Publications by authors named "Min Wang"

4,750 Publications

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Cyclodextrin-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of fungicides in water, juice, and vinegar samples via HPLC.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 22;367:130664. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, PR China; Graduate Education Innovation Center on Baijiu Bioengineering in Shanxi Province, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, PR China. Electronic address:

Cyclodextrin-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (CD-DLLME) was developed for the determination of triazole and strobilurin fungicides in water, juice, and vinegar samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Undecanol, which is a green solvent, was selected as the extraction solvent. A cyclodextrin aqueous solution was chosen as the dispersion solvent and demulsifier to avoid the use of a toxic dispersion solvent and eliminate the centrifugation step. Dispersion and phase separation were completed within 1 and 60 s, respectively. The linear range of this method was 1 to 100 µg L. The limits of detection were 0.3 μg L along with the preconcentration factor of 133 and enrichment factor of 124. The recovery was 83.2% to 103.2%. This pretreatment method was fast, simple, and environmentally friendly and was successfully applied to the analysis of triazole and strobilurin fungicide residues in water, juice, and vinegar samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130664DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanism and Selectivity of Cyclopropanation of 3-Alkenyl-oxindoles with Sulfoxonium Ylides Catalyzed by a Chiral ,'-Dioxide-Mg(II) Complex.

J Org Chem 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, P. R. China.

The mechanism and stereoselectivity of an asymmetric cyclopropanation reaction between 3-alkenyl-oxindole and sulfoxonium ylide catalyzed by a chiral ,'-dioxide-Mg(II) complex were explored using the B3LYP-D3(BJ) functional and the def2-TZVP basis set. The noncatalytic reaction occurred a stepwise mechanism, with activation barriers of 21.6-23.5 kcal mol. The C-C bond formed followed by the carbanion S2 substitution, constructing a three-membered ring in spiro-cyclopropyl oxindoles, accompanied by the release of dimethylsulfoxide. The electron-withdrawing -protecting -butyloxy carbonyl (Boc) and acetyl (Ac) groups in isatin enhanced the local electrophilicity of the C2 atom and the repulsion between the two COPh groups in the reactants, contributing to high reactivity as well as good diastereoselectivity results. The -Boc-3-phenacylideneoxindole coordinated to the chiral ligand (L-PiPr) in a bidentate fashion, forming a hexacoordinate-Mg(II) complex as the reactive species. The origin of enantioselectivity was from the shielding effect of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl groups in the ligand toward the -face of oxindole. The repulsion between the SO(CH) and COPh groups in 3-alkenyl-oxindole and the neighboring ortho-Pr group in the ligand directed the -face of ylide to attack the -face of oxindole preferably, contributing to the high diastereoselectivity of the product. A metal-ion-ligand matching relationship was important for a good asymmetric induction effect of the chiral ,'-dioxide-metal catalyst. A large chiral cavity in the Zn(II) catalyst weakened the shielding effect of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl groups in the ligand toward the prochiral face of oxindole, leading to inferior enantioselectivity observed in the experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01199DOI Listing
August 2021

Modified completely intrafascial radical cysprostatectomy for bladder cancer: a single-center, blinded, controlled study.

BMC Cancer 2021 Aug 3;21(1):887. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, 430060, P.R. China.

Background: We have proposed a modified, completely intrafascial radical cysprostatectomy (RC) to treat bladder cancer patients with the aim of preserving the patients' post-surgical urinary control and erectile function. This study aimed to evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes of this innovation relatively to that with the conventional technique.

Methods: A retrospective, single-center, blinded, and controlled study was conducted using the medical data of patients since the past 5 years from the hospital database. A total of 44 patients were included, including 20 who received complete intrafascial cysprostatectomy and 24 who received conventional interfascial surgeries. The patients' continent and sexual information of 1-year follow-up after the surgery were extracted. The oncological and functional outcomes of the 2 groups were compared and analyzed.

Results: The demographics parameters of the 2 groups showed no significant difference. The results of follow-up of the oncological outcomes did not reveal any significant difference between the completely intrafascial group and the conventional interfascial group in terms of the positive surgical margins, local recurrences, and distant metastasis. Patients following neobladder diversion in the intrafascial group showed a faster recovery of the urinary control, with a 76.9% (10/13) daytime continent rate at 3-month, as well as 46.2% (6/13) and 58.3% (7/12) nighttime continent rates at 3-month and 6-month, respectively. Regarding the sexual functions, our results revealed significant advantages in favor of completely intrafascial technique on the post-surgical International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 score at 3-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up relative to that with the conventional interfascial process. Thus, the IIEF score of patients in the intrafascial group was 11.4 ± 3.5 at 3-month, 14.1 ± 3.6 at 9-month, and 15.2 ± 3.8 at 12-month follow-up after the cystectomy, which was significantly greater than that of the patients in the control group.

Conclusions: Our novel data illustrated that the modified completely intrafascial technique could result in a better sexual function and faster continence recovery for patients following RC, without any compromise in the cancer control. Thus, this technique could be considered as an alternative extirpative technique for bladder cancer treatment in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08568-zDOI Listing
August 2021

High contribution of vehicle emissions to fine particulate pollutions in Lanzhou, Northwest China based on high-resolution online data source appointment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 29;798:149310. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Western Ecological Safety, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

