Publications by authors named "Min Tan"

257 Publications

Euglycaemic ketoacidosis in pregnant women with COVID-19: two case reports.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 16;21(1):427. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

St Mary's Hospital, Obstetrics Department, Imperial College NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W1 2NY, UK.

Background: Euglycaemic ketoacidosis (EKA) is an infrequent but serious condition which usually follows a period of starvation, severe vomiting or illness in individuals with or without diabetes. Ketoacidosis is associated with materno-fetal morbidity and mortality necessitating prompt diagnosis and management. Physiological increases in insulin resistance render pregnancy a diabetogenic state with increased susceptibility to ketosis. COVID-19 is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for ketoacidosis in normoglycaemic individuals.

Case Presentations: We describe two cases of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women presenting with normoglycaemic metabolic ketoacidosis. Both cases were associated with maternal and fetal compromise, requiring aggressive fluid and insulin resuscitation and early delivery.

Conclusion: We discuss possible physiology and propose a management strategy for euglycaemic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03928-wDOI Listing
June 2021

A near-infrared fluorescent probe with large Stokes shift for imaging Cys in tumor mice.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 21;1171:338655. Epub 2021 May 21.

Key Laboratory for Green Organic Synthesis and Application of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, PR China. Electronic address:

Cysteine (Cys), a kind of small molecule biological thiol, not only involves in the regulation of physiological processes, but also is considered a marker of tumor. However, it is challenging to develop suitable probe for detecting Cys in tumors. In this paper, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe named IX for Cys has been designed and synthesized. The probe shows a NIR emission peak at 770 nm with large Stokes shift (180 nm) upon adding Cys. It displays high sensitivity to Cys with 6-fold increase of fluorescence intensity. Meanwhile, IX has the high selectivity to Cys over other potential interference such as Hcy and GSH, which have similar structure with Cys. In addition, a possible mechanism of fluorescence enhancement is the reaction of IX with Cys to release IX-OH, which is verified by fluorescence spectra, MS and HPLC. Next, IX can selectively image Cys in HCT-116 cells thanks to the low cytotoxicity. Most important of all, the fluorescent probe IX has visualized Cys in HCT116-xenograft tumor mice due to the near-infrared properties with large Stokes shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338655DOI Listing
August 2021

Author Correction: Saliva is more sensitive than nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs for diagnosis of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12538. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, #10-01, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89880-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188150PMC
June 2021

The role of religion in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic: the Malaysian multi-faith perspectives.

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) & Global Public Health, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Social distancing is crucial in breaking the cycle of transmission of COVID-19. However, many religions require the faithful to congregate. In Malaysia, the number of COVID-19 cases spiked up from below 30 in February 2020 to more than a thousand a month later. The sudden increase was mostly linked to a large Islamic gathering attended by 16,000 near the capital, Kuala Lumpur. Another large COVID-19 cluster was from a church gathering in Kuching, Sarawak. Within a few weeks, Malaysia became the worst hit country by COVID-19 in Southeast Asia. While religious leaders have advised social distancing among their congregants, the belief that "God is our shield" is often cited for gathering. There is a need to promote sound decision-making among religious adherents so that they will not prioritize their loyalty to the subjective interpretation of religion over evidence-based medicine. Malaysia, a multi-cultural and multi-faith country, is an example of how religious beliefs could strongly influence health behaviours at individual and community levels. In this article, we detail the religious aspects of COVID-19 prevention and control in Malaysia and discuss the possible role of religious organizations in encouraging sound decision-making among religious adherents in mitigating this crisis. We make recommendations on how to promote a partnership between the healthcare system and religious organizations, and how religion and faith could be integrated into health promotion channels and resources in the response of COVID-19 and future communicable diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daab041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135627PMC
April 2021

Patient-Derived Nasopharyngeal Cancer Organoids for Disease Modeling and Radiation Dose Optimization.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:622244. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Agency for Science Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Effective radiation treatment (RT) for recurrent nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC), featuring an intrinsic hypoxic sub-volume, remains a clinical challenge. Lack of disease-specific models of NPC, together with difficulties in establishing patient derived xenograft (PDX) models, have further hindered development of personalized therapeutic options. Herein, we established two NPC organoid lines from recurrent NPC PDX models and further characterized and compared these models with original patient tumors using RNA sequencing analysis. Organoids were cultured in hypoxic conditions to examine the effects of hypoxia and radioresistance. These models were then utilized to determine the radiobiological parameters, such as α/β ratio and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), characteristic to radiosensitive normoxic and radioresistant hypoxic NPC, using simple dose-survival data analytic tools. The results were further validated and , to determine the optimal boost dose and fractionation regimen required to achieve effective NPC tumor regression. Despite the differences in tumor microenvironment due to the lack of human stroma, RNA sequencing analysis revealed good correlation of NPC PDX and organoid models with patient tumors. Additionally, the established models also mimicked inter-tumoral heterogeneity. Hypoxic NPC organoids were highly radioresistant and had high α/β ratio compared to its normoxic counterparts. and fractionation studies showed that hypoxic NPC was less sensitive to RT fractionation scheme and required a large bolus dose or 1.4 times of the fractionated dose that was effective against normoxic cells in order to compensate for oxygen deficiency. This study is the first direct experimental evidence to predict optimal RT boost dose required to cause sufficient damage to recurrent hypoxic NPC tumor cells, which can be further used to develop dose-painting algorithms in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.622244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959730PMC
February 2021

A concealed inguinal presentation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST): a case report and literature review.

