Publications by authors named "Min Gao"

909 Publications

Silicon dioxide nanoparticles induced neurobehavioral impairments by disrupting microbiota-gut-brain axis.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 10;19(1):174. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Background: Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiONPs) are widely used as additive in the food industry with controversial health risk. Gut microbiota is a new and hot topic in the field of nanotoxicity. It also contributes a novel and insightful view to understand the potential health risk of food-grade SiONPs in children, who are susceptible to the toxic effects of nanoparticles.

Methods: In current study, the young mice were orally administrated with vehicle or SiONPs solution for 28 days. The effects of SiONPs on the gut microbiota were detected by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, and the neurobehavioral functions were evaluated by open field test and Morris water maze. The level of inflammation, tissue integrity of gut and the classical indicators involved in gut-brain, gut-liver and gut-lung axis were all assessed.

Results: Our results demonstrated that SiONPs significantly caused the spatial learning and memory impairments and locomotor inhibition. Although SiONPs did not trigger evident intestinal or neuronal inflammation, they remarkably damaged the tissue integrity. The microbial diversity within the gut was unexpectedly enhanced in SiONPs-treated mice, mainly manifested by the increased abundances of Firmicutes and Patescibacteria. Intriguingly, we demonstrated for the first time that the neurobehavioral impairments and brain damages induced by SiONPs might be distinctively associated with the disruption of gut-brain axis by specific chemical substances originated from gut, such as Vipr1 and Sstr2. Unapparent changes in liver or lung tissues further suggested the absence of gut-liver axis or gut-lung axis regulation upon oral SiONPs exposure.

Conclusion: This study provides a novel idea that the SiONPs induced neurotoxic effects may occur through distinctive gut-brain axis, showing no significant impact on either gut-lung axis or gut-liver axis. These findings raise the exciting prospect that maintenance and coordination of gastrointestinal functions may be critical for protection against the neurotoxicity of infant foodborne SiONPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00916-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Describing a new food group classification system for UK biobank: analysis of food groups and sources of macro- and micronutrients in 208,200 participants.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02591-3DOI Listing
June 2021

ALOX5AP Predicts Poor Prognosis by Enhancing M2 Macrophages Polarization and Immunosuppression in Serous Ovarian Cancer Microenvironment.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:675104. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gynecology Oncology Key Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is a highly lethal gynecological malignancy with poor prognosis. Given the importance of the immune-related tumor microenvironment (TME) in ovarian cancer, investigating tumor-immune interactions and identifying novel prognostic and therapeutic targets in SOC is a promising avenue of research. ALOX5AP (Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein) is a key enzyme in converting arachidonic acid to leukotriene: a crucial immune-modulating lipid mediator. However, the role of ALOX5AP in SOC has yet to be studied.

Methods: ALOX5AP expression patterns across ovarian cancer and their normal tissue counterparts were cross-checked using public microarray and RNA-seq analyses and then validated in clinical samples by qRT-PCR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed in multiple independent SOC patient cohorts. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were then employed to identify clinical risk parameters associated with survival, and a genomic-clinicopathologic nomogram was built. Gene enrichment, immune infiltration, and immunosuppressor correlation analyses were then evaluated.

Results: ALOX5AP mRNA levels in SOC tissues were significantly upregulated compared to normal tissues. Elevated ALOX5AP was markedly associated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival in multiple SOC patient cohorts as well as with adverse clinicopathological features, including lymphatic invasion, unsatisfactory cytoreductive surgery, rapid relapse after primary treatment, and platinum non-responsiveness. A predictive nomogram, which integrated ALOX5AP expression and two independent prognosis factors (primary therapy outcome and tumor residual), was conducted to predict the 3-year and 5-year survival rate of SOC patients. Mechanistically, functional and pathway enrichment analyses revealed that ALOX5AP was primarily involved in immune response and regulation. Further exploration demonstrated that ALOX5AP was highly expressed in the immunoreactive subtype of ovarian cancer and closely related to immunocyte infiltration, especially M2 macrophage polarization. Additionally, ALOX5AP was enriched in the C4 (lymphocyte depleted) immune subtype of SOC and associated with crucial immune-repressive receptors in the tumor microenvironment at the genomic level.

