Publications by authors named "Min-Jeong Shin"

124 Publications

Biglycan reduces body weight by regulating food intake in mice and improves glucose metabolism through AMPK/AKT dual pathways in skeletal muscle.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21794

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

While biglycan (BGN) is suggested to direct diverse signaling cascades, the effects of soluble BGN as a ligand on metabolic traits have not been studied. Herein, we tested the effects of BGN on obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese animals and glucose metabolism, with the underlying mechanism responsible for observed effects in vitro. Our results showed that BGN administration (1 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) significantly prevented HFD-induced obesity, and this was mainly attributed to reduced food intake. Also, intracerebroventricular injection of BGN reduced food intake and body weight. The underlying mechanism includes modulation of neuropeptides gene expression involved in appetite in the hypothalamus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BGN regulates glucose metabolism as shown by improved glucose tolerance in mice as well as AMPK/AKT dual pathway-driven enhanced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in L6 myoblast cells. In conclusion, our results suggest BGN as a potential therapeutic target to treat risk factors for metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002039RRDOI Listing
August 2021

Development and Validation of a Food Literacy Assessment Tool for Community-Dwelling Elderly People.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 7;18(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Food literacy refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for individuals to choose foods that promote health. As the rate of diet-related diseases increases, food literacy is becoming more important. However, there are no tools available to evaluate food literacy among the Korean elderly. We derived 547 questions from a literature review and, after three rounds of Delphi surveys, selected 33 preliminary questions. We calculated the content validity ratio of the questions and applied a face validity procedure. We then selected 32 questions, assessed their validity, and distributed them as a questionnaire to 205 elderly people. We then conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the validity of the questionnaire and used an internal consistency index (Cronbach's α coefficient) to determine reliability. Based on the factor analysis, 13 questions were selected, distributed among three factors, and evaluated using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett sphericity tests. The factor analysis showed that KMO was 0.872, which is a highly acceptable score, and the Bartlett sphericity test was χ = 1,374.69 at = 0.00. The food literacy questionnaire developed in this study will likely be helpful for improving the healthcare of elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124382PMC
May 2021

Differential expression of microRNAs in the skin tissue of patients with severe papulopustular rosacea.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Mar 23;101(3):210-213. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Dermatology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.12.005DOI Listing
March 2021

Role of Stimuli on Liquid Crystalline Defects: From Defect Engineering to Switchable Functional Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 30;13(23). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Achieving tunable physical properties is currently one of the most exciting research topics. In order to realize this goal, a medium that is responsive to external stimuli and can undergo a change in its physical property is required. Liquid crystal (LC) is a prominent candidate, as its physical and optical properties can be easily manipulated with various stimuli, such as surface anchoring, rubbing, geometric confinement, and external fields. Having broken away from the past devotion to obtaining a uniform domain of LCs, people are now putting significant efforts toward forming and manipulating ordered and oriented defect structures with a unique arrangement within. The complicated molecular order with tunability would benefit the interdisciplinary research fields of optics, physics, photonics, and materials science. In this review, the recent progress toward defect engineering in the nematic and smectic phases by controlling the surface environment and electric field and their combinational methods is introduced. We close the review with a discussion of the possible applications enabled using LC defect structures as switchable materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729749PMC
November 2020

Development of a Comprehensive Food Literacy Measurement Tool Integrating the Food System and Sustainability.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 28;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The concept of food literacy is evolving and expanding, increasing the need for a comprehensive measurement tool for food literacy. This study aimed to develop a validated food literacy questionnaire based on an expanded conceptual framework for food literacy. A literature review of existing frameworks and questionnaires for food literacy and focus group interviews ( = 12) were conducted to develop a conceptual framework and candidate questions. A Delphi study ( = 15) and pilot survey ( = 10) to test the preliminary questionnaire's content and face validity were conducted, which were followed by the main survey ( = 200). Construct validity and reliability were assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing food literacy scores with food knowledge scores (FN-score) and nutrient quotient scores (NQ-score). By integrating and revising the six existing conceptual frameworks and focus group interview results, we proposed a two-dimensional conceptual framework comprising a literacy dimension and a food system dimension. After reviewing 560 items and categorizing them into 18 domains (3 in the literacy dimension × 6 in the food system dimension), 32 questions were selected. As a result of the Delphi study, two items were deleted, and content validity was confirmed for the remaining 30 items (content validity ratio (CVR) = 0.92). Ten items were revised during the face validation process, and five items were excluded as a result of the EFA. The final food literacy questionnaire comprised 25 questions related to five factors: production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal. Food literacy scores were positively associated with FN- and NQ-scores, confirming the reliability and criterion validity of the final questionnaire. The two-dimensional food literacy conceptual framework developed in this study systematically encompasses complex food literacy concepts by adding a food systems dimension (production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal domain) to the existing literacy dimension (functional, interactive, and critical literacy domain). Based on this integrated conceptual framework, a 25-item food literacy questionnaire was developed and validated for practical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692683PMC
October 2020

Sleep duration and mortality in Korean adults: a population-based prospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 28;20(1):1623. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Hana Science Building B, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that sleep duration is associated with risks of various diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and certain types of cancer. However, the relationship with mortality is not clear, particularly in non-European populations. In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and mortality in a population-based prospective cohort of Korean adults.