The quantitative estimation of urban particulate matter (PM) sources is essential but limited because of various reasons. The hourly online data of PM, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and elements from December 2019 to November 2020 was used to conduct PM source appointment, with an emphasis on the contribution of vehicle emissions to fine PM pollution in downtown Lanzhou, Northwest China. Vehicle emissions, secondary formation, mineral dust, and coal combustion were found to be the major PM sources using the positive matrix factorization model. The seasonal mean PM were estimated to be 72.8, 39.2, 24.3, and 43.6 μg·m and vehicle emissions accounted for 35.7%, 25.8%, 30.0%, and 56.6% in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. Vehicle emissions were the largest source of PM considering the high PM pollution in winter and its significantly large contribution in autumn. Furthermore, the contribution of vehicle emissions increased with increasing PM in winter and autumn. Vehicle emissions were also the most important source of EC, accounting for 70.3%, 91.0%, 83.5%, and 93.7% of the total EC in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. With the reduction in industrial emissions and increase in vehicle numbers in China in recent years, vehicle emissions are going to be the largest source of urban PM pollution. To sustainably improve air quality in Lanzhou and other Chinese cities, efforts should be made to control vehicle emissions such as promoting clean-energy vehicles and encouraging public transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149310DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of synchronization between left bundle branch and his bundle pacing in atrial fibrillation patients: An intra-patient-controlled study.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: His bundle pacing (HBP) is a physiological pacing strategy to preserve the electrical synchrony of ventricular conduction and left ventricular (LV) function. Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) has emerged as an alternative physiological pacing technique.

Objective: To evaluate cardiac electrical and mechanical synchrony comparing LBBP and HBP in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods: Consecutive patients with symptomatic bradycardia and AF were enrolled from January to June of 2019. The cardiac electrical and mechanical synchrony in different pacing mode were evaluated at baseline and after implantation.

Results: Both HBP and LBBP were performed in 20 patients. LBBP significantly widened the QRS duration compared with the intrinsic conduction (113.2 ± 14.5 ms vs. 96.5 ± 16.2 ms; P = .01), while HBP did not (104.5 ± 22.3 ms vs. 96.5 ± 16.2 ms; P = .12). Both LBBP and HBP patients had similar LV myocardial strain measurements for the mechanical synchrony evaluation without significant change compared with baseline. There was no significant difference in right ventricular synchrony measurement between LBBP and HBP. Compared to HBP, LBBP had less interventricular synchrony (IMVD, 14.7 ± 9.2 ms vs 3.1 ± 12.7 ms, P < .01; Ts-LV-RV, 37.9 ± 10.7 ms vs 18.5 ± 10.8 ms, P < .001).

Conclusions: Although LBBP's a physiological pacing mode can achieve a similar cardiac electrical and mechanical synchronization when compared to HBP, LBBP results in modest delay in RV activation, and the clinical implication remains to be studied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14331DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of Factors Influencing Relapse and Pregnancy in Patients with Borderline Ovarian Tumors.

J Cancer 2021 2;12(17):5275-5285. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

This retrospective study analyzed the factors affecting recurrence in patients after surgery with borderline ovarian tumors and postoperative recurrence and pregnancy after fertility-sparing surgery (FSS), to provide guidance for clinical treatment of borderline ovarian tumors and propose a therapeutic strategy for fertility protection. A total of 415 patients with borderline ovarian tumors were initially operated on in the gynecology ward of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated with China Medical University from September 1, 2013, to September 1, 2019. Central pathology review and prospective follow-up were carried out. The clinical and pathological data were consulted through the medical record query system of our hospital. The recurrence and pregnancy of the patients were investigated through telephone follow-up and outpatient and inpatient medical records. The influence of clinical and pathological variables on recurrence and pregnancy were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analyses. In this study, 415 patients were collected, of which 21 lost follow-up, and a total of 394 eligible patients were included in the analysis. Among these patients, 25 patients relapsed with a recurrence rate of 6.3% and there were 196 patients with fertility-sparing surgery, of the 63 patients attempting to conceive, 35 were able to attain pregnancy with a pregnancy rate of 55.6%. All patients survived until the follow-up deadline. In univariate and multivariate analyses, FSS, FIGO stage, and micropapillary pattern were independent risk factors for recurrence of BOTs. FIGO stage, micropapillary pattern were independent risk factors for recurrence of BOTs with FSS. The risk of recurrence was not related to omentectomy nor postoperative chemotherapy. While omentectomy and chemotherapy had an impact on the pregnancy rate ( <0.05) and the pregnancy rate of patients without omentectomy or chemotherapy was higher. Omentectomy did not affect recurrence and it is not recommended as a routine operation. Adjuvant chemotherapy does not reduce the recurrence rate. While omentectomy and chemotherapy had an impact on the pregnancy rate, and both of them should be carried out more carefully in patients with fertility requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317534PMC
July 2021

Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in chicken-source phylogroup F Escherichia coli: similar populations and resistance spectrums between E. coli recovered from chicken colibacillosis tissues and retail raw meats in Eastern China.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 30;100(9):101370. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; College of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

The extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant E. coli from food animals transferring to community settings of humans causes a serious threat to public health. Unlike phylogroup B2 E. coli strains, the clinical significance of isolates in phylogroup F is not well revealed. Here, we report on a collection (n = 563) of phylogroup F E. coli isolates recovered from chicken colibacillosis tissues and retail raw chicken meat samples in Eastern China. There was an overlapped distribution of MLST types between chicken colibacillosis-origin and meat-source phylogroup F E. coli, including dominant STs (ST648, ST405, ST457, ST393, ST1158, etc). This study further investigated the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producers in these chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli strains. The prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant strains in phylogroup F E. coli from chicken colibacillosis and raw meat separately accounted for 66.1 and 71.2%. The resistance genotypes and plasmid replicon types of chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR. Our results revealed β-lactamase CTX-M, OXA, CMY and TEM genes were widespread in chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli, and blaCTX-M was the most predominant ESBL gene. Moreover, there was a high prevalence of non-lactamase resistance genes in these β-lactam-resistant isolates. The replicons IncB/O/K/Z, IncI1, IncN, IncFIC, IncQ1, IncX4, IncY, and p0111, associated with antibiotic-resistant large plasmids, were widespread in chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli. There was no obvious difference for the populations, resistance spectrums, and resistance genotypes between phylogroup F E. coli from chicken colibacillosis tissues and retail meats. This detail assessment of the population and resistance genotype showed chicken-source phylogroup F E. coli might hold zoonotic risk and contribute the spread of multidrug-resistant E. coli to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101370DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristic of HBV nucleic acid amplification testing yields from blood donors in China.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 30;21(1):714. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Blood Center of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, 310052, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for blood screening has been previously performed in some countries to determine NAT yields. The current study sought to explore the non-discriminating reactive NAT yields using individual-NAT (ID-NAT) and characteristics of HBV NAT yields through a 10-year retrospective analysis in Zhejiang, China.

