnCoO nanosheets (NSs) with excellent peroxidase catalytic activity in basic deep eutectic solvent (DES). It was found that PPi could inhibit the catalytic capability of ZnCoO NSs transforming colorless o-phenylenediamine (OPD) into yellow oxidized OPD (oxOPD), and the absorbance falls down at 420 nm. However, if PPase was simultaneously present in the system, PPi would be hydrolyzed, leading to the restoration of peroxidase activity of ZnCoO NSs. Therefore, paving a way for colorimetric analysis of PPi as well as PPase. Furthermore, on the basis of above colorimetric assay, an IMPLICATION logic gate was legitimately designed. With the advantages of fast-speed, low-cost and simplification, we firmly believe that our proposed system has a good potential for simple and fast clinic diagnosis of arthritic diseases, even has great significance in the fields of life sciences, environmental measurement and food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121680DOI Listing
January 2021

SERS-based magnetic immunoassay for simultaneous detection of cTnI and H-FABP using core-shell nanotags.

Anal Methods 2020 12 9;12(45):5442-5449. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Shanghai Simp Bio-Science Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200000, China.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the single leading cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), as biomarkers emerging at different stages of AMI, have complementary advantages in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, we developed a magnetic immunoassay method based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to detect H-FABP and cTnI simultaneously. Herein, two mutually independent Raman reporter molecules were embedded between a gold core and silver shell and then combined with a tracer antibody to form a SERS immunoprobe. During detection, the SERS immunoprobe, target antigen and capture probe undergo an immune reaction to form a sandwich structure, and then the immune complex was enriched by a specific reaction of streptavidin on the surface of magnetic beads with biotin. Finally, the concentration of biomarkers was quantified by detecting the characteristic Raman peak intensities of the two Raman reporter molecules. Under the optimized conditions, the minimum detection limits of H-FABP and cTnI were 0.6396 and 0.0044 ng mL, respectively. Besides, the target antigen does not cross-react with non-specific proteins, showing good specificity. Therefore, our proposed SERS-based magnetic immunoassay method has the advantages of accuracy, rapidity and good selectivity, and has great potential for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay01564dDOI Listing
December 2020

Fine Particulate Matter (PM) upregulates expression of Inflammasome NLRP1 ROS/NF-κB signaling in HaCaT Cells.

Int J Med Sci 2020 1;17(14):2200-2206. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China.

Skin, as the major organ of a human body, is constantly exposed to PM stimulation, which may exert specific toxic influences on the physiology of skin. This study aims to investigate the effect of PM on the formation of inflammasomes in skin cells and to explore the potential mechanism linking PM and skin inflammation. Changes in mRNA and protein levels of inflammasome-related genes were detected by real-time PCR and western blot in human immortalized epidermal cells (HaCaT) treated with PM at multiple concentrations for 24 hours. The expression of NLRP1 was increased significantly both in mRNA and protein levels after PM exposure while the elevated secretory protein level of IL-1β in cell culture was detected by ELISA, which is one of the main downstream factors of NLRP1. In addition, the upregulation of NLRP1 and IL-1β could be reversed by NF-κB inhibitor indicating that PM may promote NLRP1 expression through activating NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, high ROS level was also found in cells treated with PM and inhibition of ROS could also reverse NK-κB production stimulated by PM that means ROS is involved in this skin inflammation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.46962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484668PMC
July 2021

Growth Factor and Its Polymer Scaffold-Based Delivery System for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 14;15:6097-6111. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Orthopedics, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People's Republic of China.

The development of biomaterials, stem cells and bioactive factors has led to cartilage tissue engineering becoming a promising tactic to repair cartilage defects. Various polymer three-dimensional scaffolds that provide an extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment play an important role in promoting cartilage regeneration. In addition, numerous growth factors have been found in the regenerative process. However, it has been elucidated that the uncontrolled delivery of these factors cannot fully exert regenerative potential and can also elicit undesired side effects. Considering the complexity of the ECM, neither scaffolds nor growth factors can independently obtain successful outcomes in cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, collectively, an appropriate combination of growth factors and scaffolds have great potential to promote cartilage repair effectively; this approach has become an area of considerable interest in recent investigations. Of late, an increasing trend was observed in cartilage tissue engineering towards this combination to develop a controlled delivery system that provides adequate physical support for neo-cartilage formation and also enables spatiotemporally delivery of growth factors to precisely and fully exert their chondrogenic potential. This review will discuss the role of polymer scaffolds and various growth factors involved in cartilage tissue engineering. Several growth factor delivery strategies based on the polymer scaffolds will also be discussed, with examples from recent studies highlighting the importance of spatiotemporal strategies for the controlled delivery of single or multiple growth factors in cartilage tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S249829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434569PMC
November 2020