Conclusions: ALOX5AP expression indicates a worse survival outcome and has the potential to be utilized as a prognostic predictor for SOC patients. Given the availability of well-studied ALOX5AP inhibitors, this study has immediate clinical implications for the exploitation of ALOX5AP as an immunotherapeutic target in SOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.675104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172172PMC
May 2021

Diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in rhizosphere soil and endophytes of leafy vegetables: Focusing on the effect of the vegetable species.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 6;415:125595. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Beijing Agro-Biotechnology Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the endophytes of vegetables represent a potential route of human exposure to the soil resistome. However, the effect of vegetable species on the endophytic ARG profiles is unclear, hampering our understanding of how ARGs migrate into the soil-vegetable system and their potential health risks. Here, we planted four leafy vegetables (cilantro, endive, lettuce, and pak choi), which are commonly eaten raw, and analyzed the resistomes and microbiomes in three sample types (rhizosphere soil, root, and leaf endophytes). A total of 150 ARG subtypes were detected using high-throughput quantitative PCR. Vegetable species had a significant effect on ARG diversity and abundance, and pak choi accumulated more ARGs in its associated microbiome than the other three vegetables. The bacterial community was the primary factor shaping ARG profiles and was significantly correlated with ARG subtypes. We identified aadE, tet(34), and vanSB as shared ARGs among leaves of the four vegetables; the bacterial families correlated with tet(34) and vanSB were also shared across the vegetables and belonged to Proteobacteria. This study deepens our understanding of how endophytic ARG profiles vary among different vegetables and highlights the potential health risk associated with consuming these vegetables raw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125595DOI Listing
August 2021

c-Myc Upregulated by High Glucose Inhibits HaCaT Differentiation by S100A6 Transcriptional Activation.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 14;12:676403. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Burn, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction in diabetic skin is closely related to impaired skin barrier functions. We investigated the effects of c-Myc and S100A6 on Human immortal keratinocyte line (HaCaT) or keratinocyte differentiation and potential mechanisms. The expression levels of differentiation makers such as transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), loricrin (LOR), and keratin 1 (K1) were significantly reduced, while the expression of c-Myc was significantly increased in HaCaT cells cultured in high glucose and wound margin keratinocytes from diabetic rats and human patients. Overexpression of caused differentiation dysfunction of HaCaT, while knocking down promoted differentiation. High glucose increased the expression of c-Myc and inhibited differentiation in HaCaT cells by activating the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, inhibition of c-Myc transcriptional activity alleviated the differentiation dysfunction caused by high glucose or overexpression of . c-Myc binds to the promoter to directly regulate expression and high glucose promoted transcription. The expression of S100A6 was increased in HaCaT cultured with high glucose and wound margin keratinocytes from diabetic rats and human patients. However, the expression of S100A6 was decreased during normal HaCaT differentiation. HaCaT cells treated with S100A6 recombinant protein showed differentiation dysfunction. The expressions of TGM1, LOR and K1 in knockdown HaCaT cells were higher than those in the control group. Overexpression of or high glucose caused differentiation dysfunction of HaCaT cells, and was rescued by knocking down . These findings illustrate a new mechanism by which c-Myc upregulated by high glucose inhibits HaCaT differentiation by directly activating transcription. Thus, c-Myc and S100A6 may be potential targets for the treatment of chronic diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.676403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163689PMC
May 2021

Glyburide attenuates B(a)p and LPS-induced inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis in mice.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Toxicology, Zhengzhou University School of Public Health, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Glyburide (Gly) could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome, as well as could be treated with Type 2 diabetes as a common medication. Despite more and more studies show that Gly could influence cancer risk and tumor growth, it remains unclear about the effect of Gly in lung tumorigenesis. To evaluate whether Gly inhibited lung tumorigenesis and explore the possible mechanisms, a benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)p] plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced non-diabetes mice model was established with B(a)p for 4 weeks and once a week (1 mg/mouse), then instilled with LPS for 15 weeks and once every 3 weeks (2.5 μg/mouse) intratracheally. Subsequently, Gly was administered by gavage (10 μl/g body weight) 1 week before B(a)p were given to the mice until the animal model finished (when Gly was first given named Week 0). At the end of the experiment called Week 34, we analyzed the incidence, number and histopathology of lung tumors, and detected the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and Cleaved-IL-1β protein. We found that vehicles and tricaprylin+Gly could not cause lung carcinogenesis in the whole process. While the incidence and mean tumor count of mice in B(a)P/LPS+Gly group were decreased compared with B(a)p/LPS group. Moreover, Gly could alleviate inflammatory changes and reduce pathological tumor nest numbers compared with mice administrated with B(a)p/LPS in histopathological examination. The B(a)p/LPS increased the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and Cleaved-IL-1β protein significantly than Vehicle, whereas decreased in B(a)P/LPS+Gly (0.96 mg/kg) group compared with B(a)p/LPS group. Results suggested glyburide might inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome to attenuate inflammation-related lung tumorigenesis caused by intratracheal instillation of B(a)p/LPS in non-diabetes mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23293DOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolic reprogramming of terminally exhausted CD8 T cells by IL-10 enhances anti-tumor immunity.