BMC Surg 2021 Mar 3;21(1):111. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Center of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 2nd Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) can arise anyplace along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The uncommon tumor location in groin area is rarely reported.

Case Presentation: We herein reported a metastasized case presented as GI hemorrhage complicated with indirect hernia, and underwent tumor cytoreduction, herniorrhaphy and chemotherapy for jejunal GIST. The case was described consecutively based on the process of surgical management, with a good follow-up result. A literature review by searching similar case reports from two national medical databases was performed to summarize clinical features of such unusual presentation of GIST, which included hernia characteristics, short- and long-term outcomes of this disease. It showed GIST presenting as groin hernia was rarely reported and all available 11 cases suggested a primary tumor and required both tumor resection and hernia repair. The long-term results indicated 64.3% overall survival at 5 years after the incidental diagnosis.

Conclusions: Inguinal hernia is an extremely rare presentation of GIST, with limited case reports available in the literature. A radical involving tumor resection plus hernia repair is an optimal surgical approach for such uncommon condition. An adjuvant medication mounting on mutated KIT gene should be strictly followed for high risk cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01088-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931599PMC
March 2021

Segmentectomy or Wedge Resection in Stage IA Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma?

J Cancer 2021 18;12(6):1708-1714. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

We performed this study to compare survival outcomes of segmentectomy (SG) and wedge resection (WR) in stage IA lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and lung adenocarcinoma (AD). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER), we identified 1529 and 4070 patients with stage IA SQCC and AD, respectively, who had complete clinical information between 2004 and 2015. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine the propensity score for patients with limited resection based on the preoperative characteristics of patients. Lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) was compared in patients treated with WR and SG after adjusting, stratifying, or matching lung cancer patients according to propensity score. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference in survival curves (log rank =0.01) for patients with stage IA SQCC between SG and WR. But there was no statistically significant difference in survival curves (log rank >0.05) in patients with stage IA AD between the two limited resections. Compared with the WR, The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of SG were 0.689 (0.519-0.914) and 0.896 (0.752-1.067) in patients with stage IA SQCC and AD, respectively. This study suggests that SG can yield superior survival outcome compared with WR in patients with stage IA SQCC. However, the survival outcomes of SG and WR are generally equivalent in patients with stage IA AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.49683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890327PMC
January 2021

Serum Uric Acid Levels and Metabolic Indices in an Obese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 11;14:627-635. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Endocrinology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To analyze the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic state in obese inpatients and preliminarily explore potential mechanisms of hyperuricemia in obesity.

Methods: A total of 153 obese inpatients were selected and assigned based on SUA level to the normal uric acid (NC group) or high uric acid (HUA) group. Patients' sex, age, height, weight, blood pressure, BMI, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome were collected and recorded. SUA, FPG, FIns, HOMA-IR, HOMA-IS, HbA, TGs, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels were tested. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between SUA and related metabolic indicators. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent risk factors of hyperuricemia in obesity.

Results: In the HUA group, the patients were predominantly males, and BMI, DBP, TGs, FPG, FIns, HOMA-IR, HOMA-IS, and metabolic syndrome were higher than those in the NC group (<0.05), while HDL-C was lower than that in the NC group (<0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in TC or LDL-C. Pearson correlation analysis showed that in obese patients, SUA was positively correlated with BMI, FIns, HOMA-IR, HOMA-IS, TGs, andmetabolic syndrome and negatively correlated with age and HDL-C. Logistic regression showed that BMI, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance were independent risk factors of hyperuricemia.

Conclusion: Development of hyperuricemia in obese populations might be correlated with hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S286299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886379PMC
February 2021

Target Tracking Control of a Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle Through Deep Reinforcement Learning.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Feb 9;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

In this article, the underwater target tracking control problem of a biomimetic underwater vehicle (BUV) is addressed. Since it is difficult to build an effective mathematic model of a BUV due to the uncertainty of hydrodynamics, target tracking control is converted into the Markov decision process and is further achieved via deep reinforcement learning. The system state and reward function of underwater target tracking control are described. Based on the actor-critic reinforcement learning framework, the deep deterministic policy gradient actor-critic algorithm with supervision controller is proposed. The training tricks, including prioritized experience replay, actor network indirect supervision training, target network updating with different periods, and expansion of exploration space by applying random noise, are presented. Indirect supervision training is designed to address the issues of low stability and slow convergence of reinforcement learning in the continuous state and action space. Comparative simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the training tricks. Finally, the proposed actor-critic reinforcement learning algorithm with supervision controller is applied to the physical BUV. Swimming pool experiments of underwater object tracking of the BUV are conducted in multiple scenarios to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3054402DOI Listing
February 2021

Saliva is more sensitive than nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs for diagnosis of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 infection.

