Publications by authors named "Min Zhu"

1,182 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Direct Detection and Visualization of the H Reaction Process in a VO Cathode for Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 22:7076-7084. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China.

Because they are safer and less costly than state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) have been attracting more attention in stationary energy storage and industrial energy storage. However, the electrochemical reaction of H in all of the cathode materials of AZIBs has been puzzling until now. Herein, highly oriented VO monocrystals grown on a Ti current collector (VO-Ti) were rationally designed as the research model, and such a well-aligned VO cathode also displayed excellent zinc-ion storage capability (e.g., a reversible capacity of 148.4 mAh/g at a current density of 2 A/g). To visualize the H reaction process, we used time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. With the benefit of such a binder-free and conductor-free electrode design, a clear and intuitive reaction of H in a VO cathode is obtained, which is quite significant for unraveling the accurate reaction mechanism of VO in AZIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01776DOI Listing
July 2021

Dose tailoring of tacrolimus based on a non-linear pharmacokinetic model in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 17;98:107827. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The population pharmacokinetics (PPK) of tacrolimus (TAC) in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome (RNS) have not been well-characterized. This study aimed to investigate the significant factors affecting the TAC PPK characteristics of children with RNS and to optimize the dosing regimen. A total of 494 concentrations from 108 children were obtained from routine therapeutic drug monitoring between 2016 and 2018. Information regarding the demographic features, laboratory test results, genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 (rs776746) and co-therapy medications were collected. PPK analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) software and two modelling strategies (the linear one-compartment model and nonlinear Michaelis-Menten model) were evaluated and compared. CYP3A5 genotype, weight, daily dose of TAC and daily dose of diltiazem were retained in the final linear model. The absorption rate constant (Ka) was set at 4.48 h in the linear model, and the apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) in the final linear model were 14.2 L/h and 172 L, respectively. CYP3A5 genotype, weight and daily dose of diltiazem were the significant factors retained in the final nonlinear model. The maximal dose rate (V) and the average steady-state concentration at half-Vmax (K) in the final nonlinear model were 2.15 mg/day and 0.845 ng/ml, respectively. The nonlinear model described the pharmacokinetic data of TAC better than the linear model in children with RNS. A dosing regimen was proposed based on weight, CYP3A5 genotype and daily dose of diltiazem according to the final nonlinear PK model, which may facilitate individualized drug therapy with TAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107827DOI Listing
July 2021

Constructing metal-organic framework-derived Mn2O3 multishelled hollow nanospheres for high performance cathode of aqueous zinc-ion batteries.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Machinery and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, No. 2 street, Xiasha, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310018, CHINA.

Herein, we successfully synthesize Mn2O3 multishelled hollow nanospheres through simply oxidizing Mn-based metal-organic framework microspheres. The number of the shells reaches 4. Many cavities and nanograins are hidden underneath the shell. The multishelled hollow structure brings about a wide hierarchical mesopore size range, large pore volume (0.26 cm3 g-1) and high specific surface area (117.6 m2 g-1). The superior zinc-ion storage performance may be achieved. The reversible capacity reaches 453 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 A g-1. After 500 cycles at 1 A g-1, the discharge capacity of 152.8 mAh g-1 is still delivered. The discharge capacity at 1.5 A g-1 stabilizes at 107 mAh g-1. The zinc storage process is further studied through kinetics analyses. It is found that in the zinc storage process, ion-diffusion process and capacitive process occur simultaneously, and the capacitive process is dominant. The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the multishelled hollow nanosphere structure of Mn2O3. This structure promotes contact of electrode materials/electrolyte, offers more active sites, facilitates infiltration of electrolyte, buffer volume change of Mn2O3, improving electrochemical activity, reaction kinetics and cycling performance of Mn2O3. Overall, Mn2O3 multishelled hollow nanosphere is an excellent cathode material for aqueous zinc-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac15cbDOI Listing
July 2021

Factors associated with corneal high-order aberrations before and after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):989

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Corneal high-order aberrations (HOAs) are related to visual quality. However, the factors associated with corneal HOAs before and after femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is to observe the factors related to corneal HOAs before and after FS-LASIK.

Methods: Prospective observational study was designed to measure corneal HOAs in 149 eyes of 75 patients before and 6 months after FS-LASIK. The relationship between spherical diopter and corneal parameters, including K1 and K2 (horizontal and vertical refractive power of the cornea, respectively), the aspheric characteristics of the cornea (Q), mean radius of the curvature of the cornea (Rm), and central corneal thickness (CCT), with corneal HOAs were analyzed.

Results: The spherical diopter was correlated with trefoil at 30° before surgery and with vertical coma, four-order astigmatism at 0°, trefoil at 30°, spherical aberration, and six-order spherical aberration after surgery (P<0.05). CCT was correlated with vertical coma, four-order astigmatism at 0°, trefoil at 30°, and six-order spherical aberration after surgery (P<0.05). K1 was correlated with spherical aberration and six-order astigmatism at 0° before surgery (P<0.05). K2 was correlated with spherical aberration, six-order astigmatism at 45°, astigmatism at 0°, six-order astigmatism at 0° before surgery, and trefoil at 30° after surgery (P<0.05). Q was correlated with spherical aberration, six-order spherical aberration, and six-order astigmatism at 45° (P<0.05). Rm was correlated with six-order astigmatism at 0°, spherical aberration, six-order astigmatism at 45° before surgery, and astigmatism at 0° after surgery (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Corneal parameters and spherical diopter are related to the HOAs of the cornea before and after FS-LASIK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267252PMC
June 2021

Educational Approaches Help Bridge Perception Gaps of Invasive Alien Species (Mikania micrantha) between Managers and Non-managers.