Nat Immunol 2021 Jun 24;22(6):746-756. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Bioengineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

T cell exhaustion presents one of the major hurdles to cancer immunotherapy. Among exhausted CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, the terminally exhausted subset contributes directly to tumor cell killing owing to its cytotoxic effector function. However, this subset does not respond to immune checkpoint blockades and is difficult to be reinvigorated with restored proliferative capacity. Here, we show that a half-life-extended interleukin-10-Fc fusion protein directly and potently enhanced expansion and effector function of terminally exhausted CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by promoting oxidative phosphorylation, a process that was independent of the progenitor exhausted T cells. Interleukin-10-Fc was a safe and highly efficient metabolic intervention that synergized with adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy, leading to eradication of established solid tumors and durable cures in the majority of treated mice. These findings show that metabolic reprogramming by upregulating mitochondrial pyruvate carrier-dependent oxidative phosphorylation can revitalize terminally exhausted T cells and enhance the response to cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00940-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610876PMC
June 2021

Applying the Carolina care model to improve nurses' humanistic care abilities.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3591-3599. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, China.

Purpose: To study the application of the Carolina Care Model to improve nurses' humanistic care abilities in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Methods: From December 2019 to April 2020, 40 nursing staff and 80 patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in our hospital were recruited as the study cohort and randomly placed in an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group underwent the Carolina Care Model to complete the clinical nursing work. The control group underwent hospital routines to complete clinical nursing work.

Results: After the training, the humanistic care ability scores and the scores of various dimensions in the intervention group were significantly higher than the scores in the control group (P<0.05). The patient care perception scores in the intervention group were higher than they were in the control group (P<0.05). The patients' nursing satisfaction scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than they were in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Carrying out a humanistic care nursing practice based on the Carolina Care Model can improve the humanistic care abilities of the nurses in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, patient care perception and satisfaction, and the quality of the nursing service.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129219PMC
April 2021

Influence of humanistic care based on Carolina care model for ovarian cancer patients on postoperative recovery and quality of life.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3390-3399. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, China.

Objective: Our aim was to explore the influence of humanistic care based on Carolina care model on postoperative recovery and quality of life in patients with ovarian cancer (OC).

Methods: In this prospective study, we selected 85 OC patients and randomly divided them into the Carolina group (n = 43) given humanistic care based on Carolina care model and the control group (n = 42) given routine nursing intervention. The postoperative recovery and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary Cancer (FACT-O) scores were compared between the two groups.

Results: After intervention, the time of first flatus and defecation after surgery, the time of first ambulation and the length of average postoperative hospital stay were much shorter, and the pain score, total complication rate, self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale scores as well as Cortisol, C-reactive protein and fasting blood glucose levels at 48 hours postoperatively were significantly lower in the Carolina group than in the control group. The nursing satisfaction in the Carolina group was markedly higher than that in the control group (97.67% vs. 78.57%, P<0.01). After 3 months of follow-up, the Carolina group showed higher dimension scores of FACT-O than the control group (all P<0.001).

Conclusion: Humanistic nursing care based on Carolina care model can significantly ameliorate the recovery of OC patients, reduce the physical and psychologic stress response, and effectively enhance the nursing satisfaction and quality of life.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129217PMC
April 2021

Analysis of uterine CD49a NK cell subsets in menstrual blood reflects endometrial status and association with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00687-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Synthesis of 1,3-Aminoalcohols and Spirocyclic Azetidines via Tandem Hydroxymethylation and Aminomethylation Reaction of β-Keto Phosphonates with -Nosyl--(2-bromoethyl)hydroxylamine.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 17;23(11):4152-4157. Epub 2021 May 17.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, P. R. China.

An unprecedented tandem α-hydroxymethylation and α-aminomethylation reaction of aromatic cyclic β-keto phosphonates with -nosyl--(2-bromoethyl)hydroxylamine in the presence of DBU base has been developed, affording a range of 1,3-aminoalcohols in good yields. The resultant products could be flexibly transformed into the spirocyclic and bispirocyclic azetidines via one step of Mitsunobu reaction. Mechanistic study revealed that hydroxylamine in situ generated the formaldehyde and nosylamide, which in turn triggered the sequential Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Michael, and aldol reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01091DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations between body-mass index and COVID-19 severity in 6·9 million people in England: a prospective, community-based, cohort study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 06 28;9(6):350-359. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, UK; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to examine this association, including interactions with demographic and behavioural characteristics, type 2 diabetes, and other health conditions.

Methods: In this prospective, community-based, cohort study, we used de-identified patient-level data from the QResearch database of general practices in England, UK. We extracted data for patients aged 20 years and older who were registered at a practice eligible for inclusion in the QResearch database between Jan 24, 2020 (date of the first recorded infection in the UK) and April 30, 2020, and with available data on BMI. Data extracted included demographic, clinical, clinical values linked with Public Health England's database of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and death certificates from the Office of National Statistics. Outcomes, as a proxy measure of severe COVID-19, were admission to hospital, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and death due to COVID-19. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of severe COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for demographic characteristics, behavioural factors, and comorbidities.