Methods: Blood donations were analyzed using individual-NAT mode by the transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) method. Supplementary HBV serological tests were performed using chemiluminescent immunoassay, and HBV viral load assay was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Follow-up studies were performed in partial donors with low HBV viral loads.

Results: Non-discriminating reactive NAT yields and HBV NAT yields varied in different years. The yields ranged from 853.73 per million to 2018.68 per million and 624.60 per million to 1669.50 per million, respectively. In the 476 NAT yields, 19 were probable window periods (WP), 33 probable occult hepatitis B virus infections (OBIs), 409 were confirmed OBIs and 15 were chronic HBV infections. ID-NAT results were categorized in four groups, and the findings showed that the levels of HBV DNA viral loads were different in the four different groups (χ = 275.02, p < 0.01). HBV viral load distribution was significantly different between anti-HBs positive and anti-HBc positive samples (χ = 49.429, p < 0.01). Notably, only 42.03% donors were NAT repeated positive in the 138 repeat donors' follow up tests.

Conclusion: NAT screening of blood donations can reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. Positive proportions of anti-HBs and anti-HBc are correlated with the HBV viral load level. However, low level of viral load donors pose risks in HBV NAT assays, and show fluctuating state for HBV viral load and leads to non-repeated NAT results during follow up studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06468-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325190PMC
July 2021

A mixed method evaluation of an integrated course in improving critical thinking and creative self-efficacy among nursing students.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Jul 24;106:105067. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Nursing, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Background: Critical thinking and creative self-efficacy are important for nursing students to provide quality patient care in an increasingly complex healthcare environment. Educators play a role in cultivation of corresponding skills in university settings.

Objectives: To develop an integrated course addressing the core elements of critical and creative thinking in one nursing program and evaluate its impacts on students' creative thinking disposition and creative self-efficacy.

Design: A mixed methods study using a quasi-experimental comparative design and a descriptive qualitative analysis of students' reflective journals.

Settings: A university pre-registration nursing program in Mainland China.

Participants: A total of 68 second-year nursing students.

Methods: The course was developed as a sixteen-week two-hour program. It was comprised of 7 modules covering the concepts, pathways, and skills of critical and creative thinking, related tools and the application in nursing. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected before and after the course to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the course effects. Quantitative outcomes included students' level of creative thinking disposition and creative self-efficacy measured by specific scales; qualitative outcomes were obtained through student journals. Paired sample t-tests were performed to compare the changes between pre- and post-tests. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze the qualitative data from students' reflective journals.

Results: Quantitative data showed that except in the self-confidence and originality dimensions, students' scores of overall creative thinking disposition, creative self-efficacy, and other dimensions were significantly improved after the 16-week course. Qualitative data revealed that students' understanding and practice of creative thinking and creative self-efficacy were deeply shaped by the social, cultural, and educational contexts.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that an integrated course of critical and creative thinking exerted distinct impacts on increased levels of creative thinking dispositions and creative self-efficacy among second-year nursing students in China. Students favored and benefited from the course in both personal and professional domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2021.105067DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluating preferences for colorectal cancer screening in individuals under age 50 using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 29;21(1):754. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Behavioral and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Background: In 2021, the United States Preventive Services Task Force updated their recommendation, stating that individuals ages 45-49 should initiate screening for colorectal cancer. Since several screening strategies are recommended, making a shared decision involves including an individual's preferences. Few studies have included individuals under age 50. In this study, we use a multicriteria decision analysis technique called the Analytic Hierarchy Process to explore preferences for screening strategies and evaluate whether preferences vary by age.

Methods: Participants evaluated a hierarchy with 3 decision alternatives (colonoscopy, fecal immunochemical test, and computed tomography colonography), 3 criteria (test effectiveness, the screening plan, and features of the test) and 7 sub-criteria. We used the linear fit method to calculate consistency ratios and the eigenvector method for group preferences. We conducted sensitivity analysis to assess whether results are robust to change and tested differences in preferences by participant variables using chi-square and analysis of variance.

Results: Of the 579 individuals surveyed, 556 (96%) provided complete responses to the AHP portion of the survey. Of these, 247 participants gave responses consistent enough (CR < 0.18) to be included in the final analysis. Participants that were either white or have lower health literacy were more likely to be excluded due to inconsistency. Colonoscopy was the preferred strategy in those < 50 and fecal immunochemical test was preferred by those over age 50 (p = 0.002). These results were consistent when we restricted analysis to individuals ages 45-55 (p = 0.011). Participants rated test effectiveness as the most important criteria for making their decision (weight = 0.555). Sensitivity analysis showed our results were robust to shifts in criteria and sub-criteria weights.

Conclusions: We reveal potential differences in preferences for screening strategies by age that could influence the adoption of screening programs to include individuals under age 50. Researchers and practitioners should consider at-home interventions using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to assist with the formulation of preferences that are key to shared decision-making. The costs associated with different preferences for screening strategies should be explored further if limited resources must be allocated to screen individuals ages 45-49.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06705-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320058PMC
July 2021

Association of the classification and severity of heart failure with the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15348. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310016, People's Republic of China.