Nitrogen-doping to enhance the separation selectivity of glucose-based carbon dots-modified silica stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

Talanta 2020 Oct 11;218:121140. Epub 2020 May 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039, China. Electronic address:

Doping is often used to alter or improve the properties of nanomaterials. In this work, a novel glucose-based nitrogen-doped carbon dots (Glc-NCDs)-bonded silica stationary phase (Sil-Glc-NCDs) was synthesized and characterized carefully. Glc-NCDs were prepared using glucose and aspartic acid as carbon and nitrogen sources, and then grafted on silica surface via isocyanatopropyl as linker using deep eutectic solvents as reaction medium. The synthesis was confirmed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and microscopic imaging techniques. And then Sil-Glc-NCDs were packed in the stainless columns for hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Due to the synergistic effect between the functional groups of doped carbon dots, Sil-Glc-NCDs column showed enhanced separation selectivity compared with previous non-doped Sil-Glc-CDs column. Sil-Glc-NCDs column can be used for separation of base, nucleosides and antibiotics etc. This column was successfully applied to determine the content of roxithromycin in the capsule, which was found that the concentration was 2.45 mg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121140DOI Listing
October 2020

Effectiveness of digital PCR for MYD88 detection in vitreous fluid for primary central nervous system lymphoma diagnosis.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Jul 29;20(1):301-308. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital North, Fudan University, Shanghai 201907, P.R. China.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of primary extranodal lymphoma (PEL). MYD88 mutation has been observed in up to 75% of PCNSL cases, however, the validity and sensitivity of digital PCR in detecting this mutation remains to be elucidated. A total of 44 PCNSL patients, 15 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS) patients and 13 other PEL patients were enrolled in the present study. The abilities of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect the MYD88 mutation in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were compared. The results suggested that ddPCR showed superior mutation detection sensitivity when compared with RT-qPCR (58 vs. 15%; P<0.05). The MYD88 mutation was significantly associated with increased MYD88 protein overexpression in PCNSL brain tissue samples (P<0.05). Analysis of MYD88 mutation status in CSF and vitreous fluid samples using ddPCR may be a promising technique for minimally invasive confirmation of PCNSL diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282034PMC
July 2020

High filling rate digital PCR through-hole array chip with double independent S-shaped flow channels.

Biomicrofluidics 2020 May 1;14(3):034109. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163, People's Republic of China.

Sample digital technology is a powerful method for absolute quantification of target molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. The excellent sample stability and mass production capability has enabled the development of microwell array-based sample digitizing methods. However, in current microwell array chips, samples are loaded by the liquid scraping method, which requires complex manual operation and results in a low filling rate and limited hole filling uniformity. Here, we perform sample loading of a through-hole array chip by a microfluidics-driven method and design a double independent S-shaped flow channels sandwiched through-hole array chip. Because of the capillary force and capillary burst pressure, the sample flowing in the channel can be trapped into through-holes, but cannot flow through the other side. Via air flow and displacement of the remaining sample in the channel, the sample can be partitioned consistently, with zero surplus sample residue in the channel. We evaluated the actual performance of the sample-loading process: the chip enables 99.10% filling rate of 18 500 through-holes, with a grayscale coefficient of variation value of 6.03% determined from fluorescence images. In performing digital polymerase chain reaction on chip, the chip demonstrates good performance for the absolute quantification of target DNA. The simple and robust design of our chip, with excellent filling rate and microsample uniformity, indicates potential for use in a variety of sample digitization applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0006374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266645PMC
May 2020

Improved Immunoregulation of Ultra-Low-Dose Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded TiO Nanotubes via M2 Macrophage Polarization by Regulating GLUT1 and Autophagy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 24;15:2011-2026. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The bone regeneration of endosseous implanted biomaterials is often impaired by the host immune response, especially macrophage-related inflammation which plays an important role in the bone healing process. Thus, it is a promising strategy to design an osteo-immunomodulatory biomaterial to take advantage of the macrophage-related immune response and improve the osseointegration performance of the implant.