Environ Manage 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, South Section, East Outer Ring Road, Chenggong District, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China.

Invasive alien species (IAS) significantly impact biodiversity, human health, and economies, and considerable resources are often used to manage their spread. Few studies have focused on the human perception of IAS management, and little is known about approaches to improve stakeholder perception. This study examined perception gaps between managers and non-managers of a notorious weed Mikania micrantha and the preference for educational approaches to bridge those gaps. Household questionnaires and key informant interviews were conducted in the China-Myanmar Border Region (China), and ordinal logistic regressions and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used in statistical analyses. We found a high level of perception of M. micrantha among stakeholders, and a significant influence of socio-demographic factors including gender, educational level, ethnic group, and geographical location. Scores of the identification, damage, control measure, and manual treatment of M. micrantha were significantly higher for managers than those for non-managers, indicating that there were certain perception gaps between two stakeholder groups. Nine educational approaches were identified as being effective in improving stakeholder perception of IAS, of which training workshops were mostly preferred, followed by brochures (or leaflets) and other promotional materials. Additionally, we propose that well-designed and well-conducted educational approaches would benefit stakeholder perception of IAS, and that integration of IAS management into a comprehensive rural development scheme would improve its long-term performance in marginalized rural communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-021-01505-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Dihydromyricetin improves DSS-induced colitis in mice via modulation of fecal-bacteria-related bile acid metabolism.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jul 14;171:105767. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China; Shaanxi Engineering Research Center of Cardiovascular Drugs Screening & Analysis, Xi'an 710061, China.

Recent studies show that the nutraceutical supplement dihydromyricetin (DHM) can alleviate IBD in murine models by downregulating the inflammatory pathways. However, the molecular mechanistic link between the therapeutic efficiency of DHM, gut microbiota, and the metabolism of microbial BAs remains elusive. In this study, we explored the improvement of DHM on the dysregulated gut microbiota of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. We found that DHM could markedly improve colitis symptoms, gut barrier disruption, and colonic inflammation in DSS-treated mice. In addition, bacterial 16S rDNA sequencing assay demonstrated that DHM could alleviate gut dysbiosis in mice with colitis. Furthermore, antibiotic-mediated depletion of the gut microflora and fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) demonstrated that the therapeutic efficiency of DHM was closely associated with gut microbiota. BA-targeted metabolomics analysis revealed that DHM restored the metabolism of microbial BAs in the gastrointestinal tract during the development of colitis. DHM significantly enriched the proportion of the beneficial Lactobacillus and Akkermansia genera, which were correlated with increased gastrointestinal levels of unconjugated BAs involving chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, enabling the BAs to activate specific receptors, such as FXR and TGR5, and maintaining intestinal integrity. Taken together, DHM could alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice by restoring the dysregulated gut microbiota and BA metabolism, leading to improvements in intestinal barrier function and colonic inflammation. Increased microbiota-BAs-FXR/TGR5 signaling may be the potential targets of DHM in colitis. Therefore, our findings provide novel insights into the development of novel DHM-derived drugs for the management of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105767DOI Listing
July 2021

Ultralow Volume Change of P2-type Layered Oxide Cathode with Controlled Phase Transition by Regulating Distribution of Na.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

South China University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, CHINA.

Most P2-type layered oxides exhibit a large volume change when they are charged into high voltage, and it further lead to bad structural stability. In fact, high voltage is not the reason which causes the irreversible phase transition. There are two internal factors which affect structural evolution: the amount and distribution of Na ions retained in the lattice. Hereon, a series of layered oxides Na 2/3 Mn x Ni x-1/3 Co 4/3-2x O 2 (1/3 ≤ x ≤ 2/3) were synthesized. It is observed that different components have different structural evolutions during the charge/discharge processes, and further researches find that the distribution of Na ions in layers is the main factor. By controlling the distribution of Na ions, the phase transition process can be well controlled. As the referential component, P2-Na 2/3 Mn 1/2 Ni 1/6 Co 1/3 O 2 cathode with uniform distribution of Na ions is cycled at the voltage window of 1.5-4.5 V, which exhibits a volume change as low as 1.9%. Such a low strain is benefical for cycling stability. The current work provides a new and effective route to regulate the structural evolution of the promising P2-type layered cathode for sodium ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202108109DOI Listing
July 2021

The effects of native prosodic system and segmental context on Cantonese tone perception by Mandarin and Japanese listeners.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Jun;149(6):4214

Foreign Studies College, Hunan Normal University, 36 Lushan Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, 410081, China.