Methods: This analysis included 34,264 participants (14,704 men and 19,560 women) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2013 who agreed to mortality follow-up through December 31, 2016. Sleep duration was self-reported at baseline and was categorized into four groups: ≤4, 5-6, 7-8, and ≥ 9 h/day. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations with mortality (all-cause as well as CVD- and cancer-specific), adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: During up to 9.5 years of follow-up, we identified a total of 1028 deaths. We observed the lowest mortality at 5-6 h/day sleep. Compared with 7-8 h/day of sleep, short (≤4 h/day) and long (≥9 h/day) sleep were associated with a 1.05-fold (95% CI = 0.79-1.39) and 1.47-fold (95% CI = 1.15-1.87) higher all-cause mortality, respectively. After additional adjustment for self-rated health, the positive association with short sleep disappeared (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75-1.32) and the association with long sleep was slightly attenuated (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08-1.76). Long sleep was also nonsignificantly positively associated with both cancer-mortality (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.86-1.98) and CVD-mortality (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.73-2.21). There was no statistically significant evidence for nonlinearity in the relationships between sleep duration and mortality (all-cause as well as CVD- and cancer-specific). Effect modification by age, sex, education, and occupation were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that long sleep duration is associated with an increased all-cause mortality in Korean adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09720-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594310PMC
October 2020

Adiposity and mortality in Korean adults: a population-based prospective cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Sep 21. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The Asia-Pacific obesity classification recommends using lower BMI cutoffs in Asians compared with those in Western populations. However, the supporting evidence is scarce and little is known about the exact shape of the relations between adiposity and mortality in Asians.

Objectives: We investigated the relations of BMI (in kg/m2), waist circumference, and predicted body fat mass with mortality using a population-based prospective cohort of Korean men and women.

Methods: This analysis included 44,060 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014 participants who agreed to mortality follow-up through 31 December, 2016. At baseline, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Using DXA data, we derived predicted body fat and fat-free mass. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for the associations with mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. We tested for nonlinearity using the likelihood ratio test comparing nonlinear restricted cubic spline models with linear models.

Results: During ≤9.5 y of follow-up, 1682 deaths were identified. The relations of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were J-shaped with the nadir at BMI = 25.0-29.9 (P-nonlinearity < 0.001). Among participants without a history of cancer or cardiovascular disease, waist circumference (≥95 compared with 75.0-79.9 cm: HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.86) and predicted body fat mass (highest compared with lowest sextiles: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.60, 4.06) were positively associated with all-cause mortality (all P-nonlinearity ≤ 0.03), as well as cancer and cardiovascular mortality. The highest mortality was observed among participants who had both high predicted fat mass and low fat-free mass.

Conclusions: Our data suggest a strong positive association between adiposity and mortality in a population without pre-existing disease. We observed the lowest mortality at BMI = 25.0-29.9, suggesting that the current cutoff for overweight (BMI ≥23) may require re-evaluation and that BMI alone may not be a useful measure for indicating adiposity in Asians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa258DOI Listing
September 2020

Association between dietary sodium intake and disease burden and mortality in Koreans between 1998 and 2016: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Nutr Res Pract 2020 Oct 4;14(5):501-518. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Background/objectives: Sodium intake is positively associated with blood pressure, which may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we assessed the disease burden of CVD attributable to sodium intakes above 2,000 mg/day and prospectively investigated the association between dietary/urinary sodium levels and the risk of all-cause and CVD-mortality using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES).

Subjects/methods: A total of 68,578 and 33,113 participants were included for comparative risk assessment (CRA) analysis and mortality analysis, respectively, and mean follow-up time for mortality was 5.4 years. CRA analysis was used to quantify attributable incidences of stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and deaths attributable to sodium intake between 1998 and 2016. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the association between sodium intake and all-cause and CVD-mortality.

Results: Mean dietary sodium intake decreased over time, reaching 3,647 mg/day in 2016. Similarly, the population attributable fractions of stroke and IHD, and the number of CVD-associated deaths attributable to high sodium intake/excretion also decreased. In terms of association with mortality, when participants were grouped into quartiles (Q) by energy-adjusted sodium intake, those in Q2 had a lower risk of all-cause mortality than those in Q1 with lower intakes. The risk of CVD-associated mortality was higher only in females with high sodium intake in Q4 than those in Q1.