Congestive heart failure (HF) is a known risk factor of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). However, the relationship of the classification and severity of HF with CI-AKI remains under-explored. From January 2009 to April 2019, we recruited patients undergoing elective PCI who had complete pre- and post-operative creatinine data. According to the levels of ejection fraction (EF), HF was classified as HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) [EF < 40%], HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF) [EF 40-49%] and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) [EF ≥ 50%]. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of either 25% or 0.5 mg/dL (44.2 μmoI/L) in serum baseline creatinine level within 72 h following the administration of the contrast agent. A total of 3848 patients were included in the study; mean age 67 years old, 33.9% females, 48.1% with HF, and 16.9% with CI-AKI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, HF was an independent risk factor for CI-AKI (OR 1.316, p value < 0.05). Among patients with HF, decreased levels of EF (OR 0.985, p value < 0.05) and elevated levels of N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (OR 1.168, p value < 0.05) were risk factors for CI-AKI. These results were consistent in subgroup analysis. Patients with HFrEF were more likely to develop CI-AKI than those with HFmrEF or HFpEF (OR 0.852, p value = 0.031). Additionally, lower levels of EF were risk factors for CI-AKI in the HFrEF and HFmrEF groups, but not in the HFpEF group. NT-proBNP was an independent risk factor for CI-AKI in the HFrEF, HFmrEF and HFpEF groups. Elevated levels of NT-proBNP are independent risk factors for CI-AKI irrespective of the classification of HF. Lower levels of EF were risk factors for CI-AKI in the HFrEF and HFmrEF groups, but not in the HFpEF group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94910-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319404PMC
July 2021

Neurofunctional outcomes in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and neurofunctional outcomes in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis.

Methods: A cohort follow-up study was performed after a median of 33 months (range 6-78) from disease onset to the last follow-up in patients diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis, to assess the neurofunctional outcomes using modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living (ADL), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-M). Remote symptomatic seizure and clinical relapses were also recorded. The clinical, laboratory features, and treatment responses that characterize the disability were analyzed.

Results: The results showed that 81 of 86 (94.2%) patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were successfully followed up, while eight (9.9%) died after discharge. Among the 73 survivors, clinical relapses occurred in 18 (24.7%) patients, and those with relapses were at a higher risk of developing remote symptomatic seizure (p = .019). Although 85.2% of the patients became functionally independent (mRS ≤2), the sequelae of symptomatic seizure, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive deficits were found in 11.0%, 21.9%, and 39.7% of the patients, respectively. Residual cognitive deficits primarily occurred in the elderly subjects as well as those with symptoms of memory deficit, psychiatric disorders, sleep disturbance, disturbance of consciousness at diagnosis, and higher CSF protein levels.

Conclusions: Although most patients survived and became functionally independent, a subset of patients could not return to all premorbid activities. They may have clinical relapses or suffer from remote symptomatic seizure, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13503DOI Listing
July 2021

Sulfidation of nickel foam with enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Zhang Dayu School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning, China.

Electrochemical oxidation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is an intriguing way of biomass conversion. Herein, a sulfidation of nickel foam (Ni2S3/NF) was attempted via a hydrothermal method, achieving high selectivity and efficiency for HMF oxidation. The optimized Ni2S3/NF electrode exhibits a nearly 100% conversion of HMF, 98% yield of FDCA, and 94% high faradaic efficiency. This material is stable and retains activity after 6 consecutive measurements. This work provides a facile route to design and prepare electrocatalysts for biomass upgrading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02025kDOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of fruit tree canopy shading on grain filling of intercropping winter wheat.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2458-2468

Institute of Horticultural Crops, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Pomology (Xinjiang), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Urumqi 830091, China.

Fruit tree-wheat intercropping system is the main agricultural production pattern in sou-thern Xinjiang. In this study, almond ()-winter wheat (Xindong 20 (, var. Xindong 20) intercropping system was used as the research object. Four tree forms of delayed open-central shape (DC), open-center shape (OC), high stem-shape (HS), and semicircle small-canopy shape (SC) and three intercropping distances (wheat intercropping area respectively 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 m from the tree trunk) were set to create tree canopy shading treatments, with monoculture wheat as the control. The environmental factors and the grain filling characteristic of winter wheat under different treatment conditions were measured, and the correlation between grain filling characteristics and 1000-grain weight and environmental factors was established to provide information for selecting the best management standards and optimizing the intercropping system. The results showed that under the almond tree-winter wheat intercropping system, the PAR, red/far-red light (R/FR), and temperature above the wheat canopy were significantly decreased due to canopy shading, resulting in a significant increase in humidity. The degree of variation was affected by tree form and distance. The PAR decrease degree of the four treatments was DC>OC/HS>SC, except for HS. The PAR decrease of the other tree form treatments was 1.5 m>2.5 m>3.5 m. The PAR decrease was distributed in the range of 35.5%-86.6%. A cubic polynomial equation represented the grain filling process, and the specific property of grain filling and 1000-grain weight was assessed using the correlation analysis. The decrease in the 1000-grain weight in the intercropping system was closely associated with the decreases in average grain-filling rate (), maximum grain-filling rate (), effective grain-filling duration (), and effective grain-filling duration (). The shortening of and the reduction in the grain filling rate were related with the reduction in the PAR incidence above the wheat canopy. In the fruit tree-winter wheat intercropping system, the reduction of PAR, dry matter accumulation after flowering, and were reduced by tree canopy shading consequently for the decrease in the 1000-grain weight of the intercropping wheat. When the distance between the intercropping area and the tree trunk was greater than 75% of tree height, and shading intensity was less than 35.5% of the natural light intensity, the intercropping with the almond tree could increase the 1000-grain weight of wheat by increasing the effective grain-filling duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202107.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Detoxification difference of cadmium between the application of selenate and selenite in native cadmium-contaminated soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.