This study explores the effects of native prosodic system and segmental context on the perception of Cantonese tones by Mandarin and Japanese listeners. In Experiment 1, 13 Mandarin and 13 Japanese subjects took part in a two-alternative forced-choice discrimination test of Cantonese tones in different segmental contexts (familiar vs unfamiliar). In Experiment 2, 20 Mandarin listeners participated in a perceptual assimilation task that examined the cross-language perceptual similarity between Mandarin and Cantonese tones. Results showed that Mandarin listeners were comparable to Japanese counterparts in discriminability, but the former attended more to pitch contour differences while the latter were more sensitive to pitch height. Moreover, the effect of segmental context was significant exclusively in the Mandarin group, whereas the Japanese group performed stably across syllables in discriminating Cantonese tones. It seemed that unfamiliar context rendered lower perceptual similarity, which further hindered corresponding discrimination by the Mandarin group. In addition, segmental effects were mainly observed in the assimilation patterns of category goodness or uncategorized-categorized. These findings suggested that non-native tone perception could be modulated by listeners' native prosodic structures in a finer way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0005274DOI Listing
June 2021

An iterative approach to optimize loudspeaker placement for multi-zone sound field reproduction.

Authors:
Min Zhu Sipei Zhao

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 May;149(5):3462

Centre for Audio, Acoustics, and Vibration, Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Various array patterns, such as circular, linear, and arc-shaped arrays, have been used in multi-zone sound field reproduction, but most of them are based on empirical rather than judicious selection. This article proposes an iterative optimization method to select the loudspeaker positions from a large set of candidate locations. Both the number and locations of the loudspeakers can be designed with superior performance. Both single-frequency and broadband simulations based on the acoustic contrast control method are performed to validate the proposed scheme, and the performance of the optimized array is compared with that of an arc-shaped array and that of an array optimized with an existing method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0005042DOI Listing
May 2021

Model-Based Projection of Dementia Prevalence in China and Worldwide: 2020-2050.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Innovation Center for Neurological Disorders and Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, P.R. China.

Background: Current and future incidence and prevalence estimates of dementia are essential for public health planning.

Objective: The objective was to establish prediction model of incidence and estimate the prevalence of dementia in the Chinese and worldwide population from 2020 to 2050.

Methods: A model-based method was used to project the dementia prevalence from 2020 to 2050 in China, which required incidence, the mortality rate for individual without dementia, and the relative risk of death. Furthermore, we detected the impact of intervention on the prevalence projection for dementia using a simulation method. We applied the same method to other projections worldwide.

Results: In 2020, the model predicted 16.25 million (95%confidence interval 11.55-21.18) persons with dementia in China. By 2050, this number would increase by approximately three-fold to 48.98 million (38.02-61.73). Through data simulation, if the incidence of dementia decreased by 10%every 10 years from 2020 after intervention and prevention, the number of dementia cases by 2050 was reduced by 11.96 million. This would reduce the economic burden by US $639.04 billion. In addition, using this model, dementia cases grew relatively slowly over the next few decades in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Japan, with percentage changes of 100.88%, 65.93%, and 16.20%, respectively.

Conclusion: The number of people with dementia in China is large and will continue to increase rapidly. Effective interventions could reduce the number of patients drastically. Therefore, prevention and control strategies must be formulated urgently to reduce the occurrence of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210493DOI Listing
July 2021

Radiographic evaluation in three dimensions of condylar fractures with closed treatment in children and adolescents.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The study aimed at investigating a new three-dimensional classification of healing morphology in condylar fractures in children and adolescents after closed treatment, and establish its association with fracture type and clinical outcomes. The medical records of children and adolescents with condylar fracture were reviewed, retrospectively. The clinical outcomes were assessed by mandibular deviation during mouth opening, Helkimo anamnestic index (Ai), and Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (Di). The condylar healing morphology was evaluated through three-dimensional CT images after 1-2 years of follow-up. In total, 96 patients with 142 condylar fracture sites were included in the study. Condylar healing morphology was classified into three main patterns: unchanged (21.13%), spherical (62.68%), and irregular (16.19% - including the three subtypes triangular, L-shaped, and Y-shaped). There was a significant difference in the distribution of the three main healing patterns among various fracture types (p = 0.0227). Irregular patterns occurred more frequently in adolescents than in children. In unilateral fractures, no obvious association was found between condylar healing morphology and clinical outcomes, including mandibular deviation during mouth opening (p = 0.162), Ai (p = 0.0991) and Di (p = 0.25). Most patients healing in different condylar patterns reached a good clinical outcome after 1-2 years. Although the healing morphology of condylar fractures in children and adolescents remained abnormal, good clinical outcome was achieved over the 2-year follow-up. Therefore, closed treatment remains a good approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Bisphenols disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the brain and affect TH-dependent brain development in Xenopus laevis.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jun 24;237:105902. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18, Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