Sci Rep 2021 02 4;11(1):3134. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, #10-01, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.

We aimed to test the sensitivity of naso-oropharyngeal saliva and self-administered nasal (SN) swab compared to nasopharyngeal (NP) swab for COVID-19 testing in a large cohort of migrant workers in Singapore. We also tested the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnosis of COVID-19. Saliva, NP and SN swabs were collected from subjects who presented with acute respiratory infection, their asymptomatic roommates, and prior confirmed cases who were undergoing isolation at a community care facility in June 2020. All samples were tested using RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2 amplicon-based NGS with phylogenetic analysis was done for 30 samples. We recruited 200 subjects, of which 91 and 46 were tested twice and thrice respectively. In total, 62.0%, 44.5%, and 37.7% of saliva, NP and SN samples were positive. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were lower during the earlier period of infection across all sample types. The percentage of test-positive saliva was higher than NP and SN swabs. We found a strong correlation between viral genome coverage by NGS and Ct values for SARS-CoV-2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed Clade O and lineage B.6 known to be circulating in Singapore. We found saliva to be a sensitive and viable sample for COVID-19 diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82787-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862309PMC
February 2021

Association of blood lead levels with preeclampsia: A cohort study in China.

Environ Res 2021 04 1;195:110822. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

TCM Gynecology Department, Foshan Chancheng Central Hospital, Chancheng District, Foshan, Guangdong province, China.

Background: Preeclampsia is the main cause of maternal and perinatal death, especially in developing countries. Multiple studies suggest that blood lead levels in pregnancy are a risk factor for preeclampsia, even with low levels of blood lead. But less knows the dose-effect relationship of preeclampsia in low blood lead levels.

Objectives: This study aims to assess the association between blood lead levels and preeclampsia and to explore its dose-effect relationship between low blood lead levels and preeclampsia.

Methods: The retrospective cohort study was consecutively conducted in a comprehensive tertiary hospital in Foshan city of Guangdong Province, China, from August 1, 2019, to November 30, 2019. Blood lead levels were measured in maternal whole blood in 12-27 (+6) weeks of pregnancy, using atomic absorption spectrometer. Preeclampsia diagnosis was ascertained from the electronic medical records system. The risk of preeclampsia was estimated by multivariable logical regression analysis, and a two-stage linear regression model was established to find out the dose-effect.

Results: A total of 2174 people were included in this study, and 59 (2.7%) women developed preeclampsia. The dose-effect analysis revealed a non-linear association between blood lead levels and the risk of preeclampsia, with a cut-off point at 4.2 μg/dl. When blood lead levels were over 4.2 μg/dl, the risk of preeclampsia increased significantly with an increase in blood lead levels (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.50, 2.81). In the multivariate regression models, per 1 μg/dl increment in blood lead levels was associated with 43% higher risk of developing preeclampsia (OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.17,1.74). Moreover, the association between blood lead levels and preeclampsia was stable in different subgroups.

Conclusions: Low levels of lead exposure had a dose-effect relationship of preeclampsia, with a cut-off point at 4.2 μg/dl. Blood lead levels had a non-linear association with preeclampsia. When the blood lead levels were higher than 4.2 μg/dl, the risk of preeclampsia increases by 105% for every 1 μg/dl increase in blood lead levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110822DOI Listing
April 2021

Monitoring the Fluctuation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Diabetes and Its Complications with a Novel Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

Anal Chem 2021 02 3;93(6):3301-3307. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Key Laboratory for Green Organic Synthesis and Application of Hunan Province, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, PR China.

Diabetes is one of the metabolic diseases marked by hyperglycemia and is often accompanied by the occurrence of some complications. As a biomarker of oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (HO) has close association with the occurrence and development of diabetes and its complications. Unfortunately, there is no fluorescent probe reported for imaging HO in diabetic mice. Here, a novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe named QX-B was designed and synthesized to detect HO. For the probe, the quinolinium-xanthene dye is used as the fluorophore and borate ester is chosen as the response group. After the addition of HO, a strong NIR fluorescence signal at 772 nm is observed. The probe not only shows high sensitivity with 10-fold enhancement but also displays excellent selectivity to HO over other possible interfering species. In the meantime, the possible response mechanism of QX-B toward HO was proposed and verified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, mass spectra (MS) experiment, and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Furthermore, based on the low cell cytotoxicity of QX-B, it has been applied in imaging exogenous and endogenous HO in HeLa cells, HCT116 cells, 4T1 cells, and zebrafish successfully. More importantly, inspired by the performance of NIR fluorescence, QX-B has been used in monitoring HO in diabetic mice for the first time. This provides very important information for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05364DOI Listing
February 2021

Enrofloxacin/florfenicol loaded cyclodextrin metal-organic-framework for drug delivery and controlled release.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):372-379

College of Chemistry & Environment, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China.

