Publications by authors named "Min Tang"

658 Publications

Two-dimensional optical spatial differentiation and high-contrast imaging.

Natl Sci Rev 2021 Jun 6;8(6):nwaa176. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Optical analog signal processing technology has been widely studied and applied in a variety of science and engineering fields, with the advantages of overcoming the low-speed and high-power consumption associated with its digital counterparts. Much attention has been given to emerging metasurface technology in the field of optical imaging and processing systems. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, broadband two-dimensional spatial differentiation and high-contrast edge imaging based on a dielectric metasurface across the whole visible spectrum. This edge detection method works for both intensity and phase objects simply by inserting the metasurface into a commercial optical microscope. This highly efficient metasurface performing a basic optical differentiation operation opens up new opportunities in applications of fast, compactible and power-efficient ultrathin devices for data processing and biological imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288167PMC
June 2021

A simple indentation technique for identifying localized liquefaction of the vitreous body.

J Biomech 2021 Oct 8;129:110795. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Key Laboratory of Biomechanics and Mechanobiology, Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China; School of Medical Science and Engineering Medicine, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China; State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Identification of vitreous liquefaction (VL) is important for investigating some eye pathologies related to changes in the mechanical properties of the vitreous, such as posterior vitreous detachment or retinal detachment. However, because of the extremely high-water content, characterization of the structural and mechanical properties of the vitreous remains a challenge. In the current study, a simple indentation test was performed on the fresh vitreous, partially liquefied vitreous and water, using a mechanical testing machine with a high-precision load cell. Pressure loads on the indenter changing with time for different samples were obtained to characterize their mechanical properties. VL identification was achieved based on a comparison of relative differences in some typical mechanical parameters (e.g. the pressure at the moment of the insertion (P), the pressure at the steady mechanical state (P) and the time when the pressure on the indenter declined to one half the initial value (t)) between 1) partially liquefied vitreous and fresh vitreous samples and 2) partially liquefied vitreous and water samples. The results indicated that P of the partially liquefied vitreous was almost half that of fresh vitreous (p < 0.05) and approximately 1.5 times that of water (p < 0.05). t of the partially liquefied vitreous was approximately 1.4 times higher than that of fresh vitreous (p < 0.05) and approximately 80% of that of water (p < 0.05). It is concluded that P and t can be used as indicators to identify localized liquefaction of the vitreous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110795DOI Listing
October 2021

Discriminating invasive adenocarcinoma among lung pure ground-glass nodules: a multi-parameter prediction model.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Sep;13(9):5383-5394

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Patients with consistent lung pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs) have a high incidence of lung adenocarcinoma that can be classified as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), or invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC). Regular follow-up is recommended for AIS and MIA, while surgical resection should be considered for IAC. This study sought to develop a multi-parameter prediction model to increase the diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between IAC and AIS or MIA.

Methods: The training data set comprised consecutive patients with lung pGGNs who underwent resection from January to December 2017 at the Zhongshan Hospital. Of the 370 resected pGGNs, 344 were pathologically confirmed to be AIS, MIA, or IAC and were included in the study. The 26 benign pGGNs were excluded. We compared differences in the clinical features (e.g., age and gender), the content of serum tumor biomarkers, the computed tomography (CT) parameters (e.g., nodule size and the maximal CT value), and the morphologic characteristics of nodules (e.g., lobulation, spiculation, pleura indentation, vacuole sign, and normal vessel penetration or abnormal vessel) between the pathological subtypes of AIS, MIA, and IAC. An abnormal vessel was defined as "vessel curve" or "vessel enlargement". Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and rank test. The IAC prediction model was constructed via a multivariate logistical regression. Our prediction model for lung pGGNs was further validated in a data set comprising consecutive patients from multiple medical centers in China from July to December 2018. In total, 345 resected pGGNs were pathologically diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma in the validation data set.

Results: In the training data set, patients with pGGNs ≥10 mm in size had a high incidence (74.5%) of IAC. The maximal CT value of IAC [-416.1±121.2 Hounsfield unit (HU)] was much higher than that of MIA (-507.7±138.0 HU) and AIS (-602.6±93.3 HU) (P<0.001). IAC was more common in pGGNs that displayed any of the following CT manifestations: lobulation, spiculation, pleura indentation, vacuole sign, and vessel abnormality. The IAC prediction model was constructed using the parameters that were assessed as risk factors (i.e., the nodule size, maximal CT value, and CT signs). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of this model for diagnosing IAC was 0.910, which was higher than that of the AUC for nodule size alone (0.891) or the AUC for the maximal CT value alone (0.807) (P<0.05, respectively). A multicenter validation data set was used to validate the performance of our prediction model in diagnosing IAC, and our model was found to have an AUC of 0.883, which was higher than that of the AUC of 0.827 for the module size alone model or the AUC of 0.791 for the maximal CT value alone model (P<0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: Our multi-parameter prediction model was more accurate at diagnosing IAC than models that used only nodule size or the maximal CT value alone. Thus, it is an efficient tool for identifying the IAC of malignant pGGNs and deciding if surgery is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8482342PMC
September 2021

Protective effects of all-trans retinoic acid against gastric premalignant lesions by repressing exosomal LncHOXA10-pyruvate carboxylase axis.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 10. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Purpose: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a pivotal role in gastric tumorigenesis, while exosomes facilitate the LncRNAs transferring to recipient cells. However, the roles of exosomal LncRNAs in gastric premalignant lesions (GPL) remain unclear.