Conclusions: This nationwide data indicates that, in line with previous studies of multiple cohorts, both low and high sodium intakes may be associated with an increased risk of mortality; therefore, the optimal sodium intake for Koreans needs to be revised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2020.14.5.501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520563PMC
October 2020

Blood Lead Concentrations and Mortality in Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with Mortality Follow-Up.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 21;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Previous studies have consistently reported an increase in mortality risk, even at low levels of blood lead. The average blood lead concentration in the Korean population has steadily decreased but is still higher than that of developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between mortality and blood lead concentrations for adults in Korea. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013) linked Cause of Death data, which are followed by 2018. A total of 7308 subjects who aged over 30 at the baseline examination were included in the analyses. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios of mortality from non-accidental causes and cancer mortality. The estimated hazard ratios (95% CI) for comparison of the second and third tertile group with the lowest tertile group were 2.01 (1.20, 3.40) and 1.91 (1.13, 3.23) for non-accidental mortality and 3.42 (95% CI: 1.65, 7.08) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.70) for cancer mortality, respectively. The dose-response relationship also showed significant increase in the risk of mortality at blood lead level between 1.5 and 6.0 μg/dL. Our findings suggest that potent policies to lower lead exposure are required for the general Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557382PMC
September 2020

Effect of chitinase-3-like protein 1 on glucose metabolism: In vitro skeletal muscle and human genetic association study.

FASEB J 2020 10 20;34(10):13445-13460. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

We investigated the effect of chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) on glucose metabolism and its underlying mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, and evaluated whether the observed effects are relevant in humans. CHI3L1 was associated with increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner, and with increased intracellular calcium levels via PAR2. The improvement in glucose metabolism observed in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test on male C57BL/6J mice supported this association. Inhibition of the CaMKK was associated with suppression of CHI3L1-mediated glucose uptake. Additionally, CHI3L1 was found to influence glucose uptake through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Results suggested that CHI3L1 stimulated the phosphorylation of AS160 and p38 MAPK downstream of AMPK and AKT, and the resultant GLUT4 translocation. In primary myoblast cells, stimulation of AMPK and AKT was observed in response to CHI3L1, underscoring the biological relevance of CHI3L1. CHI3L1 levels were elevated in cells under conditions that mimic exercise in vitro and in exercised mice in vivo, indicating that CHI3L1 is secreted during muscle contraction. Finally, similar associations between CHI3L1 and metabolic parameters were observed in humans alongside genotype associations between CHI3L1 and diabetes at the population level. CHI3L1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000925RDOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of dietary risk factors on cardiometabolic and cancer mortality burden among Korean adults: results from nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys 1998-2016.

Nutr Res Pract 2020 Aug 6;14(4):384-400. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Background/objectives: Dietary factors are important contributors to cardiometabolic and cancer mortality. We examined the secular trends of nine dietary factors (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, milk, red meat, processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, and calcium) and the associated burdens of cardiometabolic and cancer mortality in Korea using representative cross-sectional survey data from 1998 to 2016.

Subjects/methods: Using dietary data from Korean adults aged ≥ 25 years in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we characterized secular trends in intake levels. We performed comparative risk assessment to estimate the population attributable fraction and the number of cardiometabolic and cancer deaths attributable to each dietary factor.

Results: A total of 231,148 cardiometabolic and cancer deaths were attributable to nine dietary risk factors in Korea from 1998 to 2016. Suboptimal intakes of fruits and whole grains were the leading contributors. Although the intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains moderately improved over time, the intake levels in 2016 (192.1 g/d, 225.6 g/d, and 10.9 g/d, respectively) remained far below the optimal levels. Deaths attributable to the low intakes of nuts and seeds (4.5 g/d), calcium (440.5 mg/d), and milk (37.1 g/d) and the high intakes of red meat (54.7 g/d), processed meat (4.7 g/d), and sugar-sweetened beverages (33.0 g/d) increased since 1998. Compared with older age groups (≥ 45 years), more unfavorable changes in dietary patterns were observed in the younger population aged 25-44 years, including more sharply increased intakes of processed meat.

Conclusions: We observed improvement in the intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and unfavorable changes in the intakes of processed meat and sugar-sweetened beverages over the past few decades. Our data suggest that to reduce the chronic disease burden in Korea, more effective nutritional policies and interventions are needed to target these dietary risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2020.14.4.384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390739PMC
August 2020

Lifestyle risk score and mortality in Korean adults: a population-based cohort study.