We presented an antibiotic-loaded γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework that delivered antibiotics suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections. The γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework was developed using γ-cyclodextrin and potassium ion via the ultrasonic method. The antibiotic (florfenicol and enrofloxacin) was primarily encapsulated into the pore structures of γ-CD-MOF, which allowed the sustained release of antibiotics over an extended period of time and . Notably, antibiotics-loaded γ-CD-MOF showed much superior activity against bacteria than free antibiotics (lower MIC value) and displayed better long-lasting activity (longer antibacterial time). The antibiotics-loaded γ-CD-MOF showed nontoxic and perfect biocompatibility to mammalian cells and tissues both and . These materials thus represent a novel drug-delivery device suitable for antibiotic therapy. This research is of great significance for reducing the generation of bacterial resistance and providing new ideas for the application of γ-CD-MOF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1879316DOI Listing
December 2021

Aryne 1,2,3,5-Tetrasubstitution Enabled by 3-Silylaryne and Allyl Sulfoxide via an Aromatic 1,3-Silyl Migration.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Feb 28;143(5):2178-2184. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, 174 Shazheng Street, Chongqing, P. R. China, 400030.

Although benzyne has been well-known to serve as a synthon that can conveniently prepare various 1,2-difunctionalized benzenes, the sites other than its formal triple bond remain silent in typical benzyne transformations. An unprecedented aryne 1,2,3,5-tetrasubstitution was realized from 3-silylbenzyne and aryl allyl sulfoxide, the mechanistic pathway of which includes a regioselective aryne insertion into the S═O bond, a [3,6]-sigmatropic rearrangement, and a thermal aromatic 1,3-silyl migration cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c11119DOI Listing
February 2021

LNK promotes granulosa cell apoptosis in PCOS via negatively regulating insulin-stimulated AKT-FOXO3 pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 01 20;13(3):4617-4633. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is often accompanied by insulin resistance, is closely related to increased apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells. LNK is an important regulator of the insulin signaling pathway. When insulin binds to the receptor, the PI3K/AKT/FOXO signaling pathway is activated, and FOXO translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptotic genes.

Methods: Granulosa cells were collected from PCOS patients to investigate the relationship between LNK, cell apoptosis and insulin resistance. KGN cells underwent LNK overexpression/silence and insulin stimulation. The AKT/FOXO3 pathway was studied by western blot and immunofluorescence. knockout mice were used to investigate the effect of LNK on the pathogenesis of PCOS.

Results: The level of LNK was higher in PCOS group than control group. LNK was positively correlated with granulosa cell apoptosis and insulin resistance, and negatively correlated with oocyte maturation rate. LNK overexpression in KGN cells inhibited insulin-induced AKT/FOXO3 signaling pathway, causing nucleus translocation of FOXO3 and promoting granulosa cell apoptosis. knockout partially restored estrous cycle and improved glucose metabolism in PCOS mice.

Conclusions: LNK was closely related to insulin resistance and apoptosis of granulosa cells via the AKT/FOXO3 pathway. knockout partially restored estrous cycle and improved glucose metabolism in PCOS mice, suggesting LNK might become a potential biological target for the clinical treatment of PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906173PMC
January 2021

How the public used face masks in China during the coronavirus disease pandemic: A survey study.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 6;115:103853. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Nurse Anesthesia, College of Health Professions, Virginia Commonwealth University, 900 E. Leigh Street, Box 980233, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Universal face mask use was recommended owing to the growing pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, little is known about the public's compliance with mask-wearing behaviours.

Objective: To evaluate the public's mask-wearing behaviours in the context of COVID-19.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Online survey from 6 April 2020 to 5 May 2020 in China.

Participants: This study included 10,165 persons who lived in China, understood Chinese, and were not health care providers.

Methods: Descriptive statistics were used to assess the public's mask-wearing behaviours. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the mask-wearing behaviours.

Results: Nearly all (99%) people wore a mask during the covid-19 pandemic, with most (73.3%) demonstrating good compliance with face mask use. However, 41.8% of the participants seldom cleaned their hands before putting on a face mask, and more than half (55.3%, 62.1%) of those who touched (n=8108, 79.8%) or adjusted (n=9356, 92.0%) their mask while using it failed to consistently wash their hands afterward. When removing a used mask, 7.6% of the participants discarded it into a garbage bin without a lid and 22.5% discarded it into a garbage bin in their reach regardless of presence of a lid. Participants reported wearing disposable medical masks (93.8%), followed by N95 respirators (26.2%), and cloth face masks (8.5%). Some participants wore multiple masks simultaneously (occasionally 26.5%, often 2.1%, always 1.5%). A total of 5,981 (58.8%) participants reported reusing disposable masks, with nearly two thirds (n=3923, 65.6%) indicating they would hang the used masks in well-ventilated places. More than one-third (37.6%) of the respondents did not replace mask when it had been used for more than 8 hours. Exposure to instructions on face mask use was the strongest predictor of good compliance (odds ratio=4.13, 95% confidential interval= 3.60-4.75, p=0.000). Other factors included specific situations, location, and gender. The influence of age needs further investigation. Most participants (76.4%) accessed information mainly via social media platforms.