Methods: In this study, we developed an antibacterial silver nanoparticle-loaded TiO nanotubes ([email protected]) using an electrochemical anodization method to make the surface modification and investigated the influences of [email protected] on the macrophage polarization, osteo-immune microenvironment as well as its potential molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The results showed that [email protected] with controlled releasing of ultra-low-dose Ag ions had the excellent ability to induce the macrophage polarization towards the M2 phenotype and create a suitable osteo-immune microenvironment in vitro, via inhibiting PI3K/Akt, suppressing the downstream effector GLUT1, and activating autophagy. Moreover, [email protected] surface could improve bone formation, suppress inflammation, and promote osteo-immune microenvironment compared to the TiO-NTs and polished Ti surfaces in vivo. These findings suggested that [email protected] with controlled releasing of ultra-low-dose Ag ions could not only inhibit the inflammation process but also promote the bone healing by inducing healing-associated M2 polarization.

Discussion: Using this surface modification strategy to modulate the macrophage-related immune response, rather than prevent the host response, maybe a promising strategy for implant surgeries in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S242919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102919PMC
July 2020

Carbon Nitride Hollow Theranostic Nanoregulators Executing Laser-Activatable Water Splitting for Enhanced Ultrasound/Fluorescence Imaging and Cooperative Phototherapy.

ACS Nano 2020 04 10;14(4):4045-4060. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, People's Republic of China.

The limited efficacy of "smart" nanotheranostic agents in eradicating tumors calls for the development of highly desirable nanoagents with diagnostics and therapeutics. Herein, to surmount these challenges, we constructed an intelligent nanoregulator by coating a mesoporous carbon nitride (CN) layer on a core-shell nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD)@hollow mesoporous silica nanosphere (HMSN) and decorated it with a P-PEG-RGD polymer, to achieve active-targeting delivery (designated as R-NCNP). Upon irradiation, the resultant R-NCNP nanoregulators exhibit significant catalytic breakdown of water molecules, causing a sustainable elevation of oxygen level owing to the CN shell, which facilitates tumor oxygenation and relieves tumor hypoxia. The generated oxygen bubbles serve as an echogenic source, triggering tissue impedance mismatch, thereby enhancing the generation of an echogenicity signal, making them laser-activatable ultrasound imaging agents. In addition, the encapsulated photosensitizers and CN-layered photosensitizer are simultaneously activated to maximize the yield of ROS, actualizing a triple-photosensitizer hybrid nanosystem exploited for enhanced PDT. Intriguingly, the N-GQDs endow the R-NCNP nanoregulator with a photothermal effect for hyperthemia, making it exhibit considerable photothermal outcomes and infrared thermal imaging (IRT). Importantly, further analysis reveals that the polymer-modified R-NCNPs actively target specific tumor tissues and display a triple-modal US/IRT/FL imaging-assisted cooperative PTT/PDT for real-time monitoring of tumor ablation and therapeutic evaluation. The rational synergy of triple-model PDT and efficient PTT in the designed nanoregulator confers excellent anticancer effects, as evidenced by and assays, which might explore more possibilities in personalized cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b08737DOI Listing
April 2020

Copy Number Amplification of DNA Damage Repair Pathways Potentiates Therapeutic Resistance in Cancer.