Sci Rep 2020 06 24;10(1):10260. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUSProgram in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Individual lifestyle risk factors have been associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, limited evidence is available on the combined association of lifestyle risk factors with mortality in non-Western populations. The analysis included 37,472 participants (aged ≥19 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2014) for whom the data were linked to death certificates/medical records through December 2016. A lifestyle risk score was created using five unhealthy behaviors: current smoking, high-risk alcohol drinking, unhealthy weight, physical inactivity, and insufficient/prolonged sleep. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During up to 9 years of follow-up, we documented 1,057 total deaths. Compared to individuals with zero lifestyle risk factor, those with 4-5 lifestyle risk factors had 2.01 times (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.43-2.82) and 2.59 times (HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.24-5.40) higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. However, higher lifestyle risk score was not significantly associated with cancer mortality (p-trend >0.05). In stratified analyses, the positive associations tended to be stronger in adults aged <65 years, unemployed, and those with lower levels of education. In conclusion, combined unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were associated with substantially increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality in Korean adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66742-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314763PMC
June 2020

Smoking May Affect Pulmonary Function through DNA Methylation: an Epigenome-Wide Association Study in Korean Men.

Clin Nutr Res 2020 Apr 24;9(2):134-144. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21 PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Smoking is a risk factor for various disease outcomes and is one of the modifiers of DNA methylation. We aimed to identify smoking-related DNA methylation sites (CpG-sites) and test whether one identified CpG-site is associated with smoking-related traits and pulmonary function. We obtained DNA methylation data of 209 men from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study analyzed by Illumina's HumanMethylation450 array. To identify smoking-related DNA methylation sites, epigenome-wide association analysis of smoking status was conducted, adjusting for age, area, current drinking status, and body mass index. We assessed the association between smoking intensity and DNA methylation of cg05951221 (), the CpG showing the strongest largest difference in DNA methylation among the 5 hypomethylated CpGs in current smokers compared to never smokers. The association between DNA methylation and pulmonary function was examined longitudinally resulting in a positive association between DNA methylation and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, regardless of adjustment for smoking status. This suggests that DNA methylation associates with long-term pulmonary function. Our study contributes to explaining the relationship between smoking and pulmonary function via DNA methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2020.9.2.134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192668PMC
April 2020

The myokine meteorin-like (metrnl) improves glucose tolerance in both skeletal muscle cells and mice by targeting AMPKα2.

FEBS J 2020 05 19;287(10):2087-2104. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Meteorin-like (metrnl) is a recently identified adipomyokine that beneficially affects glucose metabolism; however, its underlying mechanism of action is not completely understood. We here show that the level of metrnl increases in vitro under electrical pulse stimulation and in vivo in exercised mice, suggesting that metrnl is secreted during muscle contractions. In addition, metrnl increases glucose uptake via the calcium-dependent AMPKα2 pathway in skeletal muscle cells and increases the phosphorylation of HDAC5, a transcriptional repressor of GLUT4, in an AMPKα2-dependent manner. Phosphorylated HDAC5 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and sequesters them in the cytoplasm, resulting in the activation of GLUT4 transcription. An intraperitoneal injection of recombinant metrnl improved glucose tolerance in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, but not in AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null mice. Metrnl improves glucose metabolism via AMPKα2 and is a promising therapeutic candidate for glucose-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383816PMC
May 2020

Sex specific effect of ATPase inhibitory factor 1 on body weight: studies in high fat diet induced obese mice and genetic association studies in humans.

Metabolism 2020 04 30;105:154171. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Based on the metabolic effect of exogenous ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) on glucose metabolism, we tested whether IF1 treatment is effective in ameliorating weight gain and whether its effects are sex specific.

Methods: HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were treated with IF1 (5 mg/kg body weight, injected intraperitoneally). The underlying mechanisms of effect of IF1 on body weight were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Associations between genotypes of IF1 and obesity and relevant phenotype were further tested at the population level.

Results: Chronic treatment with IF1 significantly decreased body weight gain by regulating food intake of HFD-fed male mice. IF1 activated the AKT/mTORC pathway and modulated the expression of appetite genes in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed male mice and its effect was confirmed in hypothalamic cell lines as well as hypothalamic primary cells. This required the interaction of IF1 with β-F1-ATPase on the plasma membrane of hypothalamic cells, which led to an increase in extracellular ATP production. In addition, IF1 treatment showed sympathetic nerve activation as measured by serum norepinephrine levels and UCP-1 expression in the subcutaneous fat of HFD-fed male mice. Notably, administration of recombinant IF1 to HFD-fed ovariectomized female mice showed remarkable reductions in food intake as well as body weight, which was not observed in wild-type 5-week female mice. Lastly, sex-specific genotype associations of IF1 with obesity prevalence and metabolic traits were demonstrated at the population level in humans. IF1 genetic variant (rs3767303) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of obesity and lower levels of body mass index, waist circumference, hemoglobin A, and glucose response area only in male participants.

Conclusion: IF1 is involved in weight regulation by controlling food intake and potentially sympathetic nerve activation in a sex-specific manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154171DOI Listing
April 2020

Semen Cuscutae Administration Improves Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Adiposity in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 12;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Gyeonggi-do 11160, Korea.