Methods: We analyzed the expression of LncHOXA10 and its role in GPL progression. The protective effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on GPL was explored in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Here, we found that LncHOXA10 expression was obviously increased in serum exosomes and gastric tissues from individuals with GPL, and exosomal LncHOXA10 from patients with GPL markedly promoted the malignant progression of human gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Furthermore, RNA-pulldown assay revealed that LncHOXA10 mainly interacted with pyruvate carboxylase (PC), an essential enzyme in various cellular metabolic pathways. In gastric tissues from patients with GPL and gastric cancer (GC), PC was also upregulated and positively correlated with LncHOXA10 expression, which predicted a poor prognosis as well. Moreover, PC silencing attenuated the malignant effects of exosomal LncHOXA10 on GES-1 cells. ATRA also ameliorated the deterioration of GPL and prevented the malignant progression of GPL by reducing exosomal LncHOXA10 and PC expression.

Conclusions: Collectively, the LncHOXA10-PC axis participated in the early stage of GC tumorigenesis, and ATRA might be useful to prevent GPL from developing into GC because it targets this axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03820-2DOI Listing
October 2021

Altered Functional Topological Organization in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Microvascular Complications.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:726350. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Microvascular complications can accelerate cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and have a high impact on their quality of life; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The complex network in the human brain is the physiological basis for information processing and cognitive expression. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between the functional network topological properties and cognitive function in T2DM patients with and without microvascular complications (T2DM-C and T2DM-NC, respectively). Sixty-seven T2DM patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional MRI and neuropsychological assessment. Then, graph theoretical network analysis was performed to explore the global and nodal topological alterations in the functional whole brain networks of T2DM patients. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the altered topological parameters and cognitive/clinical variables. The T2DM-C group exhibited significantly higher local efficiency (Eloc), normalized cluster coefficient (γ), and small-world characteristics (σ) than the HCs. Patients with T2DM at different clinical stages (T2DM-C and T2DM-NC) showed varying degrees of abnormalities in node properties. In addition, compared with T2DM-NC patients, T2DM-C patients showed nodal properties disorders in the occipital visual network, cerebellum and middle temporal gyrus. The Eloc metrics were positively correlated with HbA1c level ( = 0.001, = 0.515) and the NE values in the right paracentral lobule were negatively related with serum creatinine values ( = 0.001, = -0.517) in T2DM-C patients. This study found that T2DM-C patients displayed more extensive changes at different network topology scales. The visual network and cerebellar may be the central vulnerable regions of T2DM-C patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.726350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493598PMC
September 2021

High-Quality Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of a Single With Resistance by a Combination of PacBio Long-Read Sequencing, Illumina Short-Read Sequencing, and Hi-C Sequencing.

Front Genet 2021 16;12:718266. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

The reference genomes of (), Silkworm Knowledge-based database (SilkDB) and SilkBase, have served as the gold standard for nearly two decades. Their use has fundamentally shaped model organisms and accelerated relevant studies on lepidoptera. However, the current reference genomes of do not accurately represent the full set of genes for any single strain. As new genome-wide sequencing technologies have emerged and the cost of high-throughput sequencing technology has fallen, it is now possible for standard laboratories to perform full-genome assembly for specific strains. Here we present a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of a single with nuclear polyhedrosis virus () resistance through the integration of PacBio long-read sequencing, Illumina short-read sequencing, and Hi-C sequencing. In addition, regular bioinformatics analyses, such as gene family, phylogenetic, and divergence analyses, were performed. The sample was from our unique species (NB), which has strong inborn resistance to . Our genome assembly showed good collinearity with SilkDB and SilkBase and particular regions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome assembly with resistance, which should be a more accurate insect model for resistance studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.718266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481875PMC
September 2021

Panobinostat reverses HepaCAM gene expression and suppresses proliferation by increasing histone acetylation in prostate cancer.

Gene 2021 Sep 27;808:145977. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

The Key Laboratory of Diagnostics Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China.

Increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) affiliated to the epigenetic regulation is common aberration in prostate cancer (PCa). We have confirmed that hepatocyte cell adhesion molecule (hepaCAM), acting as a tumor suppressor gene, is rarely expressed in PCa previously, However, the mechanisms of which is still unknown. The level of histone acetylation reportedly may involve anti-oncogene transcription and expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of panobinostat, the broad-spectrum histone deacetylases inhibitor, on PCa LNCaP and DU145 cell growth, and observed re-expression of hepaCAM when treated with panobinostat. We demonstrated that intranuclear acetylation of lys9 of histone H3 (Ac-H3K9) were increased, while that of both mRNA and protein of HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC4 were decreased when the treating concentration of panobinostat increased. We confirmed the relationship between histone acetylation and the expression of hepaCAM and AR in prostate cancer tissues. We also confirmed that panobinostat could overcome the resistance for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Further, we combined panobinostat with Ad-hepaCAM, which resulted in significantly increased antitumor activity and significant attenuation of the proliferation-associated genes CCND1 and PCNA compared to each single treatment. In conclusion, panobinostat may enhance the acetylation of lys9 of histone 3 and reverse the hepaCAM expression through its inhibitory effect on HDACs activity in PCa LNCaP and DU145 cells; Ad-hepaCAM combined with panobinostat may synergistically inhibit the growth of LNCaP and DU145 cells, via a potential mechanism associated with the down-regulation of the expression of CCND1 and PCNA. These findings suggest that this therapeutic strategy should be further developed in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145977DOI Listing
September 2021

Combined Assessment of Elevated Plasma Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A and Plaque Enhancement Improved Accuracy in the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Intracranial Artery Stenosis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 26;30(12):106103. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A (Lp-PLA) concentration and plaque characteristics in patients with intracranial artery stenosis and their clinical relevance in acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: Eighty-seven patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (66 males, 21 females) were retrospectively enrolled. Plasma Lp-PLA concentration was measured, and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) was used to determine intracranial vascular stenosis and plaque characteristics, including plaque enhancement, surface morphology, and T hyperintensity. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between Lp-PLA concentration and plaque characteristics of intracranial artery after adjusting for demographic and confounding factors and to assess their diagnostic efficacy for the risk of acute ischemic stroke.

Results: After adjustment for demographic, medication and related lipid factors, Lp-PLA elevation was associated with plaque enhancement (odds ratio [OR]=12.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.51-64.82, P=0.002) and surface irregularity (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.06-7.98, P=0.038). Both Lp-PLA elevation (OR=8.8, 95% CI 1.64-47.72, P=0.011) and plaque enhancement (OR=34.3, 95% CI 5.88-200.4, P=0.001) were associated with acute ischemic stroke. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for Lp-PLA concentration and plaque enhancement combined in the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke was 0.884, significantly higher than that for Lp-PLA concentration (0.724) and plaque enhancement (0.794) alone.

Conclusion: Elevated Lp-PLA is associated with plaque enhancement and plaque surface irregularity. Combined assessment of Lp-PLA concentration and plaque enhancement is of greater diagnostic value for the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial artery stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106103DOI Listing
September 2021

Tracing the origin of honey products based on metagenomics and machine learning.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 6;371:131066. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Entomology, China Agriculture University, No.2, West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The adulteration of honey is common. Recently, High Throughput Sequencing (HTS)-based metabarcoding method has been applied successfully to pollen/honey identification to determine floral composition that, in turn, can be used to identify the geographical origins of honeys. However, the lack of local references materials posed a serious challenge for HTS-based pollen identification methods. Here, we sampled 28 honey samples from various geographic origins without prior knowledge of local floral information and applied a machine learning method to determine geographical origins. The machine learning method uses a resilient backpropagation algorithm to train a neural network. The results showed that biological components in honey provided characteristic traits that enabled accurate geographic tracing for nearly all honey samples, confidently discriminating honeys to their geographic origin with >99% success rates, including those separated by as little as 39 km.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131066DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel Wide-Band Dielectric Imaging System Guided Lead Deployment for His Bundle Pacing: A Feasibility Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 3;8:712051. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

His bundle pacing (HBP) is the most widely used physiological pacing modality, but difficulties in locating the His bundle lead to high fluoroscopic exposure. An electroanatomical mapping (EAM) system can be an efficient tool to achieve HBP implantation with near-zero fluoroscopic visualization. In the study, 20 patients who had indications for pacemaker implantation were prospectively enrolled and underwent HBP implantation either with the conventional fluoroscopy approach (the standard group) or guided by a novel KODEX-EPD mapping system (the EAM-guided group). The success rate, procedural details, pacing parameters, and procedure-related complications were compared between the two groups. In the study, 20 consecutive patients were randomized with 10 patients in each group. HBP was successfully achieved in nine patients in the standard group and nine patients in the EAM-guided group. The procedural time was similar between the EAM-guided group vs. the standard group (85.40 ± 22.34 vs. 86.50 ± 15.05 min, = 0.90). In comparison with the standard group, the EAM-guided group had a significant shorter total fluoroscopic time (FT) (1.45 ± 0.58 vs. 12.36 ± 5.46 min, < 0.01) and His lead fluoroscopic time (HL-FT) (0.84 ± 0.56 vs. 9.27 ± 5.44 min, < 0.01), while lower total fluoroscopic dose (3.13 ± 1.24 vs. 25.38 ± 11.15 mGy, < 0.01) and His lead fluoroscopic dose (1.85 ± 1.17 vs. 19.06 ± 11.03 mGy, < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in paced QRS duration and pacing parameters between the two groups. During a 3-month follow-up, one patient had a capture threshold increased >1 V/1.0 ms in the standard group, while no other complications were recorded in either group. The KODEX-EPD system could facilitate HBP implantation with significantly reduced FT and dose without compromising the procedural time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.712051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446512PMC
September 2021

Downregulation of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine in human trabecular meshwork cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 5;22(4):1126. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, P.R. China.

