Publications by authors named "Min Luo"

598 Publications

Two Tellurium(IV)-Based Sulfates Exhibiting Strong Second Harmonic Generation and Moderate Birefringence as Promising Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Two tellurium(IV)-based sulfate nonlinear optical (NLO) materials, TeO(SO) and Te(OH)(SO)·HO, were successfully synthesized via the mild hydrothermal method. TeOSO has a two-dimensional (2D) structure consisting of [TeO] layers as well as [SO] groups. Te(OH)(SO)·HO features a simple 0D structure made up of an isolated [TeO] pyramid and a [SO] tetrahedra. Both of them are phase-matching materials and show remarkable powder second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiencies about 6 and 3 times that of KHPO (KDP), respectively, for TeOSO and Te(OH)(SO)·HO. Especially for Te(OH)(SO)·HO, in addition to a large SHG response, it possesses a short UV cutoff edge (∼233 nm) as well as moderate birefringence ([email protected] nm). Furthermore, theoretical calculations confirmed that their strong SHG effects are due to the synergistic effect of the [TeO] pyramid and [SO] tetrahedra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01401DOI Listing
July 2021

Revealing the full biosphere structure and versatile metabolic functions in the deepest ocean sediment of the Challenger Deep.

Genome Biol 2021 Jul 13;22(1):207. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CAS-Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Background: The full biosphere structure and functional exploration of the microbial communities of the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench, the deepest known hadal zone on Earth, lag far behind that of other marine realms.

Results: We adopt a deep metagenomics approach to investigate the microbiome in the sediment of Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. We construct 178 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing 26 phyla, 16 of which are reported from hadal sediment for the first time. Based on the MAGs, we find the microbial community functions are marked by enrichment and prevalence of mixotrophy and facultative anaerobic metabolism. The microeukaryotic community is found to be dominated by six fungal groups that are characterized for the first time in hadal sediment to possess the assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate/sulfate reduction, and hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways. By metaviromic analysis, we reveal novel hadal Caudovirales clades, distinctive virus-host interactions, and specialized auxiliary metabolic genes for modulating hosts' nitrogen/sulfur metabolism. The hadal microbiome is further investigated by large-scale cultivation that cataloged 1070 bacterial and 19 fungal isolates from the Challenger Deep sediment, many of which are found to be new species specialized in the hadal habitat.

Conclusion: Our hadal MAGs and isolates increase the diversity of the Challenger Deep sediment microbial genomes and isolates present in the public. The deep metagenomics approach fills the knowledge gaps in structure and diversity of the hadal microbiome, and provides novel insight into the ecology and metabolism of eukaryotic and viral components in the deepest biosphere on earth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02408-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276468PMC
July 2021

Protection and Response of a Tertiary Hospital in Shenzhen, China to the COVID-19 Outbreak-the Practice of the Comprehensive Response Mode.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 12:1-17. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Breast Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: To evaluate the management mode for the prevention and control of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission utilized at a general hospital in Shenzhen, China, with the aim to maintain the normal operation of the hospital.

Methods: From January 2, 2020 to April 23, 2020, Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Shenzhen, has operated a special response protocol named comprehensive pandemic prevention and control model, which mainly includes six aspects: 1) human resource management; 2) equipment management; 3) logistics management; 4) cleaning, disinfection and process reengineering; 5) environment layout; 6) and training and assessment. The detail of every aspect was described and its efficiency was evaluated.

Results: A total of 198,802 patients were received. Of those, 10,821 were hospitalized; 26,767 were received by the emergency department and fever clinics; 288 patients were admitted for observation with fever; and 324 were admitted as suspected cases for isolation. Under the protocol of comprehensive pandemic prevention and control model, no case of hospital-acquired infection with COVID-19 occurred among the inpatients or staff.

Conclusion: The present comprehensive response model may be useful in large public health emergencies to ensure appropriate management and protect the health and life of individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.218DOI Listing
July 2021

Small-Molecule Inhibitor Targeting Protein Kinase D: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:680221. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The protein kinase D (PKD) family is a family of serine-threonine kinases that are members of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) superfamily. PKDs have been increasingly implicated in multiple pivotal cellular processes and pathological conditions. PKD dysregulation is associated with several diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and obesity. Over the past few years, small-molecule inhibitors have emerged as alternative targeted therapy with fewer adverse side effects than currently available chemotherapy, and these specifically targeted inhibitors limit non-specific toxicities. The successful development of PKD inhibitors would significantly suppress the growth and proliferation of various cancers and inhibit the progression of other diseases. Various PKD inhibitors have been studied in the preclinical setting. In this context, we summarize the PKD inhibitors under investigation and their application for different kinds of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.680221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263921PMC
June 2021

Pericytes augment glioblastoma cell resistance to temozolomide through CCL5-CCR5 paracrine signaling.

Cell Res 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University) and Key Laboratory of Tumor Immunopathology, Ministry of Education of China, Chongqing, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prevalent and highly lethal form of glioma, with rapid tumor progression and frequent recurrence. Excessive outgrowth of pericytes in GBM governs the ecology of the perivascular niche, but their function in mediating chemoresistance has not been fully explored. Herein, we uncovered that pericytes potentiate DNA damage repair (DDR) in GBM cells residing in the perivascular niche, which induces temozolomide (TMZ) chemoresistance. We found that increased pericyte proportion correlates with accelerated tumor recurrence and worse prognosis. Genetic depletion of pericytes in GBM xenografts enhances TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing mice. Mechanistically, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) secreted by pericytes activates C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on GBM cells to enable DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)-mediated DDR upon TMZ treatment. Disrupting CCL5-CCR5 paracrine signaling through the brain-penetrable CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) potently inhibits pericyte-promoted DDR and effectively improves the chemotherapeutic efficacy of TMZ. GBM patient-derived xenografts with high CCL5 expression benefit from combined treatment with TMZ and MVC. Our study reveals the role of pericytes as an extrinsic stimulator potentiating DDR signaling in GBM cells and suggests that targeting CCL5-CCR5 signaling could be an effective therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy against GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00528-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Influences of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Parameters on Antioxidant Activity of the Extract from Peels.

Foods 2021 Jun 21;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

is a fruit with rich nutritional properties, and its peel is produced as a by-product. In this research, we investigated the influences of microwave-assisted extraction parameters on antioxidant activity of the extract from peels, and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) were used to optimize extraction parameters. The influences of ethanol concentration, microwave power and solvent-to-material ratio, as well as extraction temperature and time on TPC, FRAP and TEAC values, were assessed using single-factor tests. Three parameters with obvious effects on antioxidant capacity were selected to further investigate their interactions by response surface methodology. The optimal extraction parameters of natural antioxidants from peels were ethanol concentration, 49.61% (/); solvent-to-material ratio, 32.59:1 mL/g; extraction time, 39.31 min; microwave power, 500 W; and extraction temperature, 50 °C. Under optimal conditions, the FRAP, TEAC and TPC values of peel extracts were 351.86 ± 9.47 µM Fe(II)/g dry weight (DW), 191.12 ± 3.53 µM Trolox/g DW and 32.67 ± 0.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW, respectively. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin and ellagic acid) in the extract were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results are useful for the full utilization of the by-product from fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234544PMC
June 2021

Crystalline silica induces macrophage necrosis and causes subsequent acute pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 17, Block 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of China.

Crystalline silica (CS), an airborne particulate, is a major global occupational health hazard. While it is known as an important pathogenic factor in many severe lung diseases, the underlying mechanisms of its toxicity are still unclear. In the present study, we found that intra-tracheal instillation of CS caused rapid emergence of necrotic alveolar macrophages. Cell necrosis was a consequence of the release of cathepsin B in CS-treated macrophages, which caused dysfunction of the mitochondrial membrane. Damage to mitochondria disrupted Na/K ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to intracellular sodium overload and the subsequent cell necrosis. Further studies indicate that CS-induced macrophage necrosis and the subsequent release of mitochondrial DNA could trigger the recruitment of neutrophils in the lung, which was regulated by the TLR9 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel mechanism whereby CS leads to rapid macrophage necrosis through cathepsin B release, following the leakage of mitochondrial DNA as a key event in the induction of pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. This study has important implications for the early prevention and treatment of diseases induced by CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09620-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of respiratory viruses in 4403 pediatric patients from multiple hospitals in Guangdong, China.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 17;21(1):284. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. Unfortunately, there are limited multi-center data on common viral respiratory infections in south China.

Methods: A total of 4403 nasal swabs were collected from children in 10 cities in Guangdong, China in 2019. Seven respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IFA), influenza B virus (IFB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (PIV1, PIV2 and PIV3), were detected by direct immunofluorescence antibody assay. The personal information and clinical characteristics were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The results showed that at least one virus was detected in 1099 (24.96 %) samples. The detection rates of RSV, IFA, ADV, PIV3, PIV1 and PIV2 were 7.13 % (314/4403), 5.31 % (234/4403), 4.02 % (177/4403), 3.04 % (134/4403), 1.70 % (75/4403) and 1.16 % (51/4403), respectively. The detection rate of RSV was highest in 0-6-month-old children at 18.18 % (106/583), while the detection rate of IFA was highest in 12-18-year-old children at 20.48 % (17/83). The total detection rates in winter and spring were 35.67 % (219/614) and 34.56 % (403/1166), higher than those in summer, 17.41 % (284/1631), and autumn, 19.46 % (193/992).

Conclusions: RSV and IFA were the main respiratory viruses in children. With increasing age the detection rate of RSV decreased in children, but the trends for the detection rates of IFA and IFB were the opposite. This study provided the viral etiology and epidemiology of pediatric patients with ARI in Guangdong, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02759-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212487PMC
June 2021

Prognostic and Predictive Value of Immune-Related Gene Pair Signature in Primary Lower-Grade Glioma Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:665870. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) have been associated with prognosis in various cancer types, but few studies have examined their prognostic capabilities in glioma patients. Here, we gathered the gene expression and clinical profile data of primary lower-grade glioma (LGG) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA, containing CGGAseq1 and CGGAseq2), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE16011), and Rembrandt datasets. In the TCGA dataset, univariate Cox regression was performed to detect overall survival (OS)-related IRGs, Lasso regression, and multivariate Cox regression were used to screen robust prognosis-related IRGs, and 19 IRGs were selected for the construction of an IRGP prognostic signature. All patients were allotted to high- and low-risk subgroups based on the TCGA dataset median value risk score. Validation analysis indicated that the IRGP signature returned a stable prognostic value among all datasets. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that the IRG -signature could efficiently predict the prognosis of primary LGG patients. The IRGP-signature-based nomogram model was built, revealing the reliable ability of the IRGP signature to predict clinical prognosis. The single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) suggested that high-risk samples contained higher numbers of immune cells but featured lower tumor purity than low-risk samples. Finally, we verified the prognostic ability of the IRGP signature using experiments performed in LGG cells. These results indicated that the IRGP signature could be regarded as a stable prognostic assessment predictor for identifying high-risk primary LGG patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.665870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190397PMC
May 2021

A Guide to Nucleic Acid Vaccines in the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases and Cancers: From Basic Principles to Current Applications.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:633776. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Faced with the challenges posed by infectious diseases and cancer, nucleic acid vaccines present excellent prospects in clinical applications. Compared with traditional vaccines, nucleic acid vaccines have the characteristics of high efficiency and low cost. Therefore, nucleic acid vaccines have potential advantages in disease prevention and treatment. However, the low immunogenicity and instability of nucleic acid vaccines have limited their development. Therefore, a large number of studies have been conducted to improve their immunogenicity and stability by improving delivery methods, thereby supporting progress and development for clinical applications. This article mainly reviews the advantages, disadvantages, mechanisms, delivery methods, and clinical applications of nucleic acid vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.633776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185206PMC
May 2021

Hsa_circ_0031787 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in colorectal cancer.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jul 5;35(7):e23807. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Proctology, Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China.

Objective: Circular RNA (circRNA) has been found to be involved in regulating tumor development. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of circRNA in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of hsa_circ_0031787 on CRC.a METHODS: Aberrant circRNA expression was explored by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and hsa_circ_0031787 was selected for further study. Hsa_circ_0031787 expression was determined in CRC tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was measured by Edu and colony formation assays. Cell invasion was tested by Transwell assays.

Results: Hsa_circ_0031787 expression levels in CRC were significantly increased and correlated with advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis in CRC patients. Functional assays showed that hsa_circ_0031787 suppression reduced CRC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and reduced tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, hsa_circ_0031787 suppression reduced activation of the Wnt/β-catenin axis in CRC.

Conclusions: Our results showed that hsa_circ_0031787 may function as an oncogenic circRNA in CRC progression, thus providing a new potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274988PMC
July 2021

Effects of Tea against Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Modulating Gut Microbiota in Chronic Alcohol-Exposed Mice.

Foods 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Tea is a popular beverage worldwide and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as hepatoprotective effects. However, the potential role of gut microbiota regulated by tea in the prevention and management of AFLD remains unclear. Here, the protective effects of oolong tea, black tea, and dark tea on AFLD and its regulation of gut microbiota in chronic alcohol-exposed mice were explored and investigated. The results revealed that tea supplementation significantly prevented liver steatosis, decreased oxidative stress and inflammation, and modulated gut microbiota in chronic alcohol-exposed mice, especially oolong tea and dark tea. However, black tea showed less effectiveness against liver injury caused by alcohol. Moreover, the diversity, structure and composition of chronic alcohol-disrupted gut microbiota were restored by the supplementation of oolong tea and dark tea based on the analysis of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the relationship between liver injury biochemical indicators and gut microbiota indicated that some specific bacteria, such as , , and were closely associated with AFLD. In addition, the phytochemical components in tea extracts were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, which could contribute to preventive effects on AFLD. In summary, oolong tea and dark tea could prevent chronic alcohol exposure-induced AFLD by modulating gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228948PMC
May 2021

GM-CSF mediates immune evasion via upregulation of PD-L1 expression in extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma.

Mol Cancer 2021 05 29;20(1):80. Epub 2021 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, 510060, Guangdong, China.

Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that is used as an immunopotentiator for anti-tumor therapies in recent years. We found that some of the extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) patients with the treatment of hGM-CSF rapidly experienced disease progression, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to explore the mechanisms of disease progression triggered by GM-CSF in ENKTL.

Methods: The mouse models bearing EL4 cell tumors were established to investigate the effects of GM-CSF on tumor growth and T cell infiltration and function. Human ENKTL cell lines including NK-YS, SNK-6, and SNT-8 were used to explore the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) induced by GM-CSF. To further study the mechanisms of disease progression of ENKTL in detail, the mutations and gene expression profile were examined by next-generation sequence (NGS) in the ENKTL patient's tumor tissue samples.

Results: The mouse-bearing EL4 cell tumor exhibited a faster tumor growth rate and poorer survival in the treatment with GM-CSF alone than in treatment with IgG or the combination of GM-CSF and PD-1 antibody. The PD-L1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was significantly increased in ENKTL cells treated with GM-CSF. STAT5A high-frequency mutation including p.R131G, p.D475N, p.F706fs, p.V707E, and p.S710F was found in 12 ENKTL cases with baseline tissue samples. Importantly, STAT5A-V706fs mutation tumor cells exhibited increased activation of STAT5A pathway and PD-L1 overexpression in the presence of GM-CSF.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that GM-CSF potentially triggers the loss of tumor immune surveillance in ENKTL patients and promotes disease progression, which is associated with STAT5 mutations and JAK2 hyperphosphorylation and then upregulates the expression of PD-L1. These may provide new concepts for GM-CSF application and new strategies for the treatment of ENKTL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01374-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164269PMC
May 2021

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Colorectal Cancer Immune Escape through Stabilizing PD-L1 Expression.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 24;8(10):2003404. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine Guangdong Esophageal Cancer Institute Guangzhou 510060 China.

Despite the great success of immunotherapy in a small subset of cancer patients, most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients do not respond to programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) blockade immunotherapy. There is an urgent medical need to elucidate how cancer cells evade immune response and to develop novel means to boost the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this study, alcohol induces ligand programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-L1) expression of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Alcohol exposure is shown to induce aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) expression that is a crucial enzyme involved in alcohol metabolism, and low level of lymphocytes infiltration in the murine CRC model and patients. Intriguingly, ALDH2 and PD-L1 protein expression are positively correlated in tumor tissues from the CRC patients. Mechanistically, ALDH2 stabilizes PD-L1 protein expression by physically interacting with the intracellular segment of PD-L1 and inhibiting its proteasome-dependent degradation mediated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase Speckle Type POZ Protein (SPOP). Importantly, inhibition of ALDH2 reduces PD-L1 protein in CRC cells and promotes tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) infiltration, presumably leading to the significant potentiation of anti-PD-1 antibody efficacy in a mouse CT26 CRC model. The findings highlight a crucial role played by ALDH2 to facilitate alcohol-mediated tumor escape from immunity surveillance and promote tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202003404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132160PMC
May 2021

H Long Terminal Repeat-Associating 2 (HHLA2) is a Biomarker of Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Promotes Tumor Cell Development In Vitro.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 15;27:e930215. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Endoscopy, Guangxi Medical University Cancer Hospital, Nanning, Guangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Several risk factors contribute to the inflammation promoting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Human endogenous retrovirus H long terminal repeat-associating 2 (HHLA2), a B7 family member, is highly expressed in various malignant tumor tissues and is related to tumor progression and metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bioinformatics analysis was used to analyze the gene expression chip GSE33006 of HCC tissue in the GEO database, draw a heat map of differentially expressed genes, and analyze the GO pathway of gene function annotation. Then, we compared HCC tissues with para-carcinoma liver tissues from 55 patients for expression patterns and associations with HHLA2. Effects of HHLA2 knockdown were examined in the human HCC cell line HepG2 to explore effects of HHLA2 on HepG2 cells. RESULTS A significantly higher expression of HHLA2 at the mRNA and protein levels was detected in HCC tissues than in para-carcinoma liver tissues, which was similar to HHLA2 expression in the GSE33006 data. A higher expression of HHLA2 protein was associated with advanced cancer stage, tumor differentiation, and invasion of adjacent structures. In vitro knockdown of HHLA2 expression significantly increased HepG2 cell adhesion, promoted cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase, and inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicated there was a higher expression of HHLA2 in HCC tissues than in para-carcinoma liver tissues, and HHLA2 plays a major role in the development and progression of HCC. Owing to its higher expression, HHLA2 is a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132585PMC
May 2021

Author Correction: Prolonged activation of innate immune pathways by a polyvalent STING agonist.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 May;5(5):483

Department of Pharmacology, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00741-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126515PMC
May 2021

Acceleration of ageing via disturbing mTOR-regulated proteostasis by a new ageing-associated gene PC4.

Aging Cell 2021 06 6;20(6):e13370. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Rocket Force Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Research on ageing-associated genes is important for investigating ageing and anti-ageing strategies. Here, we firstly reported that the human positive cofactor 4 (PC4), a multifunctional and highly conserved nucleoprotein, is accumulated and activated during ageing and causes global accelerated ageing process by disrupting proteostasis. Mechanistically, PC4 interacts with Sin3-HDAC complex and inhibits its deacetylated activity, leads to hyper-acetylation of the histones at the promoters of mTOR-related genes and causes mTOR signalling activation. Accordingly, mTOR activation causes excessive protein synthesis, resulting in impaired proteostasis and accelerated senescence. These results reveal a new biological function of PC4 in vivo, recognizes PC4 as a new ageing-associated gene and provides a genetically engineered mouse model to simulate natural ageing. More importantly, our findings also indicate that PC4 is involved in histone acetylation and serves as a potential target to improve proteostasis and delay ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208792PMC
June 2021

CFTR regulates embryonic T lymphopoiesis via Wnt signaling in zebrafish.

Immunol Lett 2021 Jun 2;234:47-53. Epub 2021 May 2.

SCU-CUHK Joint Laboratory for Reproductive Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

The number and function of T cells are abnormal as observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and CF mouse models, and our previous work shows that the CFTR mutant leads to deficiency of primitive and definitive hematopoietic in zebrafish. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of CFTR in T cell development during early embryogenesis have not been explored. Here, we report that the genetic ablation of CFTR in zebrafish resulted in abrogated embryonic T lymphopoiesis, which was ascribed to impaired thymic homing and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Transcriptome analysis of isolated HSCs in zebrafish embryos at 48 hpf showed a significant alteration of key factors essential for T cell development and Wnt signaling, consistent with our previous work on CFTR regulating hematopoiesis. In brief, we uncovered the function of CFTR in embryonic T cell development and suggest that the immune deficiency of CF patients may originate from an early embryonic stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2021.04.010DOI Listing
June 2021

α-CaCdP and β-CaCdP: Two Polymorphic Phosphide-Based Infrared Nonlinear Crystals with Distorted NLO-Active Tetrahedral Motifs Realizing Large Second Harmonic Generation Effects and Suitable Band Gaps.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 3;60(10):7553-7560. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, P. R. China.

Two polymorphic phosphide-based infrared (IR) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, α-CaCdP and β-CaCdP, were obtained by combining alkaline-earth metals and d transition metals using metal flux and metal salt flux methods, respectively. The crystal structure of α-CaCdP is orthorhombic in the space group C2 (no. 36), while the structure of β-CaCdP is monoclinic in the space group C (no. 8). Both are two-dimensional layered structures that are composed of CdP tetrahedra layers via sharing vertices, which stack along the -axis and the -axis, respectively. The second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements manifest that α-CaCdP and β-CaCdP exhibit strong SHG intensities (1.41 and 3.28× that of AgGaS at a 2050 nm laser, respectively). Other optical measurements indicate that α-CaCdP and β-CaCdP have suitable band gaps (1.98 and 1.55 eV, respectively), high laser-induced damage thresholds (4.5 and 3.1× that of AgGaS at 1064 nm laser, respectively) and appropriate birefringence (0.12 and 0.20 at 2050 nm, respectively) in addition to covering wide infrared transparent regions. The research on α-CaCdP and β-CaCdP demonstrates that they are potential IR NLO candidates. Theoretical calculations uncover that their SHG effects are from distorted CdP tetrahedra, highlighting that tetrahedral motifs, including d transition metals, would be ideal NLO-active building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01052DOI Listing
May 2021

Multi-Phase Multiple Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Enhancement Patterns and Morphological Features of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Analysis of 67 Cases.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 28;27:e929287. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shengli Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We investigated multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) plain scan and multi-phase CT enhancement features to aid ChRCC preoperative diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS MDCT data of patients with pathologically confirmed ChRCC were retrospectively analyzed. We calculated the ratios of the CT value for the solid part of the mass to those of the renal cortex, aorta, and inferior vena cava. These ratios were designated as L01-3 for the CT plain scan images, La1-3 for the cortical phase, Lv1-3 for the nephrographic phase, and Lp1-3 for the pelvic phase. We classified the masses into types I, II, III, and IV by type of enhancement. RESULTS Sixty-eight masses were included and divided into 3 groups by tumor size (groups A, B, and C). Percentages of calcification, central scars, and small vessel signs were significantly different during the cortical phase for masses in all groups (all P<0.01). Significant differences in enhancement were observed between tumors with severe and mild degrees of enhancement (P<0.01); and among La1, Lv1, and Lp1; La2, Lv2, and Lp2; and La3, Lv3, and Lp3 after enhancement during the cortical, nephrographic, and renal pelvic phases (all P<0.01). The most common type of mass enhancement was type II, followed by type I, and differences between these 2 types were significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Although the MDCT features for ChRCC are diverse, MDCT helped preoperatively diagnose ChRCC. Multiple MDCT features are needed to improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091903PMC
April 2021

Salivary KLK5 and uPA are potential biomarkers for malignant transformation of OLK and OLP.

Cancer Biomark 2021 ;31(4):317-328

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) usually originates from oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), such as oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral lichen planus (OLP). Identifying biomarkers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of malignant transformation in OPMD could improve the survival rate of OSCC patients.

Objective: The present study aimed to screen for potential salivary biomarkers for evaluating the malignant transformation of OPMD.

Methods: Salivary proteases from OLK and OSCC patients or healthy donors and proteases in cultural medium from DOK and Cal-27 cells were detected with a human protease array kit. The concentrations of the salivary Kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) proteases were measured by ELISA. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to determine the potential value of these proteases in clinical diagnosis were calculated using SPSS software. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the KLK5 and uPA expression in the oral organizations.

Results: The salivary protease spectrum was different among patients with OLK and OSCC and healthy donors. KLK5 and uPA levels in saliva tended to increase as the disease progressed (healthy < OPMD [OLK and OLP] < OSCC). ROC curves showed the optimum diagnostic cutoffs for KLK5 as a biomarker for OLK, OLP, and OSCC were 5.97, 6.03, and 9.45 pg/mL, respectively, while the cutoffs for uPA were 17.19, 17.26, and 20.96 pg/mL. Their combined analysis showed a higher sensitivity for the differential diagnosis of disease. Furthermore, higher levels of KLK5 and uPA were observed in OSCC tissues than in OLK and OLP.

Conclusions: Salivary KLK5 and uPA are potential biomarkers for evaluating OLK and OLP malignant transformation and early diagnosis of OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-203105DOI Listing
January 2021

Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) excited by ultraviolet light: insights into the nitrogen fixation mechanism of missing metal cluster or linker defects.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr;13(16):7801-7809

State Key Laboratory of High-efficiency Utilization of Coal and Green Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, P.R. China.

The vacancies of semiconductors have proven to be effective active sites for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation, but what about the role of defects in MOF materials? Herein, we report the first UiO-66 with photo-excited cluster defects and linker defects for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation. It was determined through the post-synthetic ligand exchange (PSE) process that the linker defects, rather than cluster defects, can greatly improve the performance, which is due to linker defects forming unsaturated metal nodes such as the vacancy in a semiconductor. Specifically, for photo-activated UiO-66, the NH4+ production rate was 196 and 68 μmol g-1 h-1 in air atmosphere under ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and visible light, respectively. This report provides a new effective strategy to design efficient nitrogen fixation photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00697eDOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical characteristics and management of Turner patients with a small supernumerary marker chromosome.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Apr 19:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of Turner syndrome (TS) with a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) and discuss the clinical significance and management of TS patients with sSMC.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 244 patients with disorders of sexual development admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from February 1984 to July 2020.

Results: Among the 244 patients with a disorder of sexual development, 69 cases of TS were identified in which 13 patients had sSMC. Their ages ranged from 3 to 28 years old with an average of 14.31 ± 6.40 years. All 13 sSMC-positive patients had typical clinical manifestations of TS except ambiguous genitalia in four cases. SRY gene testing was performed in 11sSMC-positive patients and 10 patients were positive for SRY and one was negative. Among the 10 SRY-positive patients, two cases had hirsutism and clitoral enlargement and two cases had clitoral enlargement only. Nine sSMC and SRY-positive patients underwent gonadectomy and one had left gonadal gonadoblastoma with seminoma and right gonadal seminoma .

Conclusions: Although the sSMC positive detection rate in DSD patients is uncommon (5.33% in our sample), the positive SRY detection rate in sSMC-positive TS patients was extremely high in our TS patients. And TS patients with sSMC and SRY positive had a significantly increased risk of gonadal germ cell tumors. Routine SRY screening should be performed in TS patients with sSMC, and a gonadectomy should be performed in TS patients with sSMC and SRY positive to prevent the occurrence of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2021.1911992DOI Listing
April 2021

TriBAFF-CAR-T cells eliminate B-cell malignancies with BAFFR-expression and CD19 antigen loss.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 17;21(1):223. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Hematology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510317, China.

Background: To investigate the effect of TriBAFF-CAR-T cells on hematological tumor cells.

Methods: TriBAFF-CAR-T and CD19-CAR-T cells were co-cultured with BAFFR-bearing B-cell malignancies at different effector/target ratios to evaluate the anti-tumor effects. In vivo, TriBAFF-CAR-T and CD19-CAR-T cells were intravenously injected into Raji-luciferase xenograft mice. CD19 antigens losing lymphoblasts was simulated by Raji knocking out CD19 (CD19) to investigate the effect of TriBAFF-CAR-T cells on CD19 Raji.

Results: Both TriBAFF-CAR-T and CD19-CAR-T cells significantly induced the lysis of Raji, BALL-1, and Jeko-1. Moreover, when CD19-CAR-T cells specifically caused the lysis of K562 with overexpressed CD19, the lethal effect of TriBAFF-CAR-T cells was also specific for BAFFR-bearing K562 with increasing levels of interleukin-2 and INF-γ. The TriBAFF-CAR-T have the same effect with CD19-CAR-T cells in treating Raji xenofraft mice. TriBAFF-CAR-T cells also have great effect in CD19 Raji cells.

Conclusions: In this study, we successfully constructed novel TriBAFF-CAR-T cells to eliminate BAFFR-bearing and CD19 antigen loss in hematological tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01923-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052726PMC
April 2021

π-Conjugated Trigonal Planar [C(NH)] Cationic Group: A Superior Functional Unit for Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 23;6(13):9263-9268. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Employing π-conjugated anionic groups in molecular construction has been proven to be an effective strategy to find superior ultraviolet (UV) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals over the decades. Herein, unlike the traditional π-conjugated anionic groups, we identify that a π-conjugated cationic group, viz., [C(NH)], is also an excellent UV NLO-active functional group in theory. Furthermore, we identify a [C(NH)]-containing compound, C(NH)ClO, as a promising UV NLO candidate due to its short UV cutoff edge (200 nm), remarkable second-harmonic generation effect (∼3 × KDP), and moderate birefringence of [email protected] nm. Additionally, C(NH)ClO has excellent ferroelectric properties and reversal of domains, which also enables it to produce ultraviolet coherent light as short as 200 nm by a quasi-phase matching technique with a periodically poling method. Our study may provide not only a promising UV NLO crystal but also a new π-conjugated functional unit, [C(NH)], which will open a path to finding new classes of high-performance UV NLO crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028173PMC
April 2021

Carbon nanotubes promote alveolar macrophages toward M2 polarization mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

Nanotoxicology 2021 Jun 10;15(5):588-604. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Occupational Health and Environment Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, PR China.

With substantial progress of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications. There is rising concern about potential adverse health effects, such as pulmonary fibrosis, related to inhalation of CNTs. The detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis induced by CNTs are still not clear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT) are considered as critical events in pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) polarization plays a key role of regulating EMT and FMT in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we applied CNTs to stimulate primary mouse AMs under M1 or M2 polarization conditions, then analyzed the proportion of F4/80CD11c or F4/80CD206 AMs, mRNA expression and activities of iNOS or Arg-1, as well as mRNA expression and content of TNF-α and IL-6 or TGF-β and IL-10 to evaluate dynamic phenotypic and functional changes of AMs. Single-walled CNT (SWCNT), short-type multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), and long-type MWCNT exposure at dose of 50 µg/ml promote AMs polarization toward M1 phenotype at early stage, while promote AMs polarization toward M2 phenotype at late stage. The roles of AMs polarization during development of EMT and FMT were further investigated by conditioned medium (CM) experiments. CNTs-activated M2 AMs promote progression of EMT and FMT secreting TGF-β. Furthermore, up-regulating IRF4 may be involved in CNTs-induced M2 AMs polarization. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a new insight that CNTs exposure promotes AMs polarization toward M2 phenotype which facilitate EMT and FMT through secreting TGF-β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2021.1905098DOI Listing
June 2021

Cd(IO)(IO)F·0.1CdO: A Nonlinear-Optical Crystal with the Introduction of Fluoride into Iodate Containing Both [IO] and [IO] Groups.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 6;60(8):6040-6046. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Science & Technology Innovation Laboratory for Optoelectronic Information of China, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

A new d transition-metal iodate fluoride, namely, Cd(IO)(IO)F·0.1CdO, was successfully designed and synthesized via the mid-infrared hydrothermal method. It crystallizes in the polar space group 3 and features the coexistence of the [IO] and [IO] groups. Cd(IO)(IO)F·0.1CdO has a strong second-harmonic-generation response of about 3.0 times that of KDP(KH2PO4), large birefringence (0.133 at 546.1 nm), and a wide energy band gap (4.00 eV). In addition, the power laser damage threshold (LDT) measurement indicated that it possesses a high LDT of 84.29 MW/cm, which is about 30 times that of AgGaS. These superior properties showed that Cd(IO)(IO)F·0.1CdO may be an excellent nonlinear-optical crystal for visible and mid-infrared application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00506DOI Listing
April 2021

Targeted Delivery of Salusin-α into Rabbit Carotid Arterial Endothelium Using SonoVue.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China.

Objectives: A new method based on the adhesion of SonoVue to plasmids was assessed to achieve targeted gene delivery into the vascular endothelium.

Methods: pEGFP-Salusin-α and pcDNA3.1-Salusin-α plasmids were transfected into the arterial endothelium of different rabbit groups. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of EGFP and salusin-α in the common carotid arteries of rabbits from different groups, and ELISA was performed to detect plasma salusin-α levels in rabbits from each group; simultaneously, blood parameters of different groups of rabbits were measured.

Results: Green fluorescence was observed in the right common carotid artery of rabbits transfected with pEGFP-Salusin-α, but not in the endothelial cells of not-transfected control rabbits. The expression of salusin-α in the transfected animals was higher than that in the control not-transfected animals (P < 0.05). In rabbits transfected with pcDNA3.1-Salusin-α plasmid, salusin-α expression was higher than in the not-transfected control animals (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in plasma salusin-α levels between transfected animals and controls (P > 0.05). Blood parameters were also measured in both groups.

Conclusions: Our data confirm the establishment of a new method using SonoVue for targeted gene delivery into the arterial endothelium. Our study outcomes propose a new method of intervention in atherosclerosis and a new tool for targeted gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15714DOI Listing
April 2021

Nanoporous Intermetallic Pd Bi for Efficient Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction.

Adv Mater 2021 May 1;33(18):e2007733. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, China.

Electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction at ambient temperature is a green technology for artificial nitrogen fixation but greatly challenging with low yield and poor selectivity. Here, a nanoporous ordered intermetallic Pd Bi prepared by converting chemically etched nanoporous PdBi exhibits efficient electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction under ambient conditions. The resulting nanoporous intermetallic Pd Bi can achieve high activity and selectivity with an NH yield rate of 59.05 ± 2.27 µg h mg and a Faradaic efficiency of 21.52 ± 0.71% at -0.2 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode in 0.05 m H SO electrolyte, outperforming most of the reported catalysts in electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies combined with density functional theory calculations reveal that strong coupling between the Pd-Bi sites bridges the electron-transfer channel of intermetallic Pd Bi, in which the Bi sites can absorb N molecules and lower the energy barrier of *N for N adsorption and activation. Meanwhile, the intermetallic Pd Bi with bicontinuous nanoporous structure can accelerate the electron transport during the NRR process, thus improving the NRR performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007733DOI Listing
May 2021

Artesunate induces ER-derived-ROS-mediated cell death by disrupting labile iron pool and iron redistribution in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 1;11(3):691-711. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Rocket Force Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University) Chongqing 400038, China.

Aberrant iron homeostasis is a typical characteristic of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and perturbation of iron metabolism is an effective strategy for HCC therapy. However, there are few safe and effective targeting agents available in clinical practices. The artemisinin and its derivatives have shown potential anti-cancer activity by disturbing cellular iron homeostasis, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Artesunate (ART), a water-soluble anti-malaria agent in clinical use, can regulate the labile iron pool (LIP) and effectively induce ROS-dependent cell death in multiple HCC cells. Mechanistically, ART increases the LIP by promoting lysosomal degradation of iron-storage protein ferritin through acidizing lysosomes. Then the accumulation of labile iron in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and severe ER disruption, which leads to cell death. Our results provide a new understanding of how ART modulates iron metabolism in HCC cells at the subcellular level, demonstrate the significance of endoplasmic reticulum as iron-vulnerability of HCC cells. More importantly, our findings suggest ART is a safe and potential anti-HCC agent via disturbing iron homeostasis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994160PMC
March 2021
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