Since arginase has been shown to compete with nitric oxide (NO) synthase, emerging evidence has reported that arginase inhibition improves obesity by increasing NO production. Semen cuscutae (SC), which is a well-known Chinese medicine, has multiple biological functions such as anti-oxidant function and immune regulation. In this study, we investigated whether the SC as a natural arginase inhibitor influences hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole-body adiposity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The lipid accumulation was significantly reduced by SC treatment in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Additionally, SC supplementation substantially lowered HFD-induced increases in arginase activity and weights of liver and visceral fat tissue, while increasing hepatic NO. Furthermore, elevated mRNA expressions of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1c), fatty-acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)1, and PPAR-γ2 in HFD-fed mice were significantly attenuated by SC supplementation. Taken together, SC, as a novel natural arginase inhibitor, showed anti-obesity properties by modulating hepatic arginase and NO production and metabolic pathways related to hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950589PMC
December 2019

Association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with hypertension and blood pressure values in Korean adults: A Mendelian randomization study on a subset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2011-2012 population.

Nutr Res Pract 2019 Dec 13;13(6):498-508. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Background/objectives: Lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with a higher risk of hypertension (HTN); however, it remains unclear whether the relationship is causal. We aimed to evaluate the causal effects of circulating 25(OH)D levels on the prevalence of HTN in the Korean population using the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach.

Subjects/methods: Epidemiological data, serum 25(OH)D data, and genomic DNA biospecimens were obtained from 2,591 participants, a subset of the study population in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2011-2012. Five 25(OH)D-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs12785878, rs10741657, rs12794714, rs6013897, and rs2282679), identified from genome-wide association studies, were used as instrument variables (IVs) for serum 25(OH)D levels. In the MR analysis, we performed IV analyses using the two-stage least squares method.

Results: In the observational analysis, circulating 25(OH)D levels were found to be inversely associated with the HTN prevalence in ordinary least squares models (odds ratio: 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 0.99) after adjusting for the potential confounders. There were differences in the circulating 25(OH)D levels across genotypes of individual SNPs. In the MR analysis, using individual SNPs as IVs, 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the HTN prevalence.

Conclusions: We found no association between genetically determined circulating 25(OH)D levels and HTN in Korean adults. Our results are listed owing to the relatively small sample size and possible weak instrument bias; therefore, further studies are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2019.13.6.498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883232PMC
December 2019

ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.

FASEB J 2019 12 31;33(12):14825-14840. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is an ATP synthase-interacting protein that suppresses the hydrolysis activity of ATP synthase. In this study, we observed that the expression of IF1 was up-regulated in response to electrical pulse stimulation of skeletal muscle cells and in exercized mice and healthy men. IF1 stimulates glucose uptake AMPK in skeletal muscle cells and primary cultured myoblasts. Reactive oxygen species and Rac family small GTPase 1 (Rac1) function in the upstream and downstream of AMPK, respectively, in IF1-mediated glucose uptake. In diabetic animal models, the administration of recombinant IF1 improved glucose tolerance and down-regulated blood glucose level. In addition, IF1 inhibits ATP hydrolysis by β-F1-ATPase in plasma membrane, thereby increasing extracellular ATP and activating the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, ultimately leading to glucose uptake. Thus, we suggest that IF1 is a novel myokine and propose a mechanism by which AMPK and Akt contribute independently to IF1-mediated improvement of glucose tolerance impairment. These results demonstrate the importance of IF1 as a potential antidiabetic agent.-Lee, H. J., Moon, J., Chung, I., Chung, J. H., Park, C., Lee, J. O., Han, J. A., Kang, M. J., Yoo, E. H., Kwak, S.-Y., Jo, G., Park, W., Park, J., Kim, K. M., Lim, S., Ngoei, K. R. W., Ling, N. X. Y., Oakhill, J. S., Galic, S., Murray-Segal, L., Kemp, B. E., Mantzoros, C. S., Krauss, R. M., Shin, M.-J., Kim, H. S. ATP synthase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), a novel myokine, regulates glucose metabolism by AMPK and Akt dual pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901440RRDOI Listing
December 2019

Food Literacy in South Korea: Operational Definition and Measurement Issues.

Clin Nutr Res 2019 Apr 24;8(2):79-90. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Since chronic diseases have emerged as a major cause of death worldwide, people has been exposed to large amounts of information on healthy eating practices that are important aspects of its prevention and management. Food literacy, the functional, interactive, and critical ability to manage dietary information with the aim of improving health, is of global interest. In South Korea (hereafter Korea), there is currently a lack of food literacy research, despite its pertinence for the development of public health policies that are tailored to recipients' ability to understand and address health and nutrition issues. In this study, the research trend and policy implications of food literacy are derived through reviewing preceding studies related to food literacy in Korea and elsewhere. Existing literature on food literacy in Korea placed much emphasis on the functional ability of food literacy. Future research on the operational definitions of interactive and critical food literacy and their health effects in Korea is necessary. In addition, there is a lack of research on the development and validation of measurement tools that evaluate integrative concepts of food literacy. To accurately examine the relationships among food literacy, diet, and health, standardized measurement tools that can comprehensively evaluate food literacy frameworks for various Korean sub-population groups should be developed. Based on such future studies, an investigation of health promotion programs or policies on reducing the cognitive burden of food literacy would contribute to improving heathy eating practices in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2019.8.2.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494754PMC
April 2019

The association between genetic variants of angiopoietin-like 3 and risk of diabetes mellitus is modified by dietary factors in Koreans.