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) may play a notable role in aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork (TM). SPARC is a potential therapeutic target in glaucoma, and the mechanism by which it regulates intraocular pressure remains unclear. The present study aimed to observe the effects of SPARC in human TM cells (HTMCs) . SPARC was downregulated by recombinant lentiviral vectors in HTMCs, and the subsequent levels of F-actin expression, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression and cellular phagocytosis were observed and calculated. It was revealed that after 48 h of culture, the expression levels of SPARC, F-actin and ZO-1 were significantly decreased in the lentivirus group compared with those in the blank control and empty vector control groups. The downregulation of SPARC promoted phagocytosis in HTMCs after 24 or 48 h of culture. This indicated that the downregulation of SPARC decreased the expression levels of the cytoskeleton-associated proteins F-actin and ZO-1, promoted phagocytosis in HTMCs and may affect the outflow of aqueous humor via the TM pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383334PMC
October 2021

CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis of the BnaA03.BP gene confers semi-dwarf and compact architecture to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13703DOI Listing
September 2021

Serglycin promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion via the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in osteosarcoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 09 7;13(17):21142-21154. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis and Precision Treatment, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common disease in the world, and its pathogenesis is still unclear. This study aims to identify the key genes that promote the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

Method: GSE124768 and GSE126209 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The gene ontology and enrichment pathway were analyzed by FunRich software. qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the gene expression. After gene knockdown, Transwell and wound healing assays were conducted on osteosarcoma cells to detect whether the genes were defined before enhancing the invasion of osteosarcoma.

Results: Totally, 341 mRNAs were found to be regulated differentially in osteosarcoma cells compared to osteoblasts. In addition, the expression level of Serglycin (SRGN) in osteosarcoma cells was higher than that in human osteoblasts. The invasion and proliferation ability of osteosarcoma cells with upregulated Serglycin was significantly increased, and on the contrary, decreased after Serglycin knockdown. Moreover, we preliminarily found that Serglycin may associate with the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Conclusions: By using microarray and bioinformatics analyses, differently expressed mRNAs were identified and a complete gene network was constructed. To our knowledge, we describe for the first time Serglycin as a potential biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457593PMC
September 2021

Cortical Areas Associated With Multisensory Integration Showing Altered Morphology and Functional Connectivity in Relation to Reduced Life Quality in Vestibular Migraine.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 16;15:717130. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

: Increasing evidence suggests that the temporal and parietal lobes are associated with multisensory integration and vestibular migraine. However, temporal and parietal lobe structural and functional connectivity (FC) changes related to vestibular migraine need to be further investigated. : Twenty-five patients with vestibular migraine (VM) and 27 age- and sex- matched healthy controls participated in this study. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing migraine and vertigo-related clinical features. Cerebral cortex characteristics [i.e., thickness (CT), fractal dimension (FD), sulcus depth (SD), and the gyrification index (GI)] were evaluated using an automated Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12). Regions with significant differences were used in a seed-based comparison of resting-state FC conducted with DPABI. The relationship between changes in cortical characteristics or FC and clinical features was also analyzed in the patients with VM. : Relative to controls, patients with VM showed significantly thinner CT in the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and the right superior parietal lobule. A shallower SD was observed in the right superior and inferior parietal lobule. FD and GI did not differ significantly between the two groups. A negative correlation was found between CT in the right inferior temporal gyrus, as well as the left middle temporal gyrus, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) score in VM patients. Furthermore, patients with VM exhibited weaker FC between the left inferior/middle temporal gyrus and the left medial superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area. : Our data revealed cortical structural and resting-state FC abnormalities associated with multisensory integration, contributing to a lower quality of life. These observations suggest a role for multisensory integration in patients with VM pathophysiology. Future research should focus on using a task-based fMRI to measure multisensory integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.717130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415788PMC
August 2021

Subcutaneous, but not visceral, adipose tissue as a marker for prognosis in gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

Clin Nutr 2021 09 17;40(9):5156-5161. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Adipose tissue loss is one of the features in patients with cancer cachexia. However, whether subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) contribute differently to the progress of cancer cachexia in gastric cancer patients with cachexia remains unclear. This study aim to investigate the effect of SAT and VAT in gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

Methods: Gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery were divided into cancer cachexia group and non-cachexia group. A new deep learning system was developed to segment SAT and VAT from the computed tomography images at the third lumbar vertebra. Indexes of SAT (SATI) and VAT (VATI) were compared between cachexia and non-cachexia groups. The prognostic values of SATI and VATI for patients with gastric cancer cachexia were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression.