There is concern about adverse effects of thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting chemicals on TH-dependent brain development. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, such as bisphenol F (BPF), are known to have the potential to interfere with TH signaling, but whether they affect TH-dependent brain development is not yet well documented. Here, we conducted the T3-induced Xenopus laevis metamorphosis assay, a model for studying TH signaling disruption, to investigate the effects of BPA and BPF (10-1000 nM) on TH signaling in brains and subsequent brain development. While 48-hr treatment with 1 nM T3 dramatically upregulated TH-response gene expression in X. laevis brains at stage 52, 1000 and/or 100 nM BPA also caused significant transcriptional up-regulation of certain TH-response genes, whereas BPF had slighter effects, suggesting limited TH signaling disrupting activity of BPF in brains relative to BPA at the lack of TH. In the presence of 1 nM T3, 1000 and/or 100 nM of BPF as well as BPA antagonized T3-induced TH-response gene expression, whereas lower concentrations agonized T3 actions on certain TH-response genes, displaying an apparently biphasic effect on TH signaling. After 96 h exposure, T3 induced brain morphological remodeling coupled with cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation, whereas both BPA and BPF generally antagonized T3-induced changes in a concentration-dependent manner, with weak or no effects of bisphenol exposure alone. Overall, all results show that BPA and BPF interfered with TH signaling in Xenopus brains, especially in the presence of TH, and subsequently affected TH-dependent brain development. Given the evolutionary conservation of TH-dependent brain development among vertebrates, our findings from X. laevis warrant further studies to reveal potential influences of bisphenols on TH-dependent brain development in higher vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105902DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of IMBs-qPCR detection method for Yersinia enterocolitica based on the foxA gene.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, China. No. 92, Weijin road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Yersinia enterocolitica is an important zoonotic pathogen, which seriously endangers food-safety risk. In this study, the recombinant outer membrane protein OmpF and its antibody were prepared and coupled with immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) to capture Y. enterocolitica in food samples, combining the quantitative PCR detection with primers of virulence factor gene foxA for Yersinia enterocolitica contamination. The results showed that the capture efficiency of approximately 80% using anti-OmpF antibody-immunomagnetic beads and linearly dependent capture under 10-10 CFU/mL Y. enterocolitica compared with less than 10% capture of other bacteria. The detection limit of 64 CFU/mL was obtained based on foxA gene PCR detection combined with capture of the anti-OmpF antibody-immunomagnetic beads to detect Yersinia enterocolitica in artificially contaminated milk and pork samples. Compared to the culture method, the developed IMBs-qPCR method has higher consistency, was less time consuming, which taken together provides an effective alternative method for rapid detection of Y. enterocolitica in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02459-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Six gene variants in five children with hypophosphatasia.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):888

Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, China.

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization caused by mutations in the alkaline phosphatase () gene encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Here we performed clinical and molecular studies on 5 HPP children to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of the gene variants.

Methods: Clinical and genetic analyses were performed on 5 HPP children, and the loci where variants were identified. Plasmids containing the relevant loci were constructed. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of the pathogenic variants were investigated by cellular immunofluorescence, enzyme activity assay, and protein expression assay.

Results: A total of 6 variants were identified in 5 HPP children: proband 1: c.346G>A (p.A116T); proband 2: c.346G>A (p.A116T)/deletions from c.1097 to c.1099 CCT (p.T366_S367deli) compound heterozygous variant; proband 3: insertion of G from c.1014 to c.1015 (p.H338fs)/c.1446C>A (p.H482Q) compound heterozygous variant; proband 4: c.920C>T (p.P307L); and proband 5: c.883A>G (p.M295V). Twenty-four hours after the HEK-293T was transfected with different variant plasmids, its alkaline phosphatase activity and enzyme protein content were reduced compared with the wild type, and there were differences among different variants. Except for 1014-G-1015+C1446A, the degree of reduction in enzyme activity was negatively correlated with the severity of clinical manifestations. Immunofluorescence revealed that the variants (especially c.883A>G and c.920C>T) caused a decrease in alkaline phosphatase expression in the cellular membrane.

Conclusions: In total, 3 novel variants were identified in these 5 HPP children, the discovery of which will enrich the human gene mutation database. Different variants in the gene can downregulate the activity of TNSALP enzyme (and thus affect its function) by affecting protein expression and translational modifications. The same variant may cause clinical manifestations of different severities in different individuals due to the presence of dominant negative effects, alterations in noncoding sequences, blind area of intron regulatory region sequencing, and variations in environmental and individual factors. The molecular mechanisms via which the gene exerts its expression effect are highly variable and warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184488PMC
May 2021

SBTD: A Novel Method for Detecting Topological Associated Domains from Hi-C Data.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China.

The development of Hi-C technology has generated terabytes of chromatin interaction data, which bring possibilities for insight study of chromatin structure. Several studies revealed that mammalian chromosomes are folded into topological associated domains (TADs), which are conserved across cell types. Accurate detection of topological associated domains is now a vital process for revealing the relationship between the structure and function of genome organization. Unfortunately, the current TAD detection methods require massive computing resources, careful parameter adjustment and/or encounter inconsistent results. In this paper, we propose a novel method, Spectral-Based TAD Detector (SBTD), and evaluate its performance with a set of widely accepted statistical methods. We treat the chromatin interaction matrix as a graph and first introduce cosine similarity as a measure of the interaction patterns between bins. The results show that SBTD identifies higher quality TADs than the popular methods (DomainCaller, TopDom and SpectralTAD) and the internal bins of TADs identified by SBTD have higher correlation. Besides, The TADs identified by SBTD show a highly similar histone modification signal enrichment pattern at the boundary as reported in the previous literature. Finally, the motif enrichment analysis shows that compared with the background region, the DNA motifs of known insulator proteins are significantly enriched in the TAD boundary region identified by our method, which proves the high performance of our proposed method. Overall, SBTD is much more effective than existing methods with only one easy-to-adjust parameter, cluster number, for which we provide optimization guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-021-00453-4DOI Listing
June 2021

