Publications by authors named "Mina Anjomshoa"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Burden of Transport-Related Injuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Arch Iran Med 2021 07 1;24(7):512-525. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Transport-related injuries (TIs) are a substantial public health concern for all regions of the world. The present study quantified the burden of TIs and deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) in 2017 by sex and age.

Methods: TIs and deaths were estimated by age, sex, country, and year using Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) and DisMod-MR 2.1. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which quantify the total burden of years lost due to premature death or disability, were also estimated per 100000 population. All estimates were reported along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: In 2017, there were 5.5 million (UI 4.9-6.2) transport-related incident cases in the EMR - a substantial increase from 1990 (2.8 million; UI 2.5-3.1). The age-standardized incidence rate for the EMR in 2017 was 787 (UI 705.5-876.2) per 100000, which has not changed significantly since 1990 (-0.9%; UI -4.7 to 3). These rates differed remarkably between countries, such that Oman (1303.9; UI 1167.3-1441.5) and Palestine (486.5; UI 434.5-545.9) had the highest and lowest age-standardized incidence rates per 100000, respectively. In 2017, there were 185.3 thousand (UI 170.8-200.6) transport-related fatalities in the EMR - a substantial increase since 1990 (140.4 thousand; UI 118.7-156.9). The age-standardized death rate for the EMR in 2017 was 29.5 (UI 27.1-31.9) per 100000, which was 30.5% lower than that found in 1990 (42.5; UI 36.8-47.3). In 2017, Somalia (54; UI 30-77.4) and Lebanon (7.1; UI 4.8-8.6) had the highest and lowest age-standardized death rates per 100,000, respectively. The age-standardised DALY rate for the EMR in 2017 was 1,528.8 (UI 1412.5-1651.3) per 100000, which was 34.4% lower than that found in 1990 (2,331.3; UI 1,993.1-2,589.9). In 2017, the highest DALY rate was found in Pakistan (3454121; UI 2297890- 4342908) and the lowest was found in Bahrain (8616; UI 7670-9751).

Conclusion: The present study shows that while road traffic has become relatively safer (measured by deaths and DALYs per 100000 population), the number of transport-related fatalities in the EMR is growing and needs to be addressed urgently.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.74DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessing progress in the national health financing system towards universal health coverage in Iran: a mixed-method study protocol.

Health Res Policy Syst 2021 Jan 12;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Health financing systems have a key role in achieving universal health coverage (UHC) across the globe. However, little is known about how best to monitor health financing system progress towards UHC, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This is a protocol of a study that will aim to assess health financing system progress towards achieving UHC in Iran.

Methods: An explanatory mixed-method approach will be used in two phases. In the quantitative phase, the performance of the Iranian health financing system will be assessed using a well-established set of indicators to draw on progress over 5-year intervals starting in the year 2000 up to the present. Data will be extracted from the global health expenditure database using a specific form and will be classified in accordance with each indicator. A qualitative phase will then take place considering the Kutzin et al. framework and by using health financing progress matrices. The qualitative phase will consist of two successive stages; first, a descriptive overview on the major health coverage schemes along with key attributes of each scheme. This initial mapping will be the underlying background for the second stage. In the second stage, the matrices comprised of a series of questions and relevant to the core functions of health financing and cross-cutting options will be invested in enhancing the evaluation of the ongoing reforms or policies. In this phase, data will be collected by reviewing national policy documents and in-depth interviews with key informants who will be recruited using purposive sampling. Finally, a policy discussion with key stakeholders will be held in order to review and verify the consistency between the current health financing policy and UHC goals.

Discussion: This study will provide a comprehensive image about the current status of the national health financing system progress towards achieving UHC in Iran. Such assessment will give detailed insight about the performance of the current financing system through identifying encountered challenges. Furthermore, some other defects in the design of the financing system are expected to appear. In all likelihood, the results will be fruitful enough to make informed decisions about interventions and policies in relation to UHC.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee for Research at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Informed consent will be obtained from all key informants and the data will be collected and transcribed anonymously in order to maintain utmost confidentiality. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented in national and international conferences and meetings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12961-020-00610-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805138PMC
January 2021

COVID-19 in Yemen: a crisis within crises.

Int J Equity Health 2020 07 11;19(1):120. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Yemen is suffering deadly airstrikes and heavy bombardment since March 2015 which has created one of the most severe humanitarian crises worldwide. In this miserable situation, several communicable diseases have massively re-emerged including cholera, diarrhea, dengue, and measles, as a result of weapons used during the years of war according to geospatial patterns of the infected cases. According to the world health organization (WHO), only 51% of health care facilities across the country are fully functional, mainly due to the war. The fragile health system has extremely limited capacity to adopt and implement effective preparedness and response measures to the COVID-19 outbreak. The first and most imperative step to combat COVID-19 in Yemen is ending the devastating war without delay and terminating the land, sea and air blockade imposed by the coalition. International humanitarian organizations should also dedicate a high level joint action to implement a series of well-coordinated measures emphasizing both whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to protect Yemenis' right in life and health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01231-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351642PMC
July 2020

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

School of Public Health, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Tracking spending on malaria by source in 106 countries, 2000-16: an economic modelling study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 07 26;19(7):703-716. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Sustaining achievements in malaria control and making progress toward malaria elimination requires coordinated funding. We estimated domestic malaria spending by source in 106 countries that were malaria-endemic in 2000-16 or became malaria-free after 2000.

Methods: We collected 36 038 datapoints reporting government, out-of-pocket (OOP), and prepaid private malaria spending, as well as malaria treatment-seeking, costs of patient care, and drug prices. We estimated government spending on patient care for malaria, which was added to government spending by national malaria control programmes. For OOP malaria spending, we used data reported in National Health Accounts and estimated OOP spending on treatment. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression was used to ensure estimates were complete and comparable across time and to generate uncertainty.