Cadmium (Cd) has strong mobility and could cause toxicity to plants, and selenium (Se) can effectively detoxify Cd stress. However, differences in the detoxification effects of different species and dosages of exogenous Se on Cd and its mechanism are still unclear. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different rates of selenite and selenate application on radish growth, the uptake and translocation of Cd, and the fractions of Cd transformation in native Cd-contaminated soil. Results indicated that the decrease in radish biomass in selenate treatment was significantly greater than that in selenite treatment at a high Se application rate (2.5 mg·kg) (p < 0.05). In contrast to selenite treatments, the application of selenate significantly increased the translocation of Cd from radish roots to shoots (p < 0.05). Cadmium concentration and its bioaccumulation factor in radish decreased gradually with increasing selenite application rates, while these values decreased at low Se rate (1 mg·kg) and increased at high Se rate for selenate treatment. Different Se application rates resulted in Cd fractions distributions to change in soil. Therefore, the application of selenite treatment had a greater detoxification effect on Cd in soil than that in selenate treatment, and the double toxic effect was observed between Se and Cd in high selenate treatment (2.5 mg·kg). Combined with human health risk asseeement, the application of 2.5 mg·kg selenite could be a good approach for detoxification in native Cd-contaminated soil used in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15564-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Modulating the active site lid of an alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp. enabled efficient stereospecific synthesis of 17β-hydroxysteroids.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Sep 3;149:109837. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Enzymes and Tianjin Engineering Research Center of Biocatalytic Technology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and National Technology Innovation Center for Synthetic Biology, 32 West 7th Avenue, Tianjin Airport Economic Area, Tianjin, 300308, China. Electronic address:

Enzymatic stereospecific reduction of 17-oxosteroids offers an attractive approach to access 17β-hydroxysteroids of pharmaceutical importance. In this study, by adjusting the flexibility of α6-helix at the substrate entrance of the alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp. (RasADH), the catalytic activity toward the stereospecific 17β-reduction of androstenedione was improved without sacrifice of the enantioselectivity. Among the mutants, F205I and F205A exhibited up to 623- and 523-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency, respectively, towards a range of different 17-oxosteroids compared to the wild-type enzyme. The corresponding 17β-hydroxysteroids were prepared in optically pure form with high space-time productivity and isolated yields using F205I as the biocatalyst, indicating that these mutants are promising biocatalysts for this useful transformation. These results suggest that modulating the flexibility of the active site lid offers an effective approach to engineer alcohol dehydrogenase for accommodating bulky steroidal substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2021.109837DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of stored autotransfusion on electrolytes and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):7200-7206. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Hanchuan People's Hospital Hanchuan, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: To ivestigate the effect of stored autotransfusion on the electrolytes and postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

Methods: A total of 76 cases of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery were randomly divided into an observation group (38 cases, taking stored autotransfusion) and a control group (38 cases, taking allogeneic blood transfusion) according to a random number table method. The intraoperative-related indexes (intraoperative blood loss, autologous or allogeneic blood transfusion volume, urine volume, and length of hospital stay), electrolyte levels before and 48 hours after the operation, routine blood and coagulation function were compared between the two groups, and the postoperative complications related to blood transfusion were recorded.

Results: The length of hospital stay of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The concentrations of K and Na in the control group 48 h after the operation were higher than those before the operation and than those in the observation group, while the concentration of Ca was lower than that before the operation and that in the observation group (all P<0.05). The levels of Hb, RBC, and HCT in the control group 48 h after the operation were lower than those before the operation and those in the observation group (all P<0.05). The levels of WBC in the two groups 48 h after the operation were significantly higher, but those in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (all P<0.05). There were no significant changes in Pt, APTT, D-D, and FIB levels between the two groups. There were no significant changes in Pt, APTT, D-D, and FIB levels 48 hours after the operation compared with those before the operation (P>0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications caused by blood transfusion in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Storage autotransfusion can effectively balance the electrolyte level and reduce the incidence of complications in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. This is worthy of clinical application.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290778PMC
June 2021

A new proposed tumor-node-metastasis-age staging system for stage IV medullary thyroid carcinoma based on the SEER database.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6098-6107. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, China.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare and lethal cancer. There are currently controversies regarding its staging. This study aimed to verify the significance of the patient's age in the prognosis of MTC and propose its addition to the current staging system. Data on cancer-specific survival (CSS) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 2010 and 2015 were used. X-Tile, nomograms, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank tests were used to evaluate mortality rates to create a new staging system. A total of 849 patients were included. Patients were divided into three categories based on their ages at diagnosis: ≤41 years, n = 224 (26.4%); 42-71 years, n = 516 (60.8%); and ≥72 years, n = 109 (12.8%). Independent factors for survival in the multivariate analysis included age (42-71 years, hazard ratio [HR], 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-7.42; ≥72 years, HR, 8.71, 95% CI, 2.88-26.34), T stage (T2, HR, 3.60, 95% CI, 1.31-9.88), and M stage (M1, HR, 8.43, 95% CI, 4.40-16.16), with P<0.05. The Harrell's concordance index for tumor node metastasis (TNM) nomogram and TNM-age nomogram was 0.904 and 0.908, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUCs) for a 3-year CSS were 0.88 and 0.873, respectively. The corresponding AUCs for a 5-year CSS were 0.892 and 0.888, respectively. A new TNM-age staging system based on cancer-specific mortality rate analysis is proposed. This system provides a more accurate risk stratification and ensures more rational treatment measures for patients with stage IV MTC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290818PMC
June 2021

Clinical Significance of Infection and Enrichment in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Pathol Oncol Res 2021 9;27:1609846. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Anyang Tumor Hospital, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Anyang, China.