A new Silurian fish close to the common ancestor of modern gnathostomes.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The Silurian Period occupies a pivotal stage in the unfolding of key evolutionary events, including the rise of jawed vertebrates. However, the understanding of this early diversification is often hampered by the patchy nature of the Silurian fossil record, with the articulated specimens of jawed vertebrates only known in isolated localities, most notably Qujing, Yunnan, China. Here, we report a new Silurian maxillate placoderm, Bianchengichthys micros, from the Ludlow of Chongqing, with a near-complete dermatoskeleton preserved in articulation. Although geographically separated, the new taxon resembles the previously reported Qilinyu in possessing a unique combination of dermatoskeletal characters. However, the dermal bone of the mandible in Bianchengichthys unexpectedly differs from those in both Qilinyu and Entelognathus and displays a broad oral lamina carrying a line of tooth-like denticles, in addition to the marginal toothless flange. The external morphology of the pectoral fin is preserved and reveals an extensively scale-covered lobate part, flanked by a fringe of lepidotrichia-like aligned scales. The phylogenetic analysis reveals that Bianchengichthys is positioned immediately below Entelognathus plus modern gnathostomes. The discovery significantly widens the distribution of Silurian placoderm-grade gnathostomes in South China and provides a range of morphological disparity for the outgroup comparison to the earliest evolution of jaws, dentitions, and pectoral fins in modern gnathostomes. We also demonstrate that the previously reported Silurian placoderms from central Vietnam are maxillate placoderms close to Qilinyu, Silurolepis, and Bianchengichthys, corroborating the paleogeographic proximity between the Indochina and South China blocks during the Middle Paleozoic..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.053DOI Listing
June 2021

Iron molybdenum selenide supported on reduced graphene oxide as an efficient hydrogen electrocatalyst in acidic and alkaline media.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 9;602:384-393. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, PR China. Electronic address:

It is of great significance to develop inexpensive and high-efficiency electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we synthesized iron molybdenum selenide (FeSe-MoSe) loaded on reduced graphene oxide (FeSe-MoSe/rGO) by a one-step hydrothermal method. We further optimized the Fe/Mo ratio and determined the best ratio to be 1-1. In acidic (or alkaline) solution, the optimized FeSe-MoSe(1-1)/rGO has a small Tafel slope of 55 (or 80) mV dec and needs an overpotential of 101 (or 178) mV to achieve 10 mA cm. These good properties are mainly due to the structure of bimetallic selenides combining rGO. Moreover, rGO enhances the electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the synergistic effect between FeSe-MoSe(1-1) and rGO results in better HER performance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation proves that FeSe-MoSe(1-1)/rGO has a small work function. Based on our reasonable design and analysis, FeSe-MoSe(1-1)/rGO is expected to be an efficient and robust catalyst for large-scale applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.038DOI Listing
June 2021

The C/EBPβ-Dependent Induction of TFDP2 Facilitates Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Proliferation.

Virol Sin 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an important infectious disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. Although several studies have shown that PRRSV can affect the cell cycle of infected cells, it is still unclear how it manipulates the cell cycle to facilitate its proliferation. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression profiles of transcription factors in PRRSV-infected 3D4/21 cells by RNA-sequencing. The result shows that the expression of transcription factor DP2 (TFDP2) is remarkably upregulated in PRRSV-infected cells. Further studies show that TFDP2 contributes to PRRSV proliferation and the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein induces TFDP2 expression by activating C/EBPβ. TFDP2 positively regulates cyclin A expression and triggers a less proportion of cells in the S phase, which contributes to PRRSV proliferation. This study proposes a novel mechanism by which PRRSV utilizes host protein to regulate the cell cycle to favor its infection. Findings from this study will help us for a better understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00403-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209777PMC
June 2021

Hydrogen Production via Hydrolysis and Alcoholysis of Light Metal-Based Materials: A Review.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 5;13(1):134. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

As an environmentally friendly and high-density energy carrier, hydrogen has been recognized as one of the ideal alternatives for fossil fuels. One of the major challenges faced by "hydrogen economy" is the development of efficient, low-cost, safe and selective hydrogen generation from chemical storage materials. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in hydrogen production via hydrolysis and alcoholysis of light-metal-based materials, such as borohydrides, Mg-based and Al-based materials, and the highly efficient regeneration of borohydrides. Unfortunately, most of these hydrolysable materials are still plagued by sluggish kinetics and low hydrogen yield. While a number of strategies including catalysis, alloying, solution modification, and ball milling have been developed to overcome these drawbacks, the high costs required for the "one-pass" utilization of hydrolysis/alcoholysis systems have ultimately made these techniques almost impossible for practical large-scale applications. Therefore, it is imperative to develop low-cost material systems based on abundant resources and effective recycling technologies of spent fuels for efficient transport, production and storage of hydrogen in a fuel cell-based hydrogen economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00657-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179885PMC
June 2021

Smart Actuators Based on External Stimulus Response.

Front Chem 2021 31;9:650358. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Smart actuators refer to integrated devices that are composed of smart and artificial materials, and can provide actuation and dampening capabilities in response to single/multi external stimuli (such as light, heat, magnetism, electricity, humidity, and chemical reactions). Due to their capability of dynamically sensing and interaction with complex surroundings, smart actuators have attracted increasing attention in different application fields, such as artificial muscles, smart textiles, smart sensors, and soft robots. Among these intelligent material, functional hydrogels with fiber structure are of great value in the manufacture of smart actuators. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in stimuli-responsive actuators based on functional materials. We emphasized the important role of functional nano-material-based additives in the preparation of the stimulus response materials, then analyzed the driving response medium, the preparation method, and the performance of different stimuli responses in detail. In addition, some challenges and future prospects of smart actuators are reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.650358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200850PMC
May 2021

Majocchi's granuloma: Autoinoculation and adaption of Trichophyton rubrum with molecular evidence.