Results: A total of 1627 gastric cancer patients (411 cachexia and 1216 non-cachexia) were included in this study. A new V-Net-Based segmentation deep learning system was developed to quickly (0.02 s/image) and accurately segment SAT (dice scores = 0.96) and VAT (dice scores = 0.98). The SATI of gastric cancer patients with cachexia were significantly lower than non-cachexia patients (44.91 ± 0.90 vs. 50.92 ± 0.71 cm/m, P < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in VATI (35.98 ± 0.84 VS. 37.90 ± 0.45 cm/m, P = 0.076). Cachexia patients with low SATI showed poor survival than those with high SATI (HR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.74). In contrast, VATI did not show close correlation with survival in patients with cachexia (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.92-1.51).

Conclusion: SAT and VAT showed different effects on gastric cancer patients with cachexia. More attention should be paid to the loss of SAT during the progress of cancer cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.08.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Application of Circulating Tumor DNA as a Biomarker for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:725938. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Genetron Health (Beijing) Co. Ltd., Beijing, China.

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, there are many important medical advancements on NSCLC, such as therapies based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Most of these therapies require tumor molecular testing for selecting patients who would benefit most from them. As invasive biopsy is highly risky, NSCLC molecular testing based on liquid biopsy has received more and more attention recently.

Objective: We aimed to introduce liquid biopsy and its potential clinical applications in NSCLC patients, including cancer diagnosis, treatment plan prioritization, minimal residual disease detection, and dynamic monitoring on the response to cancer treatment.

Method: We reviewed recent studies on circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) testing, which is a minimally invasive approach to identify the presence of tumor-related mutations. In addition, we evaluated potential clinical applications of ctDNA as blood biomarkers for advanced NSCLC patients.

Results: Most studies have indicated that ctDNA testing is critical in diagnosing NSCLC, predicting clinical outcomes, monitoring response to targeted therapies and immunotherapies, and detecting cancer recurrence. Moreover, the changes of ctDNA levels are associated with tumor mutation burden and cancer progression.

Conclusion: The ctDNA testing is promising in guiding the therapies on NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.725938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375502PMC
August 2021

Individual based models exhibiting Lévy-flight type movement induced by intracellular noise.

Authors:
Xiaoru Xue Min Tang

J Math Biol 2021 08 19;83(3):27. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Institute of natural sciences and school of mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

We use an individual-based model and its associated kinetic equation to study the generation of long jumps in the motion of E. coli. These models relate the run-and-tumble process to the intracellular reaction where the intrinsic noise plays a central role. Compared with previous work in Perthame et al. (Z Angew Math Phys 69(3):1-15, 2018), in which the parametric assumptions are mainly targeted for mathematical convenience but not well-suited for numerical simulations or comparison with experimental results, our current paper makes use of biologically meaningful pathways and tumbling kernels. The main contribution of this current work is bridging the gap between the theoretical results and experimentally available data. Some particular forms of how the tumbling frequency depends on the internal variable are proposed. Moreover, we propose two individual-based models, one for the tumbling frequency and the other for the receptor activity, and perform numerical simulations. Power-law decay of the run length distribution, which corresponds to Lévy-type motions, is observed in our numerical results. The particular decay rate agrees quantitatively with the analytical result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00285-021-01651-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of using amino acids in the freeze-drying of siRNA lipoplexes on gene knockdown in cells after reverse transfection.

Biomed Rep 2021 Sep 12;15(3):72. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Hoshi University, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan.

Recently, small interfering RNA (siRNA)/cationic liposome complexes (siRNA lipoplexes) have become a crucial research tool for studying gene function. Easy and reliable siRNA transfection with a large set of siRNAs is required for the successful screening of gene function. Reverse (Rev)-transfection with freeze-dried siRNA lipoplexes is validated for siRNA transfection with a large set of siRNAs in a multi-well plate. In our previous study, it was shown that Rev-transfection with siRNA lipoplexes freeze-dried in disaccharides or trisaccharides resulted in long-term stability with a high level of gene-knockdown activity. In the present study, the effects of amino acids used as cryoprotectants in the freeze-drying of siRNA lipoplexes on gene knockdown via Rev-transfection were assessed. A total of 15 types of amino acids were used to prepare freeze-dried siRNA lipoplexes, and it was found that the freeze-drying of siRNA lipoplexes with amino acid concentrations >100 mM strongly suppressed targeted gene expression regardless of the amino acid type; however, some amino acids strongly upregulated or downregulated gene expression in the cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Amongst the amino acids tested, the presence of asparagine showed specific gene-knockdown activity, forming large cakes after freeze-drying and retaining a favorable siRNA lipoplex size after rehydration. These findings provide valuable information regarding amino acids as cryoprotectants for Rev-transfection using freeze-dried siRNA lipoplexes for the efficient delivery of siRNA into cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2021.1448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329998PMC
September 2021