Sci Rep 2019 01 25;9(1):766. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

The role of angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) in blood lipid levels, cardiovascular disease risk, and glucose metabolism has received wide attention. This study aimed to examine whether rs11207997 in ANGPTL3 is associated with a 10-year risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and if the association is modified by the consumption of certain food groups or nutrients. A prospective cohort study was designed using the Ansan-Ansung data of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 7,358; age ≥40 years at baseline). Participants with the T allele of rs11207997, particularly TT homozygotes, had lower triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels than those with CC. There was no association with fasting blood glucose or other biochemical parameters. ANGPTL3 mRNA was positively associated with circulating TG levels and blood pressure (all p < 0.05). Cox proportional hazard models showed that the rs11207997 T allele is associated with a lower risk of DM after adjusting for covariates (hazard ratio: 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.812-0.998, p = 0.046). Furthermore, the association between rs11207997 and the risk of DM was modified by dietary factors. These associations were no longer statistically significant when additionally adjusted for baseline TG, a potential mediator. Our data suggest that genetic variation of rs11207997 in the ANGPTL3 gene is associated with risk of DM, possibly through contributing to a lifelong set point of TG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36581-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347602PMC
January 2019

Global, Regional, and Country-Specific Lifetime Risks of Stroke, 1990 and 2016.

N Engl J Med 2018 12;379(25):2429-2437

Background: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older. Estimates of the lifetime risks in the years 1990 and 2016 were compared. Countries were categorized into quintiles of the sociodemographic index (SDI) used in the GBD Study, and the risks were compared across quintiles. Comparisons were made with the use of point estimates and uncertainty intervals representing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles around the estimate.

Results: The estimated global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was 24.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.5 to 26.2); the risk among men was 24.7% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.3 to 26.0), and the risk among women was 25.1% (95% uncertainty interval, 23.7 to 26.5). The risk of ischemic stroke was 18.3%, and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke was 8.2%. In high-SDI, high-middle-SDI, and low-SDI countries, the estimated lifetime risk of stroke was 23.5%, 31.1% (highest risk), and 13.2% (lowest risk), respectively; the 95% uncertainty intervals did not overlap between these categories. The highest estimated lifetime risks of stroke according to GBD region were in East Asia (38.8%), Central Europe (31.7%), and Eastern Europe (31.6%), and the lowest risk was in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (11.8%). The mean global lifetime risk of stroke increased from 22.8% in 1990 to 24.9% in 2016, a relative increase of 8.9% (95% uncertainty interval, 6.2 to 11.5); the competing risk of death from any cause other than stroke was considered in this calculation.

Conclusions: In 2016, the global lifetime risk of stroke from the age of 25 years onward was approximately 25% among both men and women. There was geographic variation in the lifetime risk of stroke, with the highest risks in East Asia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247346PMC
December 2018

Genotype effects of glucokinase regulator on lipid profiles and glycemic status are modified by circulating calcium levels: results from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

Nutr Res 2018 12 29;60:96-105. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment, Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea; Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University, Seoul 152-703, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator (GCKR) are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors (ie, lipid profile and glycemic status). Recently, GCKR was shown to be related to circulating calcium levels involved in lipid and glycemic controls. Therefore, we hypothesized that GCKR SNPs are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors in the Korean population, and the association is modified by circulating calcium levels. Epidemiological data and GCKR SNPs (rs780093T>C, rs780094 T>C, and rs1260326 T>C) were collected from a subset of Ansung-Ansan cohort in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 7815). Consistent with the results of previous studies, GCKR SNPs were significantly associated with decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased glucose levels and insulin resistance. Minor C allele carriers, particularly CC homozygotes, had lower serum calcium levels than TT homozygotes for all 3 SNPs. Particularly, the effect of GCKR SNPs on total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance was apparent when serum calcium levels were in normal range (8.8-10.1 mg/dL). When serum calcium levels were high (≥10.2 mg/dL), CC homozygotes also had significantly lower triglyceride and higher fasting glucose than TT homozygotes. However, the associations were not observed when serum calcium levels were low (<8.8 mg/dL). In conclusion, GCKR SNPs are associated with lipid profiles and glycemic status in the Korean population, and the genetic effect is modified by basal circulating calcium levels, particularly in normal or high ranges. It provides important information for individualized prevention and management of cardiovascular risk associated with GCKR SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.09.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Association between Genetic Variant of and Incident Hypertension Stratified by Obesity and Physical Activity in Korea.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 30;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) is an important regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, and has been shown to be strongly associated with hypertriglyceridemia. We tested whether triglyceride-influencing genetic variants at (T-455C, C-482T, C1100T, and SstI) are associated with the onset of hypertension (HTN) among Korean adults stratified by lifestyle-related factors in the Ansung⁻Ansan cohort within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. After excluding participants with preexisting cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and HTN, a total of 5239 men and women were included at baseline (2001⁻2002), and followed up for a median of 9.8 years. Carriers of the C allele of C1100T with body mass index <25 kg/m² showed a significantly lower HTN risk (hazard ratio (HR) than non-carriers: 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77⁻0.98) after adjusting for covariates. In addition, carriers of the C allele of T-455C and the T allele of C-482T with low physical activity had lower incident HTN than non-carriers (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03⁻1.26; HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02⁻1.25). Our results suggest that genotype effects in on HTN risk have been shown in lean carriers of the C allele of C1100T and in less active people having the C allele of T-455C and T allele of C-482T in a large sample of the Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267455PMC
October 2018