Mycoses 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Trichophyton rubrum, an important aetiological agent of superficial dermatophytosis, occasionally penetrates into deeper tissues, causing inflammation and a granulomatous response. Only few case reports of T. rubrum granuloma with molecular evidence for autoinoculation have been published.

Objectives: To find the genetic basis of adaptation to a different microhabitat following autoinoculation of Trichophyton rubrum.

Methods: A case of Majocchi's granuloma is reported, with isolation of T. rubrum strains from foot and chin, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing of the two strains has been performed. Phylogenetic reconstruction and SIFT analysis were conducted.

Results: A phenotypic difference has been observed between the two isolates. 20 and 19 indels, 8 and 15 SNVs were found in foot and chin strains, respectively. Foot and chin strains formed a monophyletic group. Two non-synonymous mutations of chin strains were observed in the TERG_06754 gene encoding cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). The G293C amino acid change in TERG_03373 was predicted to affect protein function significantly. The mutated amino acid (cysteine) was only found in the chin strain in all dermatophyte non-redundant sequences.

Conclusions: Non-synonymous mutations located in TERG_06754 and TERG_03373 were predicted to affect protein functions, which may facilitate the adaption for invasion of the superficial cutaneous strain. As the different living environments of these two strains (oxygenous, lower-temperature for the pedal strain; hypoxia, higher-temperature for the chin strain), a stratum corneum-to-dermal adaption hypothesis of T. rubrum was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13337DOI Listing
June 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics of Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b: A Comparison Between Healthy Caucasian and Chinese Subjects.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:673492. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for ropeginterferon alfa-2b and to compare its PK properties between Caucasian and Chinese populations. A population PK model was developed based on data from two phase I clinical trials conducted in Caucasian and Chinese individuals, to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on the PKs of ropeginterferon alfa-2b. We included 456 observations from 30 healthy Caucasian subjects and 438 observations from 27 healthy Chinese subjects in the population PK analysis. The PKs of ropeginterferon alfa-2b were best described by a one-compartment quasi-equilibrium approximated target-mediated drug disposition model with first-order absorption and absorption lag times. The typical value (relative standard error%) of apparent clearance () and volume of distribution of ropeginterferon alfa-2b in 70-kg subjects were 0.778 (12%) L/day and 2.32 (14%) L, respectively. Body weight was the only significant factor affecting the . There were no obvious differences in the PK properties of ropeginterferon alfa-2b, and predicted steady-state exposure was similar in the Chinese and Caucasian populations. No significant ethnic differences in ropeginterferon alfa-2b PKs were observed between the Chinese and Caucasian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.673492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193675PMC
May 2021

The Sw-5b NLR nucleotide-binding domain plays a role in oligomerization and its self-association is important for the activation of cell death signaling.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Plant and animal intracellular nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors play important roles in sensing pathogens and activating defense signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of host defense signaling by NLR proteins remain largely unknown. Many previous studies have determined that the coil-coil (CC) or Toll and interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domain of NLR proteins and their dimerization/oligomerization are critical for activating downstream defense signaling. In this study, we demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding (NB) domain of the tomato Sw-5b NLR alone can activate downstream defense signaling, leading to elicitor-independent cell death. Sw-5b NB domains can self-associate, and this self-association is crucial for activating cell death signaling. The self-association was strongly compromised after the introduction of a K568R mutation into the P-loop of the NB domain. Consequently, the NB K568R mutant induced cell death very weakly. The NB CΔ20 mutant lacking the C-terminal 20 amino acids can self-associate but cannot activate cell death signaling. The NB CΔ20 mutant also interfered with wild-type NB domain self-association, leading to compromised cell death induction. By contrast, the NB K568R mutant did not interfere with wild-type NB domain self-association and its ability to induce cell death. Structural modeling of Sw-5b suggests that NB domains associate with one another and likely participate in oligomerization. As Sw-5b-triggered cell death is dependent on helper NLR proteins, we propose that the Sw-5b NB domain acts as a nucleation point for the assembly of an oligomeric resistosome, probably by recruiting downstream helper partners, to trigger defense signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab279DOI Listing
June 2021

Constrained transformer network for ECG signal processing and arrhythmia classification.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 06 9;21(1):184. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China.

Background: Heart disease diagnosis is a challenging task and it is important to explore useful information from the massive amount of electrocardiogram (ECG) records of patients. The high-precision diagnostic identification of ECG can save clinicians and cardiologists considerable time while helping reduce the possibility of misdiagnosis at the same time.Currently, some deep learning-based methods can effectively perform feature selection and classification prediction, reducing the consumption of manpower.

Methods: In this work, an end-to-end deep learning framework based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed for ECG signal processing and arrhythmia classification. In the framework, a transformer network is embedded in CNN to capture the temporal information of ECG signals and a new link constraint is introduced to the loss function to enhance the classification ability of the embedding vector.