Berberine improves intestinal barrier function and reduces inflammation, immunosuppression, and oxidative stress by regulating the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in deoxynivalenol-challenged piglets.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 31;289:117865. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan, 410125, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of berberine (BBR) on the intestinal health of piglets exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). A total of 180 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 10 replication pens per treatment and 6 piglets per pen. The treatments were basal diet, basal diet +4 mg/kg DON, and basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +40 mg/kg BBR. The experiment lasted for 21 d. BBR improved the growth performance of DON-challenged piglets. BBR could inhibit DON-induced intestinal injury by increasing the expression of serum antioxidant enzymes and T cell surface antigens and reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the small intestine. BBR significantly increased the protein expression levels of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), Occludin and Claudin-1 in the ileal and jejunal mucosa and increased the morphological parameters of the jejunum. Moreover, we found that BBR significantly reduced the DON-induced gene and protein expression levels of ERK, JNK, and NF-κB in the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, BBR can regulate DON-induced intestinal injury, immunosuppression and oxidative stress by regulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and ultimately maintain the intestinal health of piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117865DOI Listing
November 2021

Facet-Dependent Oxidative Strong Metal-Support Interactions of Palladium-TiO Determined by In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 3;60(41):22339-22344. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

The strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is widely used in supported metal catalysts and extensive studies have been performed to understand it. Although considerable progress has been achieved, the surface structure of the support, as an important influencing factor, is usually ignored. We report a facet-dependent SMSI of Pd-TiO in oxygen by using in situ atmospheric pressure TEM. Pd NPs supported on TiO (101) and (100) surfaces showed encapsulation. In contrast, no such cover layer was observed in Pd-TiO (001) catalyst under the same conditions. This facet-dependent SMSI, which originates from the variable surface structure of the support, was demonstrated in a probe reaction of methane combustion catalyzed by Pd-TiO . Our discovery of the oxidative facet-dependent SMSI gives direct evidence of the important role of the support surface structure in SMSI and provides a new way to tune the interaction between metal NPs and the support as well as catalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106805DOI Listing
October 2021

Bioprinting of dual ECM scaffolds encapsulating limbal stem/progenitor cells in active and quiescent statuses.

Biofabrication 2021 08 13;13(4). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States of America.

Limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal disorders are among the top global threats for human vision. Emerging therapies that integrate stem cell transplantation with engineered hydrogel scaffolds for biological and mechanical support are becoming a rising trend in the field. However, methods for high-throughput fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as knowledge of the interaction between limbal stem/progenitor cells (LSCs) and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are still much needed. Here, we employed digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds encapsulating primary LSCs and studied the ECM-dependent LSC phenotypes. The DLP-based bioprinting with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) or hyaluronic acid glycidyl methacrylate (HAGM) generated microscale hydrogel scaffolds that could support the viability of the encapsulated primary rabbit LSCs (rbLSCs) in culture. Immunocytochemistry and transcriptional analysis showed that the encapsulated rbLSCs remained active in GelMA-based scaffolds while exhibited quiescence in the HAGM-based scaffolds. The primary human LSCs encapsulated within bioprinted scaffolds showed consistent ECM-dependent active/quiescent statuses. Based on these results, we have developed a novel bioprinted dual ECM 'Yin-Yang' model encapsulating LSCs to support both active and quiescent statues. Our findings provide valuable insights towards stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine for corneal reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ac1992DOI Listing
August 2021

Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation: A New Approach of Examining Corrosion of New Copper Surfaces in Drinking Water.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, CESER, WID, DWMB, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, United States.

Corrosion of copper material in drinking water systems causes public health concerns and plumbing failures. This study investigated the early corrosion of new copper surfaces using a novel technique: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD). The QCMD results showed that increasing the water pH from 6.5 to 9.0 and the addition of 6 mg/L orthophosphate at pH 6.5 and 9.0 slowed down the copper surface mass changes as indicated by the reduced changes in frequency (Δf5) at 51-89% and total copper release at 29-72%. The water pH 9.0 without orthophosphate was the most likely to induce localized corrosion relative to other conditions at pH 6.5 and pH 9.0 with orthophosphate. Based on the changes in dissipation values (ΔD5) from QCMD and the morphology, microstructure, and composition of the deposited copper corrosion byproducts, digital microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry analyses confirmed that the pH and orthophosphate inhibited copper corrosion with different mechanisms. QCMD provided sensitive, rapid, and continuous responses to mass and surface changes and can be useful for evaluating early water corrosivity to new copper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02220DOI Listing
July 2021

Altered Gray Matter Volume and Functional Connectivity in Patients With Vestibular Migraine.

Front Neurosci 2021 8;15:683802. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Subjects: Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common neurological cause of vertigo in adults. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported structural alterations in areas associated with pain and vestibular processing. However, it is unclear whether altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) exists in brain regions with structural abnormalities in patients with VM.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI were performed in 30 patients with VM and 30 healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent an evaluation of migraine and dizziness severity. FC and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were performed using DPABI 4.3 and CAT12, respectively. The association between changes in gray matter (GM) volume or FC and clinical parameters was also analyzed.