A variety of pathogenic microorganisms promote tumor occurrence and development through long-term colonization in the body. () is abundant in precancerous esophageal lesions and is closely related to the malignant progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The invasion of exogenous microorganisms can reshape the immune microenvironment, make the immune system incapacitated, and assist tumor cells in immune escape. A variety of pathogenic microorganisms induce the recruitment of () to allow tumor cells to escape immune surveillance and provide favorable conditions for their own long-term colonization. are one of the major obstacles to tumor immunotherapy and have a significant positive correlation with the occurrence and development of many kinds of tumors. Because can instantly enter cells and colonize for a long time, we speculated that F. nucleatum infection could facilitate the immune escape of tumor cells through enrichment of Tregs and promote the malignant progression of ESCC. In this study, we found a significant concordance between infection and infiltration. Therefore, we propose the view that chronic infection of may provide favorable conditions for long-term colonization of itself by recruiting and suppressing the immune response. At the same time, the massive enrichment of may also weaken the immune response and assist in the long-term colonization of . We analyzed the correlation between infection with the clinicopathological characteristics and survival prognosis of the patients. infection was found to be closely related to sex, smoking, drinking, degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. The degree of differentiation, depth of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and infection are independent risk factors affecting ESCC prognosis. Additionally, the survival rate and median survival time were significantly shortened in the infection positive group. Therefore, we propose that long-term smoking and alcohol consumption cause poor oral and esophageal environments, thereby significantly increasing the risk of infection. In turn, infection and colonization may weaken the antitumor immune response through enrichment and further assist in self-colonization, promoting the malignant progression of ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/pore.2021.1609846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300010PMC
July 2021

Initiating polyketide biosynthesis by on-line methyl esterification.

Nat Commun 2021 07 23;12(1):4499. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources & CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Aurantinins (ARTs) are antibacterial polyketides featuring a unique 6/7/8/5-fused tetracyclic ring system and a triene side chain with a carboxyl terminus. Here we identify the art gene cluster and dissect ART's C-methyl incorporation patterns to study its biosynthesis. During this process, an apparently redundant methyltransferase Art28 was characterized as a malonyl-acyl carrier protein O-methyltransferase, which represents an unusual on-line methyl esterification initiation strategy for polyketide biosynthesis. The methyl ester bond introduced by Art28 is kept until the last step of ART biosynthesis, in which it is hydrolyzed by Art9 to convert inactive ART 9B to active ART B. The cryptic reactions catalyzed by Art28 and Art9 represent a protecting group biosynthetic logic to render the ART carboxyl terminus inert to unwanted side reactions and to protect producing organisms from toxic ART intermediates. Further analyses revealed a wide distribution of this initiation strategy for polyketide biosynthesis in various bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24846-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Valorization of Rice Straw via Hydrotropic Lignin Extraction and Its Characterization.

Molecules 2021 Jul 6;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Pulp & Paper Science & Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Rice straw hydrotropic lignin was extracted from -Toluene sulfonic acid (-TsOH) fractionation with a different combined delignification factor (CDF). Hydrotropic lignin characterization was systematically investigated, and alkaline lignin was also studied for the contrast. Results showed that the hydrotropic rice straw lignin particle was in nanometer scopes. Compared with alkaline lignin, the hydrotropic lignin had greater molecular weight. NMR analysis showed that β-aryl ether linkage was well preserved at low severities, and the unsaturation in the side chain of hydrotropic lignin was high. H units and G units were preferentially degraded and subsequently condensed at high severity. High severity also resulted in the cleavage of part β-aryl ether linkage. P-NMR showed the decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups and the increasing carboxyl group content at high severity. The maximum weight loss temperature of the hydrotropic lignin was in the range of 330-350 °C, higher than the alkaline lignin, and the glass conversion temperature (T) of the hydrotropic lignin was in the range of 107-125 °C, lower than that of the alkaline lignin. The hydrotropic lignin has high β-aryl ether linkage content, high activity, nanoscale particle size, and low T, which is beneficial for its further valorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305794PMC
July 2021

A Fast and Efficient Approach to Obtaining High-Purity Glioma Stem Cell Culture.

Front Genet 2021 6;12:639858. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Tongji University Cancer Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Glioma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Patients with malignant glioma usually have a poor prognosis due to drug resistance and disease relapse. Cancer stem cells contribute to glioma initiation, progression, resistance, and relapse. Hence, quick identification and efficient understanding of glioma stem cells (GSCs) are of profound importance for therapeutic strategies and outcomes. Ideally, therapeutic approaches will only kill cancer stem cells without harming normal neural stem cells (NSCs) that can inhibit GSCs and are often beneficial. It is key to identify the differences between cancer stem cells and normal NSCs. However, reports detailing an efficient and uniform protocol are scarce, as are comparisons between normal neural and cancer stem cells. Here, we compared different protocols and developed a fast and efficient approach to obtaining high-purity glioma stem cell by tracking observation and optimizing culture conditions. We examined the proliferative and differentiative properties confirming the identities of the GSCs with relevant markers such as Ki67, SRY-box containing gene 2, an intermediate filament protein member nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and s100 calcium-binding protein (s100-beta). Finally, we identified distinct expression differences between GSCs and normal NSCs including cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and tumor protein p53. This study comprehensively describes the features of GSCs, their properties, and regulatory genes with expression differences between them and normal stem cells. Effective approaches to quickly obtaining high-quality GSCs from patients should have the potential to not only help understand the diseases and the resistances but also enable target drug screening and personalized medicine for brain tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.639858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291338PMC
July 2021