Conclusions: Nearly all people wore face mask and most of them used it properly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hand hygiene before and during mask-wearing, choosing an appropriate type of face mask, reusing disposal face mask, and disposing of used face masks should be particularly emphasized in future evidence dissemination or behaviour-change interventions. Information on social media platforms for evidence dissemination and behaviour change may benefit the public the most, but this initiative requires further research to investigate its effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837163PMC
March 2021

Pandanus tectorius fruit extract promotes Hsp70 accumulation, immune-related genes expression and Vibrio parahaemolyticus tolerance in the white-leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Feb 24;109:97-105. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia; Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Plants and herbal extracts are indispensable for controlling the spread of disease-causing bacteria, including those that infect aquatic organisms used in aquaculture. The use of plant or herbal extract is expected to be safe for aquatic animals and less harmful to the environment, as opposed to conventional therapeutic alternatives such as antibiotics that promote the occurrence of potential antibiotic-resistant bacteria when used improperly. The efficacy of Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in the regulation of Hsp70 expression, pro-phenoloxidase (ProPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and transglutaminase, all immune peptides essential for Vibrio tolerance in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was investigated in this study, which included the determination of the safety levels of the extract. Tolerance of shrimp against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a pathogenic bacteria that causes Acute Hepatopancreas Necrosis Disease (AHPND), was assessed on the basis of median lethal dose challenge survival (LD50 = 10 cells/ml). Mortality was not observed 24 h after exposure of 0.5-6 g/L of the fruit extract, indicating that P. tectorius was not toxic to shrimp at these concentrations. A 24-h incubation of 2-6 g/L of the fruit extract increased shrimp tolerance to V. parahaemolyticus, with survival doubled when the maximum dose tested in this study was used. Concomitant with a rise in survival was the increase in immune-related proteins, with Hsp70, ProPO, peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and transglutaminase increased 10, 11, 11, 0.4, 8 and 13-fold respectively. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of Vibrio-infected shrimp primed with P. tectorius extract revealed reduced signs of histopathological degeneration, possibly due to the accumulation of Hsp70, a molecular chaperone crucial to cellular protein folding, tissue repair and immune response of living organisms, including Penaeid shrimp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.12.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Social Participation on the Physical Functioning and Depression of Empty-Nest Elderly in China: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 16;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Health Management, School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

This study aimed to explore the impact of social participation (SP) on physical functioning and depression among empty-nest elderly taking part in the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2018). The instrumental variable (IV) method and propensity score matching (PSM) method were used to analyse the impact of SP. The two-stage regression results of the IV method showed that SP has a significant negative impact on the physical functioning scores of empty-nest elderly (β = -3.539, < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (β = -4.703, < 0.001), and SP has a significant negative impact on the depression scores of empty-nest elderly (β = -2.404, < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (β = -1.957, < 0.001). The results of the PSM method were basically consistent with the IV method. Compared with non-empty-nest elderly, SP had more positive effects on the depression of empty-nest elderly (Wald χ = 6.62, = 0.010). Providing a friendly and supportive environment for the SP of empty-nest elderly was an important measure to promote healthy ageing. Targeted SP may be one of the greatest opportunities to improve the mental health of empty-nest elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766298PMC
December 2020

An Occlusion Compensation Learning Framework for Improving the Rendering Quality of Light Field.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Oct 27;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Occlusions are common phenomena in light field rendering (LFR) technology applications. The 3-D spatial structures of some features may be missing or incorrect when capturing some samples due to occlusion discontinuities. Most prior works on LFR, however, have neglected occlusions from other objects in 3-D scenes that do not participate in the capturing and rendering of the light field. To improve rendering quality, this report proposes an occlusion probability learning framework (OPLF) based on a deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) to compensate for the occluded information. In the OPLF, an occlusion probability density model is applied to calculate the visibility scores, which are modeled as hidden variables. Additionally, the probability of occlusion is related to the visibility, the camera configuration (i.e., position and direction), and the relationship between the occlusion object and occluded object. Furthermore, a deep probability model based on the OPLF is used for learning the occlusion relationship between the camera and object in multiple layers. The proposed OPLF can optimize the LFR quality. Finally, to verify the claimed performance, we also compare the OPLF with the most advanced occlusion theory and light field reconstruction algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed OPLF outperforms other known occlusion quantization schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3027468DOI Listing
October 2020

Exploration of swimming performance for a biomimetic multi-joint robotic fish with a compliant passive joint.