Results: Compared with HCs, patients with VM demonstrated a reduced GM volume in the bilateral parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), right middle frontal gyrus, and precuneus. The GM volume of the left PIVC was negatively associated with Dizziness Handicap Inventory score in patients with VM. Taking this region as a seed region, we further observed increased FC between the left primary somatosensory cortex (S1)/inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the left PIVC in patients with VM.

Conclusion: FC between regions with a decline in GM volume (the PIVC and S1/IPL) is altered in patients with VM, suggesting that abnormalities in vestibular cortical network could be useful for understanding the underlying mechanisms of VM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.683802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297163PMC
July 2021

Simulation of portal/hepatic vein associated remnant liver ischemia/congestion by three-dimensional visualization technology based on preoperative CT scan.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):756

Department of Liver Surgery and Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Remnant liver hypoperfusion is frequently observed after hepatectomy, and associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications and poorer survival. However, the development of remnant liver hypoperfusion was not fully understood.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who received hepatectomy and took contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans before, 1-week (POW1) and 4-week (POW4) after resection in our department from June 2017 to July 2019. We simulated and estimated the occurrence of portal-vein-related remnant liver ischemia (RLI) and hepatic-vein-related remnant liver congestion (RLC) after hepatectomy via three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) according to blood vessels ligated in the resection; then we analyzed association between the estimated RLI, RLC, and postoperative clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 102 eligible patients were analyzed. Remnant liver hypoperfusion was observed in 47 (46%) patients in the POW1 CT scans and shrunk in the POW4 CT scans. RLC had better diagnostic significance than RLI in predicting remnant liver hypoperfusion [area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.745 0.569, P=0.026]. Multivariate analysis showed that larger RLI [odds ratio (OR), 1.154; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.075-1.240; P<0.001] was independent risk factor for post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). Besides, larger RLC (OR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.032-1.204; P=0.006) was independent risk factor for major postoperative complications.

Conclusions: Remnant liver hypoperfusion can be predicted during the preoperative surgical plan by 3DVT. Portal vein related RLI was associated with PHLF, and hepatic vein related RLC was associated with major postoperative complications. Preservation of the hepatic vein and complete removal of the perfusion territory of ligated vessels are essential procedures to reduce RLI/RLC and the risk of PHLF or other surgical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246180PMC
May 2021

The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP)-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.1 Youyi Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP)-based induction chemotherapy (IC) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC).

Methods: We systematically searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant failure-free survival (DMFS), locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and treatment-related adverse events (AEs).

Results: A total of seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. When GP-based IC was compared with double-drug-based or triple-drug-based IC, there were no significant differences in OS (HR 0.64, P = 0.08), PFS (HR 0.71, P = 0.09), DMFS (HR 0.87, P = 0.49) or LRFFS (HR 0.88, P = 0.66). Furthermore, subgroup analysis revealed that GP IC led to an improvement in OS compared with triple-drug-based IC (P < 0.0001). Regarding safety, compared to triple-drug-based IC, GP-based IC was related to a decreased risk of leucopenia (P = 0.007) and neutropenia (P = 0.02) but was associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia (P = 0.01). Compared to double-drug-based IC, the prevalence of grade 3 or above thrombocytopenia was higher in the GP group (P = 0.007). No significant difference in the incidence of other AEs was observed.

Conclusion: Based on efficacy and safety, our meta-analysis demonstrated that, compared to double-drug-based or triple-drug-based IC, IC with a GP regimen does not appear to improve OS, PFS, DMFS or LRFFS and mainly led to an increased risk of grade3/4 thrombocytopenia. Notably, our subgroup analysis data show that GP-based IC may bring improved trends in OS as compared to triple-drug-based IC. For the optimal IC regimen has not been established, which IC regimen will benefit most LA-NPC patients should be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06940-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Supraventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension: Feasibility and Long-Term Outcome.

Front Physiol 2021 18;12:674909. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Lab of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) occurs commonly and is strongly correlated with clinical deterioration in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and long-term outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in PH patients with SVT.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive PH patients with SVT who were scheduled to undergo electrophysiological study and RFCA between September 2010 and July 2019 were included. The acute results and long-term success of RFCA were assessed after the procedure.

Results: In total, 71 PH patients with 76 episodes of SVT were analyzed. Cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter ( = 33, 43.5%) was the most common SVT type, followed by atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ( = 16, 21.1%). Of the 71 patients, 60 (84.5%) underwent successful electrophysiological study and were subsequently treated by RFCA. Among them, acute sinus rhythm was restored in 54 (90.0%) patients, and procedure-related complications were observed in 4 (6.7%) patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that cavotricuspid isthmus-independent atrial flutter [odds ratio (OR) 25.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.45-180.98, = 0.001] and wider pulmonary artery diameter (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.38; = 0.016) were associated with RFCA failure. During a median follow-up of 36 (range, 3-108) months, 7 patients with atrial flutter experienced recurrence, yielding a 78.3% 3-year success rate for RFCA treatment.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that RFCA of SVT in PH patients is feasible and has a good long-term success rate. Cavotricuspid isthmus-independent atrial flutter and a wider PAD could increase the risk for ablation failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.674909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249814PMC
June 2021