Application of the Chinese Version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in People Living With HIV: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

Front Psychiatry 2021 6;12:676022. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) has been a widely used instrument measuring sleep quality among people living with HIV (PLWH) in China while its psychometric properties have yet to be examined in this population. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of PSQI in PLWH and identify factors associated with sleep quality. This study was based on a longitudinal study of newly diagnosed PLWH, among whom the PSQI was used to measure sleep quality 5 years after HIV diagnosis ( = 386). To evaluate internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha and corrected item-total correlation were calculated. To assess construct validity, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between PSQI scores and depression, anxiety, stress, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Known group validity was evaluated by comparing PSQI scores between participants with probable depression and those without. Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with sleep disturbances. The internal consistency Cronbach's alpha for the Chinese version of PSQI in PLWH was 0.713. Construct validity was established by significant relationships between PSQI and depression, anxiety, stress, and HRQoL. The PSQI scores in participants with probable depression were significantly higher than those without, indicating good known-group validity. Sleep disturbances were associated with less income, higher CD4 counts, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, exercise, depression, and higher stress levels. The Chinese version of PSQI is feasible for use among Chinese PLWH. Over a third of PLWH reported sleep disturbances. More attention should be given to individuals with less income and on ART. Intervention aimed at improving mental health or facilitating exercise may improve sleep quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.676022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291081PMC
July 2021

MoCpa1-mediated arginine biosynthesis is crucial for fungal growth, conidiation, and plant infection of Magnaporthe oryzae.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fujian Universities Key Laboratory for Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Arginine is an important amino acid involved in processes such as cell signal transduction, protein synthesis, and sexual reproduction. To understand the biological roles of arginine biosynthesis in pathogenic fungi, we used Cpa1, the carbamoyl phosphate synthase arginine-specific small chain subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a query to identify its ortholog in the Magnaporthe oryzae genome and named it MoCpa1. MoCpa1 is a 471-amino acid protein containing a CPSase_sm_chain domain and a GATase domain. MoCpa1 transcripts were highly expressed at the conidiation, early-infection, and late-infection stages of the fungus. Targeted deletion of the MoCPA1 gene resulted in a ΔMocpa1 mutant exhibiting arginine auxotrophy on minimum culture medium (MM), confirming its role in de novo arginine biosynthesis. The ΔMocpa1 mutant presented significantly decreased sporulation with some of its conidia being defective in morphology. Furthermore, the ΔMocpa1 mutant was nonpathogenic on rice and barley leaves, which was a result of defects in appressorium-mediated penetration and restricted invasive hyphal growth within host cells. Addition of exogenous arginine partially rescued conidiation and pathogenicity defects on the barley and rice leaves, while introduction of the MoCPA1 gene into the ΔMocpa1 mutant fully complemented the lost phenotype. Further confocal microscopy examination revealed that MoCpa1 is localized in the mitochondria. In summary, our results demonstrate that MoCpa1-mediated arginine biosynthesis is crucial for fungal development, conidiation, appressorium formation, and infection-related morphogenesis in M. oryzae, thus serving as an attractive target for mitigating obstinate fungal plant pathogens. KEY POINTS: • MoCpa1 is important for aerial hyphal growth and arginine biosynthesis. • MoCpa1 is pivotal for conidial morphogenesis and appressorium formation. • MoCpa1 is crucial for full virulence in M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11437-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of pretreatment telomere length as a prognostic marker in intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Introduction: The current framework for risk stratification is still insufficient for highly heterogeneous intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IRC-AML), which lacks specific genomic abnormalities.

Methods: In order to incorporate novel biomarkers to refine current risk stratification strategies for patients with this subtype, we investigated pretreatment telomere length (TL), which is essential for maintaining genomic stability, in 204 adults with de novo AML (non-acute promyelocytic leukemia).

Results: We found that TL measured at diagnosis did not decrease with advancing age in 204 patients with AML (R  = 0.001, P = .695). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that short TL was independently associated with an inferior relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 3.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-6.41, P = .003); event-free survival (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.12-4.08, P = .021); and overall survival (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.09-4.67, P = .028) in IRC-AML patients. In addition, IRC-AML patients with short TL also exhibited an increased cumulative incidence of hematologic relapse (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.08-5.26, P = .032).

Conclusion: Short TL is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in patients with IRC-AML and may represent a novel mechanism that links genomic stability and disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13665DOI Listing
July 2021

Human milk oligosaccharides and non-digestible carbohydrates prevent adhesion of specific pathogens modulating glycosylation or inflammatory genes in intestinal epithelial cells.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Immunoendocrinology, Division of Medical Biology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Human milk oligosaccharides (hMOs) and non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) are known to inhibit the adhesion of pathogens to the gut epithelium, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Here, the effects of 2'-FL, 3-FL, DP3-DP10, DP10-DP60 and DP30-DP60 inulins and DM7, DM55 and DM69 pectins were studied on pathogen adhesion to Caco-2 cells. As the growth phase influences virulence, E. coli ET8, E. coli LMG5862, E. coli O119, E. coli WA321, and S. enterica subsp. enterica LMG07233 from both log and stationary phases were tested. Specificity for enteric pathogens was tested by including the lung pathogen K. pneumoniae LMG20218. Expression of the cell membrane glycosylation genes of galectin and glycocalyx and inflammatory genes was studied in the presence and absence of 2'-FL or NDCs. Inhibition of pathogen adhesion was observed for 2'-FL, inulins, and pectins. Pre-incubation with 2'-FL downregulated ICAM1, and pectins modified the glycosylation genes. In contrast, K. pneumoniae LMG20218 downregulated the inflammatory genes, but these were restored by pre-incubation with pectins, which reduced the adhesion of K. pneumoniae LMG20218. In addition, DM69 pectin significantly upregulated the inflammatory genes. 2'-FL and pectins but not inulins inhibited pathogen adhesion to the gut epithelial Caco-2 cells through changing the cell membrane glycosylation and inflammatory genes, but the effects were molecule-, pathogen-, and growth phase-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00872bDOI Listing
July 2021