Bioinspir Biomim 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University College of Engineering, Beijing 100871, Beijing, 100871, CHINA.

In this paper, a novel compliant joint with two identical torsion springs is proposed for a biomimetic multi-joint robotic fish, which enables to imitate the swimming behavior of live fish. More importantly, a dynamic model based on Lagrangian dynamic method is developed to explore the compliant passive mechanism. In the dynamic modeling, simplified Morrison equation is utilized to analyze the hydrodynamic forces. Further, the parameter identification technique is employed to estimate numerous hydrodynamic parameters. Extensive experimental data with different situations match well with the simulation results, which verifies the effectiveness of obtained dynamic model. Finally, motivated by the requirement of performance optimization, we firstly take advantage of a dynamic model to investigate the effect of joint stiffness and control parameters on a biomimetic multi-joint robotic fish's swimming speed and energy efficiency. The results reveal that phase difference plays a primary role in improving efficiency and the compliant joint presents a more significant role in performance improvement when a smaller phase difference is given. Namely, at the largest actuation frequency, the maximum improvement of energy efficiency is obtained and surprisingly approximates 89%. Additionally, the maximum improvement in maximum swimming speed is about 0.19 body lengths per second (BL/s). These findings demonstrate the potential of compliance in optimizing joint design and locomotion control for better performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/abc494DOI Listing
October 2020

MED19 Regulates Adipogenesis and Maintenance of White Adipose Tissue Mass by Mediating PPARγ-Dependent Gene Expression.

Cell Rep 2020 10;33(1):108228

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

The Mediator complex relays regulatory signals from gene-specific transcription factors to the basal transcriptional machinery. However, the role of individual Mediator subunits in different tissues remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MED19 is essential for adipogenesis and maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) by mediating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcriptional activity. MED19 knockdown blocks white adipogenesis, but not brown adipogenesis or C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Adipose-specific MED19 knockout (KO) in mice results in a striking loss of WAT, whitening of brown fat, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Inducible adipose-specific MED19 KO in adult animals also results in lipodystrophy, demonstrating its requirement for WAT maintenance. Global gene expression analysis reveals induction of genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation and impaired expression of adipose-specific genes, resulting from decreased PPARγ residency on adipocyte gene promoters and reduced association of PPARγ with RNA polymerase II. These results identify MED19 as a crucial facilitator of PPARγ-mediated gene expression in adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561447PMC
October 2020

Clinical utility of Epstein-Barr virus DNA and other liquid biopsy markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2020 11 28;40(11):564-585. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore, 138669, Singapore.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor ubiquitously associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is highly prevalent in South China, Southeast Asia, and North Africa. Despite being a highly radio-sensitive and treatable cancer, a majority of NPC patients are diagnosed in their advanced stage, and locoregional and distant relapses following definitive treatment contribute largely to cancer-specific mortality among these patients. Given that EBV-driven NPC is the predominant variant seen in endemic regions, various EBV detection methods have been developed and are utilized in screening, prognostication, and post-treatment surveillance of NPC patients. While the Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serology assay is the most extensively studied EBV detection method, the detection of plasma EBV DNA released during replication or cellular apoptosis has shown superior outcomes in endemic population screening, prognostication, and detection of distant relapse. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence on the use of circulating tumor cells, microRNAs, DNA hypermethylation, and combination assays in various clinical scenarios. Herein, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of the relevant studies using various EBV detection techniques in the management of NPC. Specifically, the recent advances, clinical evidence, and challenges associated with the clinical application of EBV liquid biopsies in population screening, prognostication, and surveillance of NPC are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668470PMC
November 2020

Lack of FGF21 promotes NASH-HCC transition hepatocyte-TLR4-IL-17A signaling.

Theranostics 2020 7;10(22):9923-9936. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasingly recognized in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is reported to prevent NASH and delay HCC development. In this study, the effects of FGF21 on NASH progression and NASH-HCC transition and the potential mechanism(s) were investigated. NASH models and NASH-HCC models were established in FGF21Knockout (KO) mice to evaluate NASH-HCC transition. IL-17A signaling was investigated in the isolated hepatic parenchymal cells, splenocytes, and hepatocyte and HCC cell lines. Lack of FGF21 caused significant up-regulation of the hepatocyte-derived IL-17A via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-κB signaling. Restoration of FGF21 alleviated the high NAFLD activity score (NAS) and attenuated the TLR4-triggered hepatocyte-IL-17A expression. The HCC nodule number and tumor size were significantly alleviated by treatments of anti-IL-17A antibody. This study revealed a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of FGF21 via inhibiting the hepatocyte-TLR4-IL-17A signaling in NASH-HCC models. The negative feedback loop on the hepatocyte-TLR4-IL-17A axis could be a potential anti-carcinogenetic mechanism for FGF21 to prevent NASH-HCC transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.45988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481424PMC
May 2021