Findings: Among 6 910 695 eligible individuals (mean BMI 26·78 kg/m [SD 5·59]), 13 503 (0·20%) were admitted to hospital, 1601 (0·02%) to an ICU, and 5479 (0·08%) died after a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. We found J-shaped associations between BMI and admission to hospital due to COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per kg/m from the nadir at BMI of 23 kg/m of 1·05 [95% CI 1·05-1·05]) and death (1·04 [1·04-1·05]), and a linear association across the whole BMI range with ICU admission (1·10 [1·09-1·10]). We found a significant interaction between BMI and age and ethnicity, with higher HR per kg/m above BMI 23 kg/m for younger people (adjusted HR per kg/m above BMI 23 kg/m for hospital admission 1·09 [95% CI 1·08-1·10] in 20-39 years age group vs 80-100 years group 1·01 [1·00-1·02]) and Black people than White people (1·07 [1·06-1·08] vs 1·04 [1·04-1·05]). The risk of admission to hospital and ICU due to COVID-19 associated with unit increase in BMI was slightly lower in people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease than in those without these morbidities.

Interpretation: At a BMI of more than 23 kg/m, we found a linear increase in risk of severe COVID-19 leading to admission to hospital and death, and a linear increase in admission to an ICU across the whole BMI range, which is not attributable to excess risks of related diseases. The relative risk due to increasing BMI is particularly notable people younger than 40 years and of Black ethnicity.

Funding: NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00089-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081400PMC
June 2021

[Effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12) on intestinal nutritional feeding intolerance in patients with severe acute pancreatitis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Apr;46(4):312-7

Department of Emergency, Hebei Cangzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Cangzhou 061000, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of Zusanli(ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12) on intestinal nutritional feeding intolerance in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).

Methods: A total of 68 SAP patients (hospitalized from January of 2018 to December of 2019 in Cangzhou Hospital of Integrated Medicine) were randomly divided into control and EA groups (=34 cases in each group). All patients of the two groups received the same early enteral nutrition treatment through nasojejunal tube. EA (5-15 Hz, 1-5 mA) was applied to bilateral ST36 and CV12 for 20 min, twice a day for 7 days. The incidence of feeding intolerance (abdominal distension, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding), time to reach energy target, intraperitoneal pressure and the number of borborygmus in 1 min were recorded. The contents of plasma high sensitivity -C reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 and endotoxin were measured using Latex immunoturbidimetric method, chemiluminescence and Tachypiens Amebocyte Lysate Azo substrate color development method, respectively, and the contents of urinary lactulose and mannitol detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total protein and albumin levels in the blood were measured for assessing the patients' nutrition status, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation scoring system (APACHE-Ⅱ) score was determined for assessing the severity of disease.

Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of abdominal distension, vomiting and constipation, intolerance rate to feeding, time to reach the energy target, intraperitoneal pressure on day 7, inflammatory indexes, hs-CRP, IL-6, endotoxin, urine L/M on day 4 and 7, and the APACHE Ⅱ score on day 7 were significantly lower (<0.01), and the number of borborygmus in 1 min on day 4 and 7 after the treatment was significantly higher in the EA group (<0.01). In comparison with pretreatment, the abdominal pressure and plasma endotoxin level on day 4 and 7, hs-CRP, IL-6 and L/M ratio on day 1, 4 and 7, as well as APACHE Ⅱ score on day 7 after the treatment were significantly decreased in the two groups (<0.01), and the number of borborygmus on day 4 and 7, and the total protein and albumin on day 7 significantly increased in both the control and EA groups (<0.01).

Conclusion: EA of ST36 and CV12 can shorten the time to reach the energy target, reduce inflammatory response, improve the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and thus reduce the incidence of feeding intolerance in SAP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200463DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis highlights contrasting levels of resistance of Vitis vinifera and Vitis amurensis to Botrytis cinerea.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):103. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Xianyang, Shaanxi, China.

Botrytis cinerea is a major grapevine (Vitis spp.) pathogen, but some genotypes differ in their degree of resistance. For example, the Vitis vinifera cultivar Red Globe (RG) is highly susceptible, but V. amurensis Rupr Shuangyou (SY) is highly resistant. Here, we used RNA sequencing analysis to characterize the transcriptome responses of these two genotypes to B. cinerea inoculation at an early infection stage. Approximately a quarter of the genes in RG presented significant changes in transcript levels during infection, the number of which was greater than that in the SY leaves. The genes differentially expressed between infected leaves of SY and RG included those associated with cell surface structure, oxidation, cell death and C/N metabolism. We found evidence that an imbalance in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis probably contributed to the susceptibility of RG to B. cinerea. SY leaves had strong antioxidant capacities and improved ROS homeostasis following infection. Regulatory network prediction suggested that WRKY and MYB transcription factors are associated with the abscisic acid pathway. Weighted gene correlation network analysis highlighted preinfection features of SY that might contribute to its increased resistance. Moreover, overexpression of VaWRKY10 in Arabidopsis thaliana and V. vinifera Thompson Seedless enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Collectively, our study provides a high-resolution view of the transcriptional changes of grapevine in response to B. cinerea infection and novel insights into the underlying resistance mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00537-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087793PMC
May 2021

Group-C/S1 bZIP heterodimers regulate MdIPT5b to negatively modulate drought tolerance in apple species.