Theranostics 2020 4;10(9):3939-3951. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for Pharmacogenetics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

: Loss of DNA damage repair (DDR) in the tumor is an established hallmark of sensitivity to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy. However, there has been scant investigation into gain-of-function alterations of DDR genes in cancer. This study aims to investigate to what extent copy number amplification of DDR genes occurs in cancer, and what are their impacts on tumor genome instability, patient prognosis and therapy outcome. : Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical, genomics, and pharmacogenomics data from 10,489 tumors, matched peripheral blood samples, and 1,005 cancer cell lines. The key discoveries were verified by an independent patient cohort and experimental validations. : This study revealed that 13 of the 80 core DDR genes were significantly amplified and overexpressed across the pan-cancer scale. Tumors harboring DDR gene amplification exhibited decreased global mutation load and mechanism-specific mutation signature scores, suggesting an increased DDR proficiency in the DDR amplified tumors. Clinically, patients with DDR gene amplification showed poor prognosis in multiple cancer types. The most frequent Nibrin () gene amplification in ovarian cancer tumors was observed in 15 out of 31 independent ovarian cancer patients. overexpression in breast and ovarian cancer cells leads to BRCA1-dependent olaparib resistance by promoting the phosphorylation of ATM-S1981 and homology-dependent recombination efficiency. Finally, integration of the cancer pharmacogenomics database of 37 genome-instability targeting drugs across 505 cancer cell lines revealed significant correlations between DDR gene copy number amplification and DDR drug resistance, suggesting candidate targets for increasing patient treatment response. : DDR gene amplification can lead to chemotherapy resistance and poor overall survival by augmenting DDR. These amplified DDR genes may serve as actionable clinical biomarkers for cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.39341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086350PMC
May 2021

Glucose-based carbon dots-modified silica stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2020 May 25;1619:460930. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China. Electronic address:

A new stationary phase based on glucose-derived carbon dots-modified on silica (Sil-Glc-CDs) was prepared and applied in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). The Sil-Glc-CDs column showed better retention ability and separation selectivity toward polar analytes, including amino acids, saccharides, ginsenosides, antibiotics, nucleosides, and nucleobases when compared with a commercial HILIC column and a home-made glucose-modified silica (Sil-Glc) column. The effect of the organic phase ratio, salt concentration, pH and column temperature on chromatographic retention behavior was investigated. In addition, the column exhibited good stability and column-to-column reproducibility (RSDs 0.80-1.97%, n = 3). Particularly, this column was successfully applied for the determination of the concentration of glucose (2.2 mg mL) and fructose (3.4 mg mL) in the goji berry solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.460930DOI Listing
May 2020

Repeat expansion and methylation-sensitive triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction for fragile X mental retardation 1 gene screening in institutionalised intellectually disabled individuals.

Singapore Med J 2021 Mar 28;62(3):143-148. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Center for Biomedical Research (CEBIOR), Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most prevalent X-linked intellectual disability (ID) and a leading genetic cause of autism, characterised by cognitive and behavioural impairments. The hyperexpansion of a CGG repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene leads to abnormal hypermethylation, resulting in the lack or absence of its protein. Tools for establishing the diagnosis of FXS have been extensively developed, including assays based on triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction (TP-PCR) for detection and quantification of the CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion, as well as determination of the methylation status of the alleles. This study aimed to utilise a simple, quick and affordable method for high sensitivity and specificity screening and diagnosis of FXS in institutionalised individuals with ID.

Methods: A total of 109 institutionalised individuals at the Center for Social Rehabilitation of Intellectual Disability Kartini, Temanggung, Central Java, Indonesia, were screened in a three-step process using FastFrax™ Identification, Sizing and Methylation Status Kits.

Results: Two samples that were classified as indeterminate with respect to the 41-repeat control at the identification step were subsequently determined to be non-expanded by both sizing and methylation status analyses. Two samples classified as expanded at the identification step were determined to carry full mutation expansions > 200 repeats that were fully methylated using sizing and methylation status analyses, respectively, yielding a disease prevalence of 1.83%.

Conclusion: Repeat expansion and methylation-specific TP-PCR is practical, effective and inexpensive for the diagnosis of FXS, especially in high-risk populations of individuals with ID of undetermined aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027144PMC
March 2021

[Application of carbon dots in sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation].

Se Pu 2020 Jan;38(1):36-40

Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Northwestern Characteristic Plant Resources Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences Gansu, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Carbon dots (CDs) have the advantages of good biocompatibility, low toxicity and high stability, and have been widely used in bioimaging, sensing, photocatalysis, etc. In recent years, sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation studies using CDs as adsorbents and separation materials have also attracted much interest. In this review, the applications of CDs in sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation are summarized, and further development prospects are prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2019.06001DOI Listing
January 2020
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