Autophagy dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Oct 7;20(4):3578-3586. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of the mRNA of genes associated with autophagy and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The mRNA levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin1, autophagy-related gene (ATG)3, ATG5, ATG12, ATG 16 ligand 1 (ATG16L1) and lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) in PBMCs from 60 patients with AS and 30 healthy controls (HC) were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The correlations between the levels of LC3, Beclin1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG12 and ATG16L1 mRNA as well as lncRNA GAS5 levels with disease activity and laboratory parameters in patients with AS were determined by Spearman correlation analysis. In addition, the diagnostic value of lncRNA GAS5 for AS was explored through establishing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results indicated that, compared to the HCs, patients with AS had lower expression levels of LC3, ATG5, ATG12, ATG16L1 and lncRNA GAS5 in their PBMCs. Compared with those in patients with inactive AS, the levels of ATG5 and ATG12 were lower than those in patients with active AS. Of note, ATG5 and ATG12 mRNA levels were negatively correlated with disease activity indexes. lncRNA GAS5 was positively correlated with the expression of Beclin1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG12 and ATG16L1. The area under the ROC curve for the use of lncRNA GAS5 expression to diagnose AS was 0.808 with a 95% CI of 0.714-0.902. In conclusion, patients with AS had decreased expression of genes associated with autophagy and lncRNA GAS5. The extent of the reduction in ATG5 and ATG12 expression levels in patients with AS was correlated with the disease severity and activity. Furthermore, lncRNA GAS5 was a diagnostic indicator of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444354PMC
October 2020

Recent population expansion of longtail tuna (Bleeker, 1851) inferred from the mitochondrial DNA markers.

PeerJ 2020 6;8:e9679. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

The population genetic diversity and demographic history of the longtail tuna in Malaysian waters was investigated using mitochondrial DNA D-loop and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). A total of 203 (D-loop) and 208 (ND5) individuals of were sampled from 11 localities around the Malaysian coastal waters. Low genetic differentiation between populations was found, possibly due to the past demographic history, dispersal potential during egg and larval stages, seasonal migration in adults, and lack of geographical barriers. The gene trees, constructed based on the maximum likelihood method, revealed a single panmictic population with unsupported internal clades, indicating an absence of structure among the populations studied. Analysis on population pairwise comparison Ф suggested the absence of limited gene flow among study sites. Taken all together, high haplotype diversity (D-loop = 0.989-1.000; ND5 = 0.848-0.965), coupled with a low level of nucleotide diversity (D-loop = 0.019-0.025; ND5 = 0.0017-0.003), "star-like" haplotype network, and unimodal mismatch distribution, suggests a recent population expansion for populations of in Malaysia. Furthermore, neutrality and goodness of fit tests supported the signature of a relatively recent population expansion during the Pleistocene epoch. To provide additional insight into the phylogeographic pattern of the species within the Indo-Pacific Ocean, we included haplotypes from GenBank and a few samples from Taiwan. Preliminary analyses suggest a more complex genetic demarcation of the species than an explicit Indian Ocean versus Pacific Ocean delineation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415224PMC
August 2020

KSHV LANA acetylation-selective acidic domain reader sequence mediates virus persistence.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 20;117(36):22443-22451. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal;

Viruses modulate biochemical cellular pathways to permit infection. A recently described mechanism mediates selective protein interactions between acidic domain readers and unacetylated, lysine-rich regions, opposite of bromodomain function. Kaposi´s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is tightly linked with KS, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV latently infects cells, and its genome persists as a multicopy, extrachromosomal episome. During latency, KSHV expresses a small subset of genes, including the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which mediates viral episome persistence. Here we show that LANA contains two tandem, partially overlapping, acidic domain sequences homologous to the SET oncoprotein acidic domain reader. This domain selectively interacts with unacetylated p53, as evidenced by reduced LANA interaction after overexpression of CBP, which acetylates p53, or with an acetylation mimicking carboxyl-terminal domain p53 mutant. Conversely, the interaction of LANA with an acetylation-deficient p53 mutant is enhanced. Significantly, KSHV LANA mutants lacking the acidic domain reader sequence are deficient for establishment of latency and persistent infection. This deficiency was confirmed under physiological conditions, on infection of mice with a murine gammaherpesvirus 68 chimera expressing LANA, where the virus was highly deficient in establishing latent infection in germinal center B cells. Therefore, LANA's acidic domain reader is critical for viral latency. These results implicate an acetylation-dependent mechanism mediating KSHV persistence and expand the role of acidic domain readers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004809117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486799PMC
September 2020

Religion and mental health among older adults: ethnic differences in Malaysia.

Aging Ment Health 2020 Aug 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objectives: Religion and spirituality gain importance as a person ages. Research has shown that religion has a salutary effect on mental health, and it is associated with health differently across ethnic groups. The current study examined ethnic differences in the association between religion and mental health among older adults in a predominantly Muslim population and multicultural setting.

Methods: Data of 7068 participants (4418 Malays, 2080 Chinese and 570 Indians) aged ≥55 years that were collected as part of the community health survey conducted in 2013 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) were analyzed using bivariate and multiple regressions. Analyses were stratified by ethnicity.