Plant J 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Cytokinins play a central role in delaying senescence, reducing oxidative damage and maintaining plant growth during drought. This study showed that the ectopic expression of ProRE-deleted MdIPT5b, a key enzyme involved in cytokinin metabolism, increased the drought tolerance of transgenic Malus domestica (apple) callus and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) seedlings by maintaining cytokinin homeostasis, and thus maintaining redox balance. Under restricted watering regimes, the yields of transgenic tomato plants were enhanced. Heterodimers of C/S1 bZIP are involved in the cytokinin-mediated drought response. The heterodimers bind the ProRE of MdIPT5b promoter, thus directly suppressing gene transcription. Single C/S1 bZIP members could not independently function as suppressors. However, specific paired members (heterodimers of MdbZIP80 with MdbZIP2 or with MdbZIP39) effectively suppressed transcription. The α-helical structure is essential for the heterodimerization of C/S1 bZIP members and for synergistic transcriptional suppression. As negative regulators of drought tolerance, suppressing either MdbZIP2 or MdbZIP39 alone does not improve the expression of MdIPT5b and did not increase the drought tolerance of transgenic apple callus. However, this could be achieved when they were co-suppressed. The suppression of MdbZIP80 alone could improve MdIPT5b expression and increase the drought tolerance of transgenic apple callus. However, these effects were reversed in response to the cosuppression of MdbZIP80 and MdIPT5b. Similar results were also observed during delayed dark-induced senescence in apple leaves. In conclusion, the apple C/S1 bZIP network (involving MdbZIP2, MdbZIP39 and MdbZIP80) directly suppressed the expression of MdIPT5b, thus negatively modulating drought tolerance and dark-induced senescence in a functionally redundant manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15296DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations between dietary patterns and the incidence of total and fatal cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 116,806 individuals from the UK Biobank: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Med 2021 Apr 22;19(1):83. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Background: Traditionally, studies investigating diet and health associations have focused on single nutrients. However, key nutrients co-exist in many common foods, and studies focusing solely on individual nutrients may obscure their combined effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We aimed to identify food-based dietary patterns which operate through excess energy intake and explain high variability in energy density, free sugars, saturated fat, and fiber intakes and to investigate their association with total and fatal CVD and all-cause mortality.

Methods: Detailed dietary data was collected using a 24-h online dietary assessment on two or more occasions (n = 116,806). We used reduced rank regression to derive dietary patterns explaining the maximum variance. Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models were used to investigate prospective associations with all-cause mortality and fatal and non-fatal CVD.

Results: Over an average of 4.9 years of follow-up, 4245 cases of total CVD, 838 cases of fatal CVD, and 3629 cases of all-cause mortality occurred. Two dietary patterns were retained that jointly explained 63% of variation in energy density, free sugars, saturated fat, and fiber intakes in total. The main dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of chocolate and confectionery, butter and low-fiber bread, and low intakes of fresh fruit and vegetables. There was a positive linear association between the dietary pattern and total CVD [hazard ratio (HR) per z-score 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.09; HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.31-1.50, and HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.27-1.47 in highest quintile]. A second dietary pattern was characterized by a higher intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and table sugar/preserves. There was a non-linear association with total CVD risk and all-cause mortality, with increased risk in the highest quintile [HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22; HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19].

Conclusions: We identified dietary patterns which are associated with increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. These results help identify specific foods and beverages which are major contributors to unhealthy dietary patterns and provide evidence to underpin food-based dietary advice to reduce health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01958-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061025PMC
April 2021

GEO data mining and TCGA analysis reveal altered branched chain amino acid metabolism in pancreatic cancer patients.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 21;13(8):11907-11918. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive tumor of the digestive system which has a less than 1% 5-year survival rate. The pathogenesis of PDAC development is incompletely understood. Genetic predisposition, disease history of chronic pancreatitis and diabetes elevate the risk of PDAC while environmental and dietary factors including smoking, alcohol abuse, high fat/protein intake as well as air pollution exacerbate PDAC progression. BCAAs, consisting of leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential amino acids that are obtained from food and play versatile roles in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that BCAA metabolism affects PDAC development but the results are controversial. To explore the possible engagement of BCAA metabolism in PDAC, we took advantage of the GEO and TCGA database and discovered that BCAA uptake is closely related to PDAC development while BCAA catabolism is down-regulated in PDAC tissue. Besides, NOTCH and MYC are differentially involved in BCAA metabolism in tumor and muscle, and enhanced lipid synthesis is independent of BCAA catabolism. Altogether, we highlight BCAA uptake as a promising target for PDAC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109144PMC
April 2021

Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line SDQLCHi026-A from a hereditary tyrosinemia type I patient carrying compound heterozygote mutations in FAH gene.