Generation of a novel transgenic marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) for highly sensitive detection of heavy metals in the environment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 10 12;419:126382. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China; School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

As typic priority pollutants in the marine environment, heavy metals can be accumulated in the human body leading to serious environmental and health problems. The metal regulatory elements (MREs) have been identified to be the main functional parts for the response to heavy metals. To develop a convenient biological monitoring tool for the detection of heavy metals in the oceans, we generated a transgenic marine medaka line Tg(OmMT: eGFP) with a truncated metallothionein promoter, which was only 193 bp and drove the expression of eGFP. After Tg(OmMT:eGFP) embryos were treated with four different heavy metals and different concentrations, the results showed that the expression level of eGFP was consistent with that of the endogenous mt. The transgenic embryos are very sensitive to Hg, and the fluorescence could be induced in the 0.0002 μM concentration, which is far lower than the primary water standard. The expression level of eGFP and mt showed a dose-dependent manner to heavy metals concentration. Taken together, the newly established marine medaka is a sensitive, efficient, and convenient tool for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the environment, especially seawater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126382DOI Listing
October 2021

Epitranscriptomic editing of the RNA N6-methyladenosine modification by dCasRx conjugated methyltransferase and demethylase.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 07;49(13):7361-7374

Key Laboratory of Growth Regulation and Translational Research of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310024, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification on endogenous RNA transcripts in mammalian cells. Technologies to precisely modify the RNA m6A levels at specific transcriptomic loci empower interrogation of biological functions of epitranscriptomic modifications. Here, we developed a bidirectional dCasRx epitranscriptome editing platform composed of a nuclear-localized dCasRx conjugated with either a methyltransferase, METTL3, or a demethylase, ALKBH5, to manipulate methylation events at targeted m6A sites. Leveraging this platform, we specifically and efficiently edited m6A modifications at targeted sites, reflected in gene expression and cell proliferation. We employed the dCasRx epitranscriptomic editor system to elucidate the molecular function of m6A-binding proteins YTHDF paralogs (YTHDF1, YTHDF2 and YTHDF3), revealing that YTHDFs promote m6A-mediated mRNA degradation. Collectively, our dCasRx epitranscriptome perturbation platform permits site-specific m6A editing for delineating of functional roles of individual m6A modifications in the mammalian epitranscriptome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287920PMC
July 2021

Comparison of two culture methods for the enumeration of Legionella pneumophila from potable water samples.

J Water Health 2021 Jun;19(3):468-477

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA E-mail:

Legionella infections have steadily increased in the United States over the last 20 years, and most of these infections have been attributed to contaminated water. The gold standard for confirmation of Legionella presence in water is culturing with Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) agar. Following many modifications, this method is still time-consuming, expensive, and can take longer than 10 days for full confirmation. The Legiolert is a newer and simpler culture product that is claimed to be able to quantify Legionella pneumophila in 7 days with high sensitivity and specificity and does not need further confirmation for the presence of L. pneumophila. This study compared the culturability of L. pneumophila occurring in a simulated home plumbing system using both Legiolert and BCYE agar methods. Out of 185 water samples, Legiolert and BCYE method detected L. pneumophila in 83 and 85% of the samples, respectively. The two methods were determined to be statistically equivalent for culturability of L. pneumophila, though the detected levels by Legiolert were slightly higher than the BCYE method. The molecular confirmation of positive (n = 254) and negative wells (n = 82) with Legiolert also showed a high specificity of 96.5% (i.e., 3.5% false positives (9/254) and 0% false negatives (0/82)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2021.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358784PMC
June 2021

Right Frontoinsular Cortex: A Potential Imaging Biomarker to Evaluate T2DM-Induced Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:674288. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the intrinsic brain network. The salience network (SN) is a neurocognitive network that maintains normal cognitive function, but it has received little attention in T2DM. We explored SN changes in patients with T2DM with normal cognitive function (DMCN) and in patients with T2DM with mild cognitive impairment (DMCI). Sixty-five T2DM patients and 31 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a neuropsychological assessment, independent component analysis (ICA), and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. The ICA extracted the SN for VBM to compare SN functional connectivity (FC) and gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) between groups. A correlation analysis examined the relationship between abnormal FC and GMV and clinical/cognitive variables. Compared with HCs, DMCN patients demonstrated increased FC in the left frontoinsular cortex (FIC), right anterior insula, and putamen, while DMCI patients demonstrated decreased right middle/inferior frontal gyrus FC. Compared with DMCN patients, DMCI patients showed decreased right FIC FC. There was no significant difference in SN GMV in DMCN and DMCI patients compared with HCs. FIC GMV was decreased in the DMCI patients compared with DMCN patients. In addition, right FIC FC and SN GMV positively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. These findings indicate that changes in SN FC, and GMV are complex non-linear processes accompanied by increased cognitive dysfunction in patients with T2DM. The right FIC may be a useful imaging biomarker for supplementary assessment of early cognitive dysfunction in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.674288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193040PMC
May 2021
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