Polymer functionalized nanoparticles in liquid crystals: combining PDLCs with LC nanocomposites.

Soft Matter 2018 Oct;14(42):8580-8589

Quebec Centre for Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal QC H3A 0B8, Canada.

Liquid crystal (LC)-polymer blends are important stimuli responsive materials already employed in a wide range of applications whereas nanoparticle (NP)-LC blends are an emerging class of nanocomposites. Polymer ligands offer the advantages of synthetic simplicity along with chemical and molecular weight tunability. Here we compare the phase behavior of 5CB blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and with gold NPs functionalized with thiolated PEO (AuNP-PEO) as a function of PEO concentration by DSC, POM and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Both PEO and the AuNP-PEO form uniform dispersions in isotropic 5CB and phase separate below the I-N phase transition temperature. Above the PEO crystallization temperature, the PEO/5CB blends show the expected biphasic state of PEO rich-isotropic liquid co-existing with PEO-poor nematic droplets. At PEO concentrations above 10 wt%, nematic 5CB nucleates with PEO crystallization. Both PEO and AuNP-PEO induce homeotropic alignment of the 5CB matrix immediately below TNI. The AuNP-PEO/5CB blends form thermally reversible cellular networks similar to AuNPs functionalized with low molecular weight mesogenic ligands. A thermodynamic model to account for the observed phase behavior is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sm01192cDOI Listing
October 2018

Genetic Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Lung Function in Korean Men and Women: Data from KNHANES 2011⁻2012.

Nutrients 2018 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D metabolic pathway and lung function is unknown. We examined the association between five SNPs on , , , and along with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lung function in older Korean men ( = 758) and women ( = 837). Lung function was determined by forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from the data in the Korea Nutrition and Health Examination Survey 2011⁻2012. Genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by the number of 25(OH)D-decreasing alleles of the five SNPs. Our results showed that increases in GRS were associated with reduced 25(OH)D levels ( < 0.05 for both sexes). In the entire population, FVC and FEV1 were associated with both GRS and 25(OH)D levels. In women, FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with GRS (β-coefficient (95% CI): -0.022 (-0.039, -0.005) and -0.020 (-0.035, -0.005), respectively; both < 0.05), but not with 25(OH)D. However, in men, FVC and FEV1 were positively associated with 25(OH)D (β-coefficient (95% CI): 0.008 (0.001, 0.016) and 0.008 (0.002, 0.015), respectively; both < 0.05), but not with GRS. In conclusion, lung function was associated with genetic variation in Korean women and with 25(OH)D in Korean men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212955PMC
September 2018

Glycated Hemoglobin and Cancer Risk in Korean Adults: Results from Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

Clin Nutr Res 2018 Jul 27;7(3):170-177. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are associated with cancer incidence in the Korean population. In cohorts of the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) consortium, we tested whether plasma levels of HbA1c were associated with all-site cancer incidence in 7,822 participants without any known history of cancer or diabetes. Cancer developed in 117 participants during the follow-up period. Subjects were subdivided into 3 categories according observed levels of HbA1c (< 5.7%, low; ≥ 5.7% and < 6.5%, mid; and ≥ 6.5%, high). The adjusted hazard ratio for all-site cancer was 3.03 (95% confidence intervals, 1.54-5.96) for the high HbA1c group relative to the low HbA1c group after adjusting for covariates. Higher circulating HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk of all-site cancer in Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2018.7.3.170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073170PMC
July 2018

Medium-Chain Acylcarnitines Are Associated With Cardioembolic Stroke and Stroke Recurrence.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2018 09;38(9):2245-2253

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital (K.O.), Korea University, Seoul.