Results: To evaluate the proposed method, extensive experiments based on real-world data were conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed model achieve better performance than most baselines. The experiment results also proved that the transformer network pays more attention to the temporal continuity of the data and captures the hidden deep features of the data well. The link constraint strengthens the constraint on the embedded features and effectively suppresses the effect of data imbalance on the results.

Conclusions: In this paper, an end-to-end model is used to process ECG signal and classify arrhythmia. The model combine CNN and Transformer network to extract temporal information in ECG signal and is capable of performing arrhythmia classification with acceptable accuracy. The model can help cardiologists perform assisted diagnosis of heart disease and improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-021-01546-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191107PMC
June 2021

Circ-HACE1 Aggravates Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Injury in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells via Regulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Sponging miR-485-3p.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021;16:1535-1547. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Health and Nursing, Anhui Vocational College of City Management, Hefei City, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Smoking is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the early diagnosis for COPD remains poor. Exploring the molecular mechanism and finding feasible biomarkers will be beneficial for clinical management of COPD. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that act as miRNA sponges to regulate the expression levels of genes, leading to the changes of cellular phenotypes and disease progression. CircRNA HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (circ-HACE1) was abnormally expressed after the induction of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in cell model. This study was performed to explore its function and mechanism in COPD.

Methods: Circ-HACE1, microRNA-485-3p (miR-485-3p) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) detection was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell viability and apoptosis/cell cycle were respectively examined using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oxidative stress was evaluated through the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The target binding analysis was conducted via dual-luciferase reporter assay. Western blot was employed for protein expression detection of TLR4.

Results: Circ-HACE1 was overexpressed in smokers or smokers with COPD and CSE upregulated circ-HACE1 expression in 16HBE cells. Knockdown of circ-HACE1 attenuated CSE-stimulated cell viability and cell cycle repression, as well as the enhancement of cell apoptosis, inflammatory response and oxidative stress. MiR-485-3p was a target of circ-HACE1. Circ-HACE1 regulated CSE-induced cell injury via targeting miR-485-3p. TLR4 was a downstream target of miR-485-3p, and miR-485-3p inhibited the CSE-induced cell damages by directly downregulating the level of TLR4. Circ-HACE1/miR-485-3p regulated TLR4 expression in CSE-treated 16HBE cells, and TLR4 overexpression also reversed all effects of si-circ-HACE1 on CSE-treated 16HBE cells.

Conclusion: These findings elucidated that circ-HACE1 contributed to the CSE-induced cell damages in COPD cell models via regulating TLR4 by acting as the sponge of miR-485-3p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S304859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179752PMC
June 2021

Cytoplasmic and nuclear Sw-5b NLR act both independently and synergistically to confer full host defense against tospovirus infection.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Plant intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors play critical roles in mediating host immunity to pathogen attack. We use tomato Sw-5b::tospovirus as a model system to study the specific role of the compartmentalized plant NLR in dictating host defenses against the virus at different infection steps. We demonstrated here that tomato NLR Sw-5b distributes to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, to play different roles in inducing host resistances against tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) infection. The cytoplasmic-enriched Sw-5b induces a strong cell death response to inhibit TSWV replication. This host response is, however, insufficient to block viral intercellular and long-distance movement. The nuclear-enriched Sw-5b triggers a host defense that weakly inhibits viral replication but strongly impedes virus intercellular and systemic movement. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic and nuclear Sw-5b act synergistically to dictate a full host defense of TSWV infection. We further demonstrated that the extended N-terminal Solanaceae domain (SD) of Sw-5b plays critical roles in cytoplasm/nucleus partitioning. Sw-5b NLR controls its cytoplasm localization. Strikingly, the SD but not coil-coil domain is crucial for Sw-5b receptor to import into the nucleus to trigger the immunity. The SD was found to interact with importins. Silencing both importin α and β expression disrupted Sw-5b nucleus import and host immunity against TSWV systemic infection. Collectively, our findings suggest that Sw-5b bifurcates disease resistances by cytoplasm/nucleus partitioning to block different infection steps of TSWV. The findings also identified a new regulatory role of extra domain of a plant NLR in mediating host innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17535DOI Listing
June 2021

Solubilized ubiquinol for preserving corneal function.

Biomaterials 2021 May 1;275:120842. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA. Electronic address:

Defective cellular metabolism, impaired mitochondrial function, and increased cell death are major problems that adversely affect donor tissues during hypothermic preservation prior to transplantation. These problems are thought to arise from accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside cells. Oxidative stress acting on the cells of organs and tissues preserved in hypothermic conditions before surgery, as is the case for cornea transplantation, is thought to be a major reason behind cell death prior to surgery and decreased graft survival after transplantation. We have recently discovered that ubiquinol - the reduced and active form of coenzyme Q10 and a powerful antioxidant - significantly enhances mitochondrial function and reduces apoptosis in human donor corneal endothelial cells. However, ubiquinol is highly lipophilic, underscoring the need for an aqueous-based formulation of this molecule. Herein, we report a highly dispersible and stable formulation comprising a complex of ubiquinol and gamma cyclodextrin (γ-CD) for use in aqueous-phase ophthalmic products. Docking studies showed that γ-CD has the strongest binding affinity with ubiquinol compared to α- or β-CD. Complexed ubiquinol showed significantly higher stability compared to free ubiquinol in different aqueous ophthalmic products including Optisol-GS® corneal storage medium, balanced salt solution for intraocular irrigation, and topical Refresh® artificial tear eye drops. Greater ROS scavenging activity was noted in a cell model with high basal metabolism and ROS generation (A549) and in HCEC-B4G12 human corneal endothelial cells after treatment with ubiquinol/γ-CD compared to free ubiquinol. Furthermore, complexed ubiquinol was more effective at lowering ROS, and at far lower concentrations, compared to free ubiquinol. Complexed ubiquinol inhibited lipid peroxidation and protected HCEC-B4G12 cells against erastin-induced ferroptosis. No evidence of cellular toxicity was detected in HCEC-B4G12 cells after treatment with complexed ubiquinol. Using a vertical diffusion system, a topically applied inclusion complex of γ-CD and a lipophilic dye (coumarin-6) demonstrated transcorneal penetrance in porcine corneas and the capacity for the γ-CD vehicle to deliver drug to the corneal endothelium. Using the same model, topically applied ubiquinol/γ-CD complex penetrated the entire thickness of human donor corneas with markedly greater ubiquinol retention in the endothelium compared to free ubiquinol. Lastly, the penetrance of ubiquinol/γ-CD complex was assayed using human donor corneas preserved for 7 days in Optisol-GS® per standard industry practices, and demonstrated higher amounts of ubiquinol retained in the corneal endothelium compared to free ubiquinol. In summary, ubiquinol complexed with γ-CD is a highly stable composition that can be incorporated into a variety of aqueous-phase products for ophthalmic use including donor corneal storage media and topical eye drops to scavenge ROS and protect corneal endothelial cells against oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120842DOI Listing
May 2021

RBM39 Alters Phosphorylation of c-Jun and Binds to Viral RNA to Promote PRRSV Proliferation.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:664417. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

As transcriptional co-activator of AP-1/Jun, estrogen receptors and NF-κB, nuclear protein RBM39 also involves precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes sow reproductive disorders and piglet respiratory diseases, which resulted in serious economic losses worldwide. In this study, the up-regulated expression of RBM39 and down-regulated of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, TNFα, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6) were determined in PRRSV-infected 3D4/21 cells, and accompanied with the PRRSV proliferation. The roles of RBM39 altering phosphorylation of c-Jun to inhibit the AP-1 pathway to promote PRRSV proliferation were further verified. In addition, the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of RBM39 and c-Jun from the nucleus to cytoplasm was enhanced in PRRSV-infected cells. The three RRM domain of RBM39 are crucial to support the proliferation of PRRSV. Several PRRSV RNA (nsp4, nsp5, nsp7, nsp10-12, M and N) binding with RBM39 were determined, which may also contribute to the PRRSV proliferation. Our results revealed a complex mechanism of RBM39 by altering c-Jun phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic translocation, and regulating binding of RBM39 with viral RNA to prompt PRRSV proliferation. The results provide new viewpoints to understand the immune escape mechanism of PRRSV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.664417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165236PMC
May 2021

A de novo 10q11.23q22.1 deletion detected by whole genome mate-pair sequencing: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2021 05 31;21(1):254. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Nanjing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Background: Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 10q11-q22 was a genomic disorder distinguished by developmental delay, congenital cleft palate and muscular hypotonia. The phenotypes involved were heterogeneous, hinge on the variable breakpoints and size.

Case Presentation: Here, we presented a patient with soft palate cleft, growth and development delay. The patient was a 2 years and 5 months girl who was not able to walk unless using a children's crutches to support herself. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WGMS) were both performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). A 20.76 Mb deletion at 10q11.23q22.1 (seq[GRCh37/hg19]del(10)(50,319,387-71,083,899) × 1) was revealed by the WGMS, which was verified as de novo by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR).

Conclusion: Children with 10q11-q22 deletions greater than 20 MB have never been reported before, and we are the first to report and provide a detailed clinical phenotype, which brings further knowledge of 10q11-q22 deletions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02723-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167982PMC
May 2021

Stepwise artificial evolution of an Sw-5b immune receptor extends its resistance spectrum against resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Plants use intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat immune receptors (NLRs) to recognize pathogen-encoded effectors and initiate immune responses. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which has been found to infect >1000 plant species, is among the most destructive plant viruses worldwide. The Sw-5b is the most effective and widely used resistance gene in tomato breeding to control TSWV. However, broad application of tomato cultivars carrying Sw-5b has resulted in an emergence of resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV. Therefore, new effective genes are urgently needed to prevent further RB TSWV outbreaks. In this study, we conducted artificial evolution to select Sw-5b mutants that could extend the resistance spectrum against TSWV RB isolates. Unlike regular NLRs, Sw-5b detects viral elicitor NSm using both the N-terminal Solanaceae-specific domain (SD) and the C-terminal LRR domain in a two-step recognition process. Our attempts to select gain-of-function mutants by random mutagenesis involving either the SD or the LRR of Sw-5b failed; therefore, we adopted a stepwise strategy, first introducing a NSm -responsive mutation at the R927 residue in the LRR, followed by random mutagenesis involving the Sw-5b SD domain. Using this strategy, we obtained Sw-5b and Sw-5b mutants, which are effective against TSWV RB carrying the NSm or NSm mutation, and against other American-type tospoviruses. Thus, we were able to extend the resistance spectrum of Sw-5b; the selected Sw-5b mutants will provide new gene resources to control RB TSWV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13641DOI Listing
May 2021