Results: The importance of having an enriched religious/spiritual life was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety and stress among Chinese and higher score of depression among Malays, while belief in a higher power was associated with better mental health among Malays, Chinese and Indians.

Conclusion: The current study showed that there were ethnic variations in the associations between religion and mental health, and the associations depended on the religious variable included in the analysis. The findings of this study showed that religion could be another potential channel to improve mental health among older adults by accommodating and understanding their religious beliefs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2020.1799939DOI Listing
August 2020

Electrochemotherapy with Irreversible Electroporation and FOLFIRINOX Improves Survival in Murine Models of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 17;27(11):4348-4359. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: Previously published work has demonstrated that combining gemcitabine with irreversible electroporation (IRE) results in increased drug delivery to pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in vivo. This study assessed the efficacy of IRE + gemcitabine and IRE + FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin), the impact of the superior regimen on survival, and the safety of electrochemotherapy in human subjects.

Methods: Histologic analysis was performed after in vitro and in vivo treatment of S2013 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and S2013 orthotopic tumors, respectively, and levels of apoptotic machinery and cell cycle proteins were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot.

Results: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) with IRE and FOLFIRINOX resulted in increased tumor cells apoptosis compared with gemcitabine, gemcitabine + IRE, and FOLFIRINOX alone, and significantly improved overall survival when compared with mice treated with IRE or FOLFIRINOX. Increased tumor cell apoptosis, caspase-3 mRNA, active caspase-3 protein, and decreased cell proliferation were noted at the time of death or euthanasia in the ECT group compared with folinic acid alone. In five patients, ECT with either FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine was well-tolerated and resulted in no dose-limiting toxicities.

Conclusions: ECT thus results in synergistic antitumor activity compared with either treatment modality used alone, resulting in increased tumor cell apoptosis as well as decreased tumor cell proliferation and improved overall survival. Pilot data suggest that ECT represents a promising modality for the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

Trial Registration: The human subject portion of this work was conducted as part of an investigator-initiated clinical trial at the University of Louisville (NCT03484299).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08782-2DOI Listing
October 2020

Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of dengue virus NS4A affect virus fitness and interactions with other non-structural proteins.

J Gen Virol 2020 09;101(9):941-953

Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

The dengue virus (DENV) replication complex is made up of its non-structural (NS) proteins and yet-to-be identified host proteins, but the molecular interactions between these proteins are not fully elucidated. In this work, we sought to uncover the interactions between DENV NS1 and its fellow NS proteins using a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) approach, and found that domain II of NS1 binds to an N-terminal cytoplasmic fragment of NS4A. Mutations in amino acid residues 41 and 43 in this cytoplasmic region of NS4A disrupted the interaction between NS1 and the NS4A-2K-4B precursor protein. When the NS4A Y41F mutation was introduced into the context of the virus via a DENV2 infectious clone, this mutant virus exhibited impaired viral fitness and decreased infectious virus production. The NS4A Y41F mutant virus triggered a significantly muted transcriptional activation of interferon-stimulated genes compared to wild-type virus that is independent of NS4A's ability to antagonize type I interferon signalling. Taken together, we have identified a link between DENV NS1 and the cytoplasmic domain in NS4A that is important for its cellular and viral functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001462DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative Analysis of Early-Stage Clinical Features Between COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1 Virus Pneumonia.

Front Public Health 2020 15;8:206. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Influenza virus pneumonia and COVID-19 are two different types of respiratory viral pneumonia but with very similar clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study was to help clinicians gain a better understanding about differences between Influenza virus pneumonia and COVID-19 by comparative analysis of the early-stage clinical features. Clinical data of patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and influenza A pneumonia identified in our hospital were collected and analyzed retrospectively to identify the clinical features that could differentiate between the two types of viral pneumonia. The two types of viral pneumonia mainly affected adults, especially people over 50 years, with no gender difference between them. Fever, cough, sputum and muscle soreness were the most common symptoms of COVID-19. Some patients with COVID-19 may also exhibit digestive tract symptoms. Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) was a more common phenomenon in patients with COVID-19 than that in patients with influenza A H1N1 virus pneumonia. In addition, eosinophil count was decreased and the monocyte percentage was increased in COVID-19 patients. The grid-form shadow was a typical presentation of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the disease usually progressed quickly within a week. Influenza pneumonia and COVID-19 are two different types of respiratory viral pneumonia with very similar clinical manifestations. The percentage of monocytes is increased and the eosinophil count is decreased in COVID-19. Glass-ground density exudation shadow located peripherally is the typical sign of COVID-19 on the lung CT image, and the shadow often with grid-form sign. These features may not be typically observed in patients with influenza pneumonia. Chest CT scan combined with nucleic acid detection is an effective and accurate method for diagnosing COVID-19. Blood routine test has a limited diagnostic value in differentiating the two forms of pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243732PMC
January 2021