Objective- Stroke is a heterogeneous disease with diverse causes, which affect the risk of recurrence. This study aimed to identify novel biomarkers that are clinically relevant to the diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke (CE) and the prediction of stroke recurrence using metabolomics. Approach and Results- We obtained blood samples and clinical data from a consecutively registered, hospital-based acute stroke registry and from healthy controls. Mass-spectrometry-based profiling was performed, and several metabolomic signatures were selected for the discrimination of CE and stroke recurrence, coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Finally, 190 acute ischemic stroke participants (43 CE patients and 147 non-CE patients) and 30 control participants were included. We obtained 29 metabolomics signatures, and of these, 2 medium-chain acylcarnitines (decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine) were selected as independent discriminants for CE (odds ratio, 2.839; 95% CI, 1.241-6.493 for decanoylcarnitine; odds ratio, 2.839; 95% CI, 1.241-6.493 for octanoylcarnitine). Elevated medium-chain acylcarnitines were also associated with a higher risk of stroke recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.767; 95% CI, 1.276-11.117 for decanoylcarnitine; hazard ratio, 5.519; 95% CI, 1.22-18.781 for octanoylcarnitine). The levels of decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine were correlated as known surrogate markers of CE. The levels of decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine were significantly higher in stroke patients with a high-risk potential of cardioembolism than in those with low or intermediate risk. Conclusions- Metabolomics provided an improved understanding of CE pathogenesis and stroke recurrence. We have identified decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine as novel biomarkers for CE and stroke recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.311373DOI Listing
September 2018

Tooth loss is a complex measure of oral disease: Determinants and methodological considerations.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2018 12 29;46(6):555-562. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: Counts of missing teeth or measures of incident tooth loss are gaining attention as a simple way to measure dental status in large population studies. We explore the meaning of these metrics and how missing teeth might influence other measures of dental status.

Methods: An observational study was performed in 2 contrasting adult populations. In total, 62 522 adult participants were available with clinically assessed caries and periodontal indices from the Swedish arm of the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints Study (GLIDE) and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in the Republic of Korea. Longitudinal measures of tooth loss were available for 28 244 participants in GLIDE with median follow-up of 10.6 years.

Results: In longitudinal analysis, hazard for tooth loss was associated with baseline dental status (previous tooth loss, periodontal status and caries status) and socio-demographic variables (age, smoking status and highest educational level). Analysis of cross-sectional data suggested that indices of caries exposure were not independent of periodontal status. The strength and direction of association varied between groups, even for measures specifically intended to avoid measuring tooth loss. Individuals with impaired periodontal health (community periodontal index [CPI] 3 or higher in any sextant) had higher standardized decayed and filled surfaces (DFS; number of DFS divided by total number of tooth surfaces) in GLIDE (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.07], but lower standardized DFS in KNHANES (IRR: 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]) than individuals with better periodontal health (CPI <3 in all sextants).

Conclusions: Incident tooth loss is a complex measure of dental disease, with multiple determinants. The relative importance of dental caries and periodontal disease as drivers of tooth loss differs between age groups. Measures of dental caries exposure are associated with periodontal status in the studied populations, and these associations can be population-specific. Consideration of the study-specific properties of these metrics may be required for valid inference in large population studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282797PMC
December 2018

Association among genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Korean adults: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

Endocr J 2018 Sep 22;65(9):881-891. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Public Health Sciences, BK21PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Vitamin D deficiency affects >60% of the Korean population. Recent reports in Caucasian, African American, and Chinese populations indicate an association between vitamin D status and related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but specific associations differ among study populations. We investigated the relationship between five SNPs involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway (DHCR7 rs12785878, GC rs2282679, CYP2R1 rs12794714, CYP2R1 rs10741657, and CYP24A1 rs6013897) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status in Koreans using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide database. Whether the association was modified by demographic and lifestyle factors, including sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, and sun exposure, were also investigated. The results showed the serum level of 25(OH)D was associated with rs12785878, rs2282679, and rs12794714 genotypes, but not with rs10741657 or rs6013897. The genetic risk score (GRS) calculated by summing the number of alleles of these 5 SNPs was associated with low circulating levels of 25(OH)D. However, the negative association between 25(OH)D and GRS was modified by obesity and sun exposure. Specifically, negative associations between 25(OH)D and GRS were present in adults with lower BMI (<25 kg/m) and longer sun exposure time (≥2 h/day). In conclusion, common variants of vitamin D-related SNPs are associated with vitamin D status in Koreans, and this genetic effect was masked when BMI ≥25 kg/m or sun exposure <2 h/day. Additionally, seasonal variation must be considered in future studies among Koreans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0084DOI Listing
September 2018

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2016: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

JAMA Oncol 2018 11;4(11):1553-1568

The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, England.

Importance: The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required.

Objective: To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus.

Evidence Review: Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition.

Findings: In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, -1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories.

Conclusions And Relevance: Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248091PMC
November 2018
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