A Nearly Packaging-Free Design Paradigm for Light, Powerful, and Energy-Dense Primary Microbatteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 19:e2101760. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Billions of internet connected devices used for medicine, wearables, and robotics require microbattery power sources, but the conflicting scaling laws between electronics and energy storage have led to inadequate power sources that severely limit the performance of these physically small devices. Reported here is a new design paradigm for primary microbatteries that drastically improves energy and power density by eliminating the vast majority of the packaging and through the use of high-energy-density anode and cathode materials. These light (50-80 mg) and small (20-40 µL) microbatteries are enabled though the electroplating of 130 µm-thick 94% dense additive-free and crystallographically oriented LiCoO onto thin metal foils, which also act as the encapsulation layer. These devices have 430 Wh kg and 1050 Wh L energy densities, 4 times the energy density of previous similarly sized microbatteries, opening up the potential to power otherwise unpowerable microdevices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101760DOI Listing
July 2021

Activation of the Hippocampal LXRβ Improves Sleep-Deprived Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China, 710032.

Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment due to neuroinflammation associated with impaired hippocampal neuronal plasticity and memory processes. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including LXRα and LXRβ isoforms, are crucial for synaptic plasticity and neuroinflammation. However, the potential roles of LXRs in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment induced by SD remain unclear. We revealed that SD resulted in LXRβ reduction in the hippocampus, which was associated with upregulated expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB p65, and knockdown of hippocampal LXRβ by shRNA (shLXRβ) led to cognitive impairment. GW3965, a dual agonist for both LXRα and LXRβ, ameliorated SD-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting microglia activation, suppressing HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway, and ultimately affecting the hippocampal expression of inflammatory cytokines in SD mice. LXRβ knockdown by shLXRβ abrogated the GW3965-mediated inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway, therefore, abolishing the cognitive improvement. Moreover, inhibition of HMGB1 by glycyrrhizin (GLY) synergistic promoted GW3965-mediated anti-inflammation in activated microglia after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ATP stimulation and facilitated the cognitive improvement after GW administration by activating LXRβ. All the data suggested that GW3965 ameliorated impaired cognition in SD mice by suppressing the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway followed LXRβ activation. This study correlates a deficit of LXRβ in cognitive dysfunction in SD associated with HMGB1 inflammatory pathway in hippocampus, and LXRs may serve as a potential therapeutic target for cognitive impairment with anti-inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02446-2DOI Listing
July 2021

The Roles of MicroRNAs in Tendon Healing and Regeneration.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 2;9:687117. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Lingnan Medical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Tendons connect the muscle abdomen of skeletal muscles to the bone, which transmits the force generated by the muscle abdomen contraction and pulls the bone into motion. Tendon injury is a common clinical condition occurring in certain populations, such as repeated tendon strains in athletes. And it can lead to substantial pain and loss of motor function, in severe cases, significant disability. Tendon healing and regeneration have attracted growing interests. Some treatments including growth factors, stem cell therapies and rehabilitation programs have been tried to improve tendon healing. However, the basic cellular biology and pathology of tendons are still not fully understood, and the management of tendon injury remains a considerable challenge. Regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level, microRNA (miRNA) has been increasingly recognized as essential regulators in the biological processes of tendon healing and regeneration. A wide range of miRNAs in tendon injury have been shown to play vital roles in maintaining and regulating its physiological function, as well as regulating the tenogenic differentiation potential of stem cells. In this review, we show the summary of the latest information on the role of miRNAs in tendon healing and regeneration, and also discuss potentials for miRNA-directed diagnosis and therapy in tendon injuries and tendinopathy, which may provide new theoretical foundation for tenogenesis and tendon healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.687117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283311PMC
July 2021

Clinical characteristics of optic neuritis phenotypes in a 3-year follow-up Chinese cohort.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14603. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.

To evaluate the clinical characteristics of optic neuritis (ON) with different phenotypes. This prospective study recruited patients with new-onset ON between January 2015 and March 2017 who were followed-up for 3 years. They were divided into the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-seropositive (MOG-ON), aquaporin-4-seropositive (AQP4-ON), and double-seronegative (seronegative-ON) groups, and their clinical characteristics and imaging findings were evaluated and compared. Two-hundred-eighty patients (405 eyes) were included (MOG-ON: n = 57, 20.4%; AQP4-ON: n = 98, 35.0%; seronegative-ON: n = 125, 44.6%). The proportion of eyes with best-corrected visual acuity > 20/25 at the 3-year follow-up was similar between the MOG-ON and seronegative-ON groups; the proportion in both groups was higher than that in the AQP4-ON group (p < 0.001). Relapse rates were higher in the MOG-ON and AQP4-ON groups than in the seronegative-ON group (p < 0.001). Average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at 3 years was similar between the MOG-ON and AQP4-ON groups (63.41 ± 13.39 and 59.40 ± 11.46 μm, p = 0.476) but both were thinner than the seronegative-ON group (74.06 ± 11.14 μm, p < 0.001). Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) revealed the same pattern. Despite RNFL and GCIPL thinning, the MOG-ON group's outcome was as favorable as that of the seronegative-ON group, whereas the AQP4-ON group showed unsatisfactory results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93976-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285465PMC
July 2021
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