Findings: In 2016, US$4·3 billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 4·2-4·4) was spent on malaria worldwide, an 8·5% (95% UI 8·1-8·9) per year increase over spending in 2000. Since 2000, OOP spending increased 3·8% (3·3-4·2) per year, amounting to $556 million (487-634) or 13·0% (11·6-14·5) of all malaria spending in 2016. Governments spent $1·2 billion (1·1-1·3) or 28·2% (27·1-29·3) of all malaria spending in 2016, increasing 4·0% annually since 2000. The source of malaria spending varied depending on whether countries were in the malaria control or elimination stage.

Interpretation: Tracking global malaria spending provides insight into how far the world is from reaching the malaria funding target of $6·6 billion annually by 2020. Because most countries with a high burden of malaria are low income or lower-middle income, mobilising additional government resources for malaria might be challenging.

Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30165-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595179PMC
July 2019

Does Intradisciplinary Conflict Influence to Outcomes of Emergency Medicine Residency Program? A Mixed Methods Study.

Bull Emerg Trauma 2017 Oct;5(4):292-298

Students' Scientific Research Center, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To explore impact of emergency medicine residency program on patient waiting times in emergency department (ED) and determine the associated factors.

Methods: A two-phased sequential exploratory mixed-methods approach was used. The first phase was comprised of retrospective before-after design of ED encounters for a 3-month period, six months before and six months after the introduction of an emergency medicine residency program in an Iranian teaching hospital. The second phase included semi-structured interviews with five individuals which purposively selected to participate in qualitative design. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed using an iterative framework approach.

Results: The most patients were admitted to the hospital in night shift, both before and after the resident EMS. No statistically significant differences were found among all of the waiting times during the two time periods except for the average time interval between admission and physician start time (<0.0001), which increased (instead of reducing), and the average time interval between physician start time and first treatment measure (<0.0001), which decreased during the year the residents began. The interviewees revealed the intradisciplinary conflicts and interferences existing between ED and other specialist departments, are main important factor to delayed processing of patients visits.

Conclusion: This study has shown that intradisciplinary conflict would affect the outcomes of emergency medicine residency program and ED process. These new findings enhance the understanding of the nature of conflicts and will persuade policy makers that design a set of clinical practice guidelines to clarify the duties and responsibilities of parties involved in ED.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.beat.5.4.475.DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694603PMC
October 2017

Emergency Medicine Residency Program in Iran: Practical Options to Achieve Better Performance.

Iran J Public Health 2015 May;44(5):720-1

Education Development Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537637PMC
May 2015

Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases in Iran: A Window of Opportunity for Policymakers.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Dec;43(12):1720-1

Research Center for Health Services Management, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499098PMC
December 2014

Regional disparities in the distribution of health care facilities: building evidence for evidence-based policy making.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Jul;43(7):1020-1

2. Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401050PMC
July 2014

Assessing health inequalities in Iran: a focus on the distribution of health care facilities.

Glob J Health Sci 2014 May 7;6(4):285-91. Epub 2014 May 7.

Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran..

Background And Objective: Equality in distribution of health care facilities is the main cause for access and enjoyment to the health. The aim of this study was to examine the regional disparities in health care facilities across the Markazi province.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study sample included the cities of Markazi province, ranked based on 15 health indices. Data was collected by a data collection form made by the researcher using statistical yearbook. The indices were weighted using Shannon entropy. Finally, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) was used to rank the towns of the province in terms of access to health care facilities.

Results: There is a large gap between cities of Markazi province in terms of access to health care facilities. Shannon entropy introduced the number of urban health centers per 1000 people as the most important indicator and the number of rural active health house per 1000 people as the less important indicator. According to TOPSIS, the towns of Ashtian and Shazand ranked the first and last (10th) respectively in access to health services.

Conclusion: There are significant inequalities in distribution of health care facilities in Markazi province. We propose that policy makers determine resource allocation priorities according to the degree of development for a balanced and equal distribution of health care facilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n4p285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825387PMC
May 2014

Prerequisites of preparedness against earthquake in hospital system: a survey from Iran.

Glob J Health Sci 2014 Feb 21;6(2):237-45. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Considering the history of frequent, and severe, earthquakes in Iran and the importance of health care service delivery by hospitals in these cases, having a plan to deal with disasters should be considered a priority. The aim of this study was the observance of preparedness prerequisites against earthquake in hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS) and its relationship with demographic and organizational characteristics.

Methods: This was a cross- sectional study that was conducted in 15 hospitals affiliated with SBUMS, Iran in 2012. Data were collected using observation of documents and questionnaire consists of 138 questions in 8 dimensions. The content validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed with descriptive statistic, t-test and ANOVA.

Results: Results showed that 86.7% of hospitals were in good preparedness level, with the average 85.9 ± 15.5. The maximum and minimum level of preparedness was related to mitigation of construction hazards (56.6 ± 35.6) and support of vital services (97.2 ± 6.0) dimensions, respectively. According to the results, there was a significant statistical difference between mean preparedness and safety of equipment and hazardous materials, hospital evacuation and field treatment, hospital environmental health proceedings, hospital curriculum programs and support of services dimensions with management experience (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Although results corroborate that preparedness prerequisites against earthquake are in good level but attention to the weaknesses mitigation of construction hazards dimension and strengthening these prerequisites, which have obvious impacts on the structural vulnerability of hospitals and adjacent buildings in earthquakes, have been proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825456PMC
February 2014
-->