Stem Cell Res 2021 May 9;53:102331. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pediatric Research Institute, Qilu Children's Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250022, China. Electronic address:

Here we describe the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient diagnosed as hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) caused by FAH gene mutation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were developed using non-integrating episomal vectors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, BCL-XL and MYC. The established iPSC line (SDQLCHi026-A) displayed pluripotent cell morphology, high expression levels of pluripotency markers, differentiation potential in vitro, normal karyotype, and remaining the original FAH gene mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102331DOI Listing
May 2021

β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae alleviates oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells via Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.

β-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described to be effective antioxidants, but the specific antioxidation mechanism of β-glucan is unclear. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae could regulate oxidative stress through the Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we examined the effects of β-glucan on the enzyme activity or production of oxidative stress indicators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by biochemical analysis and the protein expression of key factors of Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway by immunofluorescence and western blot. The biochemical analysis results showed that β-glucan increased the LPS-induced downregulation of enzyme activity of intracellular heme oxygenase (HO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) while decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, immunofluorescence results showed that β-glucan can activate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The antioxidant mechanism study indicated that β-glucan activated dendritic-cell-associated C-type lectin 1 (Dectin-1) receptors mediated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thereby downregulating the production of ROS and thus produced the antioxidant effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that β-glucan potently alleviated oxidative stress via Dectin-1/Nrf2/HO-1 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12192-021-01205-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Generation of two induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients with X-linked Alport syndrome.

Stem Cell Res 2021 May 17;53:102343. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Nephrology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China. Electronic address:

Mutations in COL4A5 on chromosome Xq22 cause X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS). In this study, we generated two human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from two male patients carrying mutation c.796C > T (p.R266X) in COL4A5 gene. The two iPSC lines retain the original mutation, possess normal karyotypes, express pluripotency markers and bear differentiation potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102343DOI Listing
May 2021

High-contrast photochromic Eu-doped KNaNbO ceramics with prominent pellucidity.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 24;50(14):4914-4922. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

The Eu-doped KNaNbO pellucid ceramics were first prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction, and they exhibited light illumination-induced high-contrast photochromism of both optical transmittance and photoluminescence behaviors. Through thermal treatment, the optical performances could return to their initial states and displayed excellent reversibility. Eu ions were selected as the luminescent activator for detecting the local environment of the KNaNbO host. Meanwhile, the effects of the amount of Eu present on phase structures, microstructures, optical transmittance and photoluminescence intensities were systematically investigated. The results suggest that Eu-doped KNaNbO transparent ceramics possess multifunctionality including photochromism, photoluminescence and optical switching properties, and that they exhibit promising potential for non-destructive optical data storage application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00467kDOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative transcriptome profiling of Chinese wild grapes provides insights into powdery mildew resistance.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Taicheng Road No.3Yangling, China, 712100;

Erysiphe necator, the fungal pathogen of grape powdery mildew disease, poses a great threat to the grape fruit market and wine industry. To better understand the molecular basis of grape responses to E. necator, we performed comparative transcriptome profiling on two Chinese wild grape accessions with varying degrees of resistance to E. necator. A total of 2,856, 2,678 and 1,542 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the susceptible Vitis pseudoreticulata 'Hunan-1' at 6, 24, and 96 hours post-inoculation of E. necator, respectively, while 1,921, 2,498 and 3,249 DEGs were identified in the resistant V. quinquangularis 'Shang-24'. 'Hunan-1' had substantially larger fraction of down-regulated genes than 'Shang-24' at every infection stage. Analysis of DEGs revealed that up-regulated genes were mostly associated with defense response and disease resistance-related metabolite biosynthesis, while signaling genes were significantly suppressed in 'Hunan-1'. Interestingly, fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation related genes were suppressed by the fungus in 'Shang-24' but somehow induced in 'Hunan-1', consistent with that E. necator is likely a fatty acid auxotroph that requires lipids from the host. Moreover, genes involved in biosynthesis and signaling of phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinin, as well as genes encoding protein kinases and NLR proteins were differentially responded to E. necator in the two wild grapes. The variation of gene regulation associated with nutrient uptake by the fungus and with signaling transduction and pathogen recognition suggests a multi-layered regulatory network that works in concert to defend fungal pathogen infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-01-21-0006-RDOI Listing
April 2021

CUL4B Promotes Temozolomide Resistance in Gliomas by Epigenetically Repressing Transcription.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:638802. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ), the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic gliomas, is one of the most significant obstacles in clinical treatment. TMZ resistance is regulated by complex genetic and epigenetic networks. Understanding the mechanisms of TMZ resistance can help to identify novel drug targets and more effective therapies. CUL4B has been shown to be upregulated and promotes progression and chemoresistance in several cancer types. However, its regulatory effect and mechanisms on TMZ resistance have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to decipher the role and mechanism of CUL4B in TMZ resistance. Western blot and public datasets analysis showed that CUL4B was upregulated in glioma specimens. CUL4B elevation positively correlated with advanced pathological stage, tumor recurrence, malignant molecular subtype and poor survival in glioma patients receiving TMZ treatment. CUL4B expression was correlated with TMZ resistance in GBM cell lines. Knocking down CUL4B restored TMZ sensitivity, while upregulation of CUL4B promoted TMZ resistance in GBM cells. By employing senescence β-galactosidase staining, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that CUL4B coordinated histone deacetylase (HDAC) to co-occupy the promoter and epigenetically silenced transcription, leading to attenuation of TMZ-induced senescence and rendering the GBM cells TMZ resistance. Collectively, our findings identify a novel mechanism by which GBM cells develop resistance to TMZ and suggest that CUL4B inhibition may be beneficial for overcoming resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.638802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050354PMC
April 2021

Association between pre-existing respiratory disease and its treatment, and severe COVID-19: a population cohort study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19.

Methods: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19.

Findings: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death.

Interpretation: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19.

Funding: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00095-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016404PMC
April 2021

MLBF-Net: A Multi-Lead-Branch Fusion Network for Multi-Class Arrhythmia Classification Using 12-Lead ECG.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2021 9;9:1900211. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Electronic Engineering and Information ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefei230027China.

Automatic arrhythmia detection using 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal plays a critical role in early prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In the previous studies on automatic arrhythmia detection, most methods concatenated 12 leads of ECG into a matrix, and then input the matrix to a variety of feature extractors or deep neural networks for extracting useful information. Under such frameworks, these methods had the ability to extract comprehensive features (known as integrity) of 12-lead ECG since the information of each lead interacts with each other during training. However, the diverse lead-specific features (known as diversity) among 12 leads were neglected, causing inadequate information learning for 12-lead ECG. To maximize the information learning of multi-lead ECG, the information fusion of comprehensive features with integrity and lead-specific features with diversity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-Lead-Branch Fusion Network (MLBF-Net) architecture for arrhythmia classification by integrating multi-loss optimization to jointly learning diversity and integrity of multi-lead ECG. MLBF-Net is composed of three components: 1) multiple lead-specific branches for learning the diversity of multi-lead ECG; 2) cross-lead features fusion by concatenating the output feature maps of all branches for learning the integrity of multi-lead ECG; 3) multi-loss co-optimization for all the individual branches and the concatenated network. We demonstrate our MLBF-Net on China Physiological Signal Challenge 2018 which is an open 12-lead ECG dataset. The experimental results show that MLBF-Net obtains an average [Formula: see text] score of 0.855, reaching the highest arrhythmia classification performance. The proposed method provides a promising solution for multi-lead ECG analysis from an information fusion perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JTEHM.2021.3064675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963211PMC
March 2021

Carbon nanomaterials treated by combination of oxidation and flash for highly efficient solar water evaporation.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 15;277:130248. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Chemical Engineering Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

The high-efficiency solar evaporation is a potential technique to desalinate hypersaline wastewater and seawater to alleviate the global fresh water shortage. Photo-thermal agent and solar evaporator with low-cost raw materials, high photo-thermal conversion efficiency and simple-fast preparation methods is crucial to realize the industrial application of solar evaporation. Herein, carbon nanomaterial with higher light absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency than that of carbon black was obtained by combination treatment of carbon black with oxidation and flash illumination. In order to characterize the evaporation performance of the devices, a floating evaporator was fabricated with the carbon nanomaterial on the top of polyethylene foam wrapped with non-woven fabrics. The evaporation rate and photo-thermal conversion efficiency of evaporators were affected significantly by environmental temperature and humidity. At the environmental temperature of 19.5 °C, the evaporator fabricated with the combined treated carbon nanomaterial as photo-thermal agents presents a stable evaporation rate at 1.27 kg m h and solar evaporation efficiency at 78.7% under 1 kW m simulated sun illumination, which are higher than those of evaporator with carbon black (1.13 kg m h and 68.1%). The distilled water obtained from the solar evaporator met the standards of drinkable water. Overall, the experimental result demonstrates a great promise application of treated carbon nanomaterial as a photo-thermal agent in the field of seawater desalination and solar-energy collector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130248DOI Listing
August 2021

Describing a new food group classification system for UK biobank: analysis of food groups and sources of macro- and micronutrients in 208,200 participants.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Purpose: The UK Biobank study collected detailed dietary data using a web-based self-administered 24 h assessment tool, the Oxford WebQ. We aimed to describe a comprehensive food grouping system for this questionnaire and to report dietary intakes and key sources of selected nutrients by sex and education.

Methods: Participants with at least one valid 24-h questionnaire were included (n = 208,200). Dietary data were grouped based on the presence of nutrients as well as culinary use, processing, and plant/animal origin. For each food group, we calculated the contribution to energy intake, key macronutrients, and micronutrients. We also identified the top contributors to energy intake, free sugars and saturated fat by sex and education.

Results: From the 93 food groups, the top five contributors to energy intake (in descending order) were: desserts/cakes/pastries; white bread; white pasta/rice; bananas/other fruit; semi-skimmed milk. Wine, beer, and fruit juices were the top beverage contributors to overall energy intake. Biscuits, and desserts/cakes/pastries were the highest contributors to free sugars, total fat, and saturated fat intakes, but also contributed to the calcium and iron intakes. Top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and free sugars were broadly similar by sex and education category, with small differences in average nutrient intakes across the population.

Conclusion: This new food classification system will support the growing interest in the associations between food groups and health outcomes and the development of food-based dietary guidelines. Food group variables will be available to all users of the UK Biobank WebQ questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02535-xDOI Listing
March 2021

synthesis of Fe-doped CrOOH nanosheets for efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 20;32(28). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-based Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong, 250353, People's Republic of China.

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a process in electrochemical water splitting with sluggish kinetics that needs efficient non-noble-metal electrocatalysts. There have been few studies of CrOOH electrocatalysts for water oxidation due to their low performance. Herein,synthesized Fe-doped CrOOH nanosheets on Ni foam (Fe-CrOOH/NF) were designed as electrocatalysts and performance in the OER was obviously improved. The effect of the amount of Fe doping was also investigated. Experiments revealed that the best performance of Fe-CrOOH/NF requires low overpotentials of 259 mV to reach 20 mA cmtogether with a turnover frequency of 0.245 sin 1.0 M KOH, which may suggest a new direction for the development of Fe-doped OER electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abf210DOI Listing
April 2021

Imaging of Vulva Syringoma With Reflectance Confocal Microscopy.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:649438. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pathology, St. Vincent Evansville Medical Center, Evansville, IN, United States.

To investigate the application of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in diagnosis of vulva syringoma. Patients with lesions suspicious of syringoma on vulva were enrolled in the study. After informed consent was taken, the lesions were photographed and imaged with RCM. The features of the lesion in confocal images were then analyzed and compared with the biopsy findings for histology correlation. Eleven cases in total were included in the study. The typical RCM features observed in syringoma are the presence of round to oval high refractive, and relatively monomorphous mass of varying sizes in the superficial and middle dermis, usually surrounded with 1-2 layers of light-dark line structures, which were further confirmed by histological evaluation. Ten cases showed classic features of syringoma and 1 case exhibited milia in RCM images. Syringoma has distinct features in RCM imaging, which correlates well with histological findings, highlighting the potential role of RCM in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vulva syringoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.649438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959786PMC
February 2021

Comparative effectiveness of exercise training program in patients with heart failure: protocol for a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and network meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 03 16;11(3):e043160. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

Introduction: Heart failure (HF) is an end-stage of numerous heart diseases including hypertension, coronary heart disease and arrhythmia, in which the heart is unable to perform its circulatory function with sufficient efficiency due to structural or functional dysfunction (systolic or diastolic alterations). Strategies such as exercise rehabilitation may improve cardiac function, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life and reduce anxiety and depression in patients with HF. However, the relative effectiveness as well as the hierarchy of exercise interventions have not been well established, although various exercise options are available. Therefore, this protocol proposes to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) aiming to compare the effectiveness of different types of exercise training in patients with HF.

Methods And Analysis: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library will be searched from inception to March 2021 for relevant randomised controlled trials. Other resources, such as Google Scholar and Clinical Trials.gov will also be considered. Studies assessing exercise rehabilitation in patients with HF will be selected. Two independent reviewers will identify eligible trials. The PEDro risk of bias assessment tool will be used to assess the quality of the included studies. Bayesian NMA will be used when possible to determine the comparative effectiveness of the different exercise interventions. The mean ranks and surface will estimate the ranking probabilities for the optimal intervention of various treatments under the cumulative ranking curve. Subgroup, sensitivity and meta-regression will be conducted to explain the included studies' heterogeneity if possible. We will also use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to assess the strength of evidence.

Ethics And Dissemination: This systematic review and NMA will synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of the different exercises in patients with HF. The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. No ethical approval will be required because the data used for the review will be exclusively extracted from published studies.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020165870.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970284